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THE BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, VOL. 10 ***




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THE

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE;

OR,

Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in
the Open Ground, Green-House and the Stove, are accurately
represented in their natural Colours.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters,
according to the celebrated LINNÆUS; their place of
Growth, and Times of Flowering:

TOGETHER WITH

THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

Intended for the Use of such LADIES,
GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as wish to become
scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,

Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

VOL. X.

"What nature, alas! has denied
"To the delicate growth of our isle,
"Art has in a measure supplied;
"E'en Winter is deck'd with a smile."

COWPER.

_LONDON_

PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN,

For W. CURTIS, N^o 3, _St. George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road; And
Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

MDCCXCVI.




TABLE OF CONTENTS


325 JUSTICIA NASUTA.

326 MESEMBRYANTHEMUM VIRIDIFLORUM.

327 CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM.

328 TRIFOLIUM INCARNATUM.

329 ONONIS NATRIX.

330 SIDA CRISTATA.

331 KALMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA.

332 OENOTHERA FRUTICOSA.

333 CERINTHE MAJOR.

334 HYPERICUM MONOGYNUM.

335 ONONIS ROTUNDIFOLIA.

336 LOTUS HIRSUTUS.

337 PRUNELLA GRANDIFLORA.

338 ALLAMANDA CATHARTICA.

339 ARUM TRILOBATUM.

340 POLYGALA HEISTERIA.

341 SCILLA AMÆNA.

342 ERICA PERSOLUTA.

343 ANTHOLYZA CUNONIA.

344 ASPALATHUS PEDUNCULATA.

345 POLYGALA BRACTEOLATA.

346 PROTEA MELLIFERA.

347 OENOTHERA ROSEA.

348 CALCEOLARIA FOTHERGILLII.

349 SOLANUM LACINIATUM.

350 ERICA VENTRICOSA.

351 SAXIFRAGA MUTATA.

352 OENOTHERA PURPUREA.

353 MAHERNIA INCISA.

354 MIMULUS AURANTIACUS.

355 OENOTHERA PUMILA.

356 ERICA MASSONI.

357 BRIZA MAXIMA.

358 ERICA BACCANS.

359 CONVOLVULUS ALTHÆOIDES.

360 HIBISCUS SPECIOSUS.

INDEX: Latin Names of the Plants.

INDEX: English Names of the Plants.

INDEX: Latin Names of the Plants contained in the first Ten
Volumes.

INDEX: English Names of the Plants contained in the first Ten
Volumes.

INDEX: Hardy Trees contained in the first Ten Volumes.

INDEX: Hardy Shrubs contained in the first Ten Volumes.

INDEX: Hardy Herbaceous Perennial Plants contained in the first
Ten Volumes.

INDEX: Annual and Biennial Plants contained in the first Ten
Volumes.

INDEX: Greenhouse Plants contained in the first Ten Volumes.

INDEX: Stove Plants contained in the first Ten Volumes

INDEX: Plants contained in the first Ten Volumes arranged
according to the System of LINNÆUS.




[325]

JUSTICIA NASUTA. DICHOTOMOUS JUSTICIA.

_Class and Order._

DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ ringens. _Caps._ 2-locularis: seminum retinaculis
2-valvis: valvis longitudinalibus unciculatis. _Stamina_
anthera solitaria.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

JUSTICIA _nasuta_ foliis lanceolato-ovatis integerrimis
pedunculis dichotomis. _Linn. Sp. Pl. Ed. 3. p. 23. Syst.
Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 63._

PULCOLLI _Rheed. Mal. 9. p. 135. t. 69._

[Illustration: _N^o. 325_]

This species of Justicia, long since figured in the _Hortus
Malabaricus_, and described in the _Species Plantarum_ of
LINNÆUS, has been introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew, since
the publication of the _Hortus Kewensis_, by Mr. AITON: it
is a stove plant, producing, almost the year through, abundance of
flowers, distinguished not less for their singularity than their snowy
whiteness; the following description, taken from the living plant, is
fuller than that of LINNÆUS in the _Sp. Pl._

DESCR. Stalk shrubby, somewhat angular, three feet or more in
height, green, very much branched, slightly pubescent; Leaves opposite,
standing on short footstalks, ovato-lanceolate, running out to a short
blunt point, entire, veiny, a little downy; Peduncles from the alæ of
the leaves, alternate, dichotomous, two small bracteæ are placed at
each bifurcation; Flowers pure white, inodorous; Calyx composed of five
lanceolate, entire leaves, continuing; these, as well as the whole of
the plant, are beset with minute transparent globules, visible with
a magnifier. Corolla deciduous, tube linear, grooved, pale green,
slightly villous, bending a little upward; upper lip very narrow, bent
back, bifid at the extremity, the edges toward the base rolled back, so
as to make it appear in that part almost tubular; lower lip depending,
trifid, segments equal, obtuse at the base, round the mouth of the tube
marked with fine purple dots; Filaments two, short, projecting from
the mouth of the tube, finally bending back; Antheræ at first yellow,
afterwards livid; Germen oblong, smooth; Style capillary, slightly
hairy; Stigma bifid.

The plant is increased by cuttings; in the _Hort. Malab._ the bruised
leaves are described as in use for the cure of cutaneous eruptions.




[326]

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM VIRIDIFLORUM. GREEN-FLOWERED FIG-MARIGOLD.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ numerosa linearia. _Caps._ carnosa
infera polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _viridiflorum_ foliis semicylindraceis
papuloso-pilosis, calycibus quinquefidis hirsutis. _Ait. Kew.
v. 2. p. 196. Haworth Mesemb. p. 199. Syst. Nat. ed. Gmel.
p. 848._

[Illustration: _N^o. 326_]

Of the seventy species of Mesembryanthemum described in the _Hortus
Kewensis_, this is the only one with green flowers.

Mr. MASSON introduced it from the Cape in 1774.

The flowers are not only remarkable for their colour, but the extreme
fineness of the florets; they begin to come forth in July, and continue
to be produced till the end of September; the plant is easily increased
by cuttings, is of ready growth, and blows freely.

In Mr. HAWORTH's _Observations on the Genus Mesembryanthemum_,
lately published, there is a very ample description of it, to which
we refer such of our readers as wish for more minute information
respecting it.




[327]

CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM. INDIAN CHRYSANTHEMUM.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ marginatus. _Cal._ hemisphæricus,
imbricatus: squamis marginalibus membranaceis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CHRYSANTHEMUM _indicum_ foliis simplicibus ovatis sinuatis
angulatis serratis acutis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr.
p. 773. Spec. Pl. 1253. Thunb. Jap. p. 320._

TSJETTI-PU. _Rheed. Mal. t. 44._

MATRICARIA sinensis. _Rumph. Amb. p. 259. t. 91._

MATRICARIA japonica maxima flore roseo sive suave rubente
pleno elegantissimo. _Breyn. Prod. p. 66?_

KIK, KIKF, vel KIKKU. _Kœmpf. Amæn. Ex. p. 875._

[Illustration: _N^o. 327_]

We rejoice in the opportunity afforded us, of presenting our readers
with the coloured engraving of a plant recently introduced to this
country, which, as an ornamental one, promises to become an acquisition
highly valuable.

This magnificent species of Chrysanthemum, which we have hitherto
seen only in the collection of Mr. COLVILL, Nurseryman, King's-Road,
Chelsea, began to flower with him early in November last, 1795; and
as there were many buds on the plant, at that time, yet unopened, it
appeared as if it would continue to flower during the early part of the
winter at least.

It is a plant of strong growth; the stem rising to the height of two
or three feet, somewhat woody, much branched, beset with numerous
leaves, having some resemblance to those of Mugwort, of a greyish hue;
the flowers, on being smelt to, discover an agreeable fragrance, they
are produced on the summits of the branches in a loose sort of cluster
(those which terminate the main stem, grow to the size of a large
carnation) of a dark purple colour; they are, it is to be observed,
double, or rather between semidouble and double; the florets of the
radius at first perfectly tubular or quilled, as they advance split
gradually downward on the inside, their outside is of a greyish tint,
which being visible in most of the florets, especially the younger
ones, gives them a particoloured appearance; these florets do not
so completely occupy the receptacle but that room is left for a few
others in the centre, of a different form, and yellow colour, which,
on examination, appear to have their parts perfect, as indeed do those
of the radius; the receptacle is beset with membranous paleæ or chaffy
scales, a circumstance which would lead us to consider this plant
rather as an _Anthemis_ than a _Chrysanthemum_, of which it has the
calyx, with the foliage of _Mugwort_.

New as this plant is to us, it appears to have been cultivated in China
for ages: LINNÆUS, who describes it in his _Species Plantar._
refers us to a figure in the _Hortus Malabaricus_; this figure, and
the description accompanying it, agree generally with our plant, but
the flowers are more double, much smaller, less clustered, and do not
correspond in point of colour, yet there can be no doubt but our plant
is a variety of the same; it is there described as growing in sandy
situations, and having green petals.

RUMPHIUS, in his highly interesting work, the _Herbarium
Amboinense_ is much more minute in his information; he observes, that
these plants were originally brought from China, where they flower in
May and June; that there are two sorts principally cultivated in India,
the white and yellow-flowered, and a third sort, differing only in the
colour of its flowers which are red (the variety, as we suppose, here
figured) began to be known among them at Amboyna; the flowers there do
not expand well, owing to their being produced at the rainy season, and
they decay without producing any seed.

He tells us further, that it is cultivated chiefly for pleasure;
that the natives and the Dutch plant it only in the borders of their
gardens, in which it does not succeed so well as in pots; and that,
if it remains more than two years in the same spot, it degenerates,
becomes less woody, and often wholly perishes; that the Chinese, by
whom it is held in high estimation, pay great attention to its culture;
they set it in pots and jars, and place it before the windows of their
apartments, and that it is not unusual for them when they invite their
friends to an entertainment to decorate their tables with it; on
those occasions, he that produces the largest flower, is considered
as conferring the greatest honour on his guests; besides these three
varieties already mentioned, they have a fourth, which is more rare,
whose flowers are of a greenish ash colour (is not this the var.
figured in the _Hort. Malab._?) all these varieties growing in separate
pots, they place in certain quarters which they particularly wish
to decorate, and the effect they produce is highly pleasing: in the
cultivation of this plant they spare no pains, the shorter it is and
the larger its flowers, the more it is esteemed; to make it dwarfish,
and at the same time productive of flowers, they check its growth;
for, if suffered to grow rude, it assumes a wild nature, and produces
little but leaves when it is coming into flower, of the three blossoms
which usually terminate each branch, they pluck off two, and thus the
remaining flower grows larger; by this, and other management, they
cause the flowers to grow to the breadth of one's hand: he enumerates
still a fifth sort with white flowers, which is extremely rare, and
smaller than the others, called _Tsehuy say si_, that is the _drunken
woman_; its flowers morning and evening flag, and hang down as if
debilitated by intoxication, in the middle of the day they become
erect, and follow the course of the sun; but this (most probably a
distinct species) is not exported from China. Finally, he remarks, that
the Chinese and Malays are so attached to these flowers, that they even
decorate their hair with them.

THUNBERG, in his _Flora Japonica_, enumerates it among the
natives of that country, and describes it as growing spontaneously
in Papenberg, near Nagasaki, and elsewhere, observing, that it is
cultivated for the extreme beauty of its flowers in gardens and houses
throughout the whole empire of Japan, and that the flowers vary
infinitely in point of colour, size, and plenitude. KÆMPFER's
account of it in his _Amæn. Exot._ is very similar.

This Chrysanthemum appears to be a hardy greenhouse plant, and it is
highly probable that, like the _Camellia_ and _Aucuba_, it will bear
the cold of our mild winters without injury.

As it flowers so late, there is but little prospect of its producing
seeds with us, but it may be increased by cuttings, and parting of the
roots.




[328]

TRIFOLIUM INCARNATUM. CRIMSON TREFOIL.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Flores_ subcapitati. _Legumen_ vix calyce longius non
dehiscens deciduum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TRIFOLIUM _incarnatum_ spicis villosis oblongis obtusis
aphyllis, foliolis subrotundis crenatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
ed. 14. Murr. p. 689. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 87._

TRIFOLIUM spica rotunda rubra. _Bauh. Pin. p. 328._

LAGOPUS maximus flore rubro. The greatest Haresfoot. _Park.
Th. p. 1106. f. 1._

TRIFOLIUM album incarnatum spicatum f. Lagopus maximus. _Bauh.
Hist. 2. p. 376._

[Illustration: _N^o. 328_]

Of the annual species of _Trifolium_ cultivated by the curious here,
this is one of the largest, as well as one of the most shewy; the
blossoms in the plants which we have had an opportunity of observing,
have been of a bright crimson colour, and have therefore corresponded
badly with the name of _incarnatum_, originally applied to the plant
by some of the old botanists, and adopted by LINNÆUS; like
other Trefoils with red flowers, the blossoms are doubtless found with
different shades of colour, and sometimes wholly white.

It is a native of Italy, a hardy annual, cultivated here by PARKINSON
in 1640, flowers in July, and readily ripens its seeds, by which it is
easily raised. It appears to have been lost out of this country since
its first introduction, as it is not mentioned by MILLER; Mr. AITON
enumerates it among the productions of Kew-Garden, and we last summer
saw several plants of it raised from foreign seeds flowering in the
garden of JOHN SYMMONS, Esq. Paddington-House, Paddington, who has to
boast a collection of hardy herbaceous plants superior to most in this
country; his readiness to oblige me with specimens for drawing on this
occasion, and his various acts of kindness exerted in the promotion of
my botanical views, I have to acknowledge with much gratitude.




[329]

ONONIS NATRIX. YELLOW-FLOWERED REST-HARROW.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-partitus: laciniis linearibus. _Vexillum_ striatum.
_Legumen_ turgidum sessile. _Filamenta_ connata absque fissura.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ONONIS _Natrix_ pedunculis unifloris aristatis, foliis
ternatis viscosis stipulis integerrimis caule fruticoso.
_Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 653. Ait. Kew. v.
3. p. 24._

ANONIS viscosa spinis carens lutea major. _Bauh. Pin. 389._

[Illustration: _N^o. 329_]

The _Ononis Natrix_, a plant usually to be met with in all general
collections of greenhouse plants, is a native of Spain, and the South
of France, where it is said to grow wild in the corn-fields.

The general practice sanctioned by that of Mr. AITON, is to
consider this species as tender; Mr. MILLER says it is very
hardy, and recommends it to be planted in the open border, a treatment
likely to suit it in mild winters; there is, however, one part of his
account evidently erroneous, he describes the root as perennial, and
the stem as herbaceous, this is not only contrary to LINNÆUS's
specific description, but to fact, the stalk being undoubtedly shrubby.

As this plant in the course of a year or two is apt to grow out of
form, it is advisable either to renew it frequently by seed, which it
produces in abundance, or to keep it closely cut in.

It flowers from the middle of summer till towards the close, and is
propagated readily either by seeds or cuttings.

Is no novelty in this country, having been cultivated by Mr. JAMES
SUTHERLAND in 1683[1].




[330]

SIDA CRISTATA. CRESTED SIDA.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ simplex, angulatus. _Stylus_ multipartitus. _Caps._
plures 1-spermæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SIDA _cristata_ foliis angulatis, inferioribus cordatis,
superioribus panduriformibus, capsulis multilocularibus. _Sp.
Pl. ed. 3. p. 964. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 623. Ait.
Kew. v. 2. p. 444. Cavanill. Diss. 1. t. 11. f. 2._

ABUTILON Lavateræ flore, fructu cristato. _Dill. Elth. t. 2._

ANODA hastata. _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. Gmel. p. 1040._

[Illustration: _N^o. 330_]

DILLENIUS has figured and described this plant in his _Hortus
Elthamensis_ as an _Abutilon_: LINNÆUS in his _Sp. Pl._ has ranked
it with the _Sida_'s, in which he has been followed by Prof. MURRAY,
Messrs. AITON and CAVANILLE; but Prof. GMELIN, in the last edition of
LINNÆUS' _Syst. Nat._ has made another new genus of it, by the name of
_Anoda_; as his reasons for so doing are by no means cogent, we join
the majority in continuing it a _Sida_.

It flowered in the garden of Mr. SHERARD, at Eltham, in 1725, and was
introduced from Mexico, where it is a native: Mr. AITON considers it
a stove plant, as he does the _Tropæolum majus_, and other natives of
South-America; strictly speaking they may be such, but if raised early,
and treated like other tender annuals, this plant will flower and ripen
its seeds in the open ground, as we have experienced at Brompton.

It grows to the height of three feet, or more, producing during the
months of July and August a number of blossoms in succession, which
are large and shewy; the stigmata in this flower are curious objects,
resembling the heads of Fungi in miniature.




[331]

KALMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA. NARROW-LEAV'D KALMIA.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-partitus. _Cor._ hypocrateriformis, limbo subtus
quinque corni. _Caps._ 5-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

KALMIA _angustifolia_ foliis lanceolatis, corymbis
lateralibus. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 404. Ait.
Kew. v. 2. p. 64. Gronov. Fl. Virg. p. 65._

CHAMÆDAPHNE sempervirens, foliis oblongis angustis, foliorum
fasciculis oppositis e foliorum alis. _Catesb. Carol. app. t.
17. f. 1._

LEDUM floribus bullatis fasciculatim ex alis foliorum
oppositis nascentibus, foliis lanceolatis integerrimis
glabris. _Trew. Ehr. t. 38._

[Illustration: _N^o. 331_]

In this work we have already given three different species of _Kalmia_,
two commonly, and one more rarely cultivated with us, we mean the
_hirsuta_, and which indeed we are sorry to find is scarcely to be kept
alive in this country by the most skilfull management; to these we now
add another species, a native also of North-America, introduced by
PETER COLLINSON, Esq. in 1736, two years after he had introduced the
_latifolia_; CATESBY mentions its having flowered at Peckham in 1743;
it is a low shrub, rarely rising above the height of two feet, growing
spontaneously in swampy ground, and flowering with us from May to July;
there are two principal varieties of it, one with pale and another with
deep red flowers; these two plants differ also in their habits, the red
one, the most humble of the two, not only produces the most brilliant
flowers, but those in greater abundance than the other; Mr. WHITLEY,
who has these plants in great perfection, assures me that it usually
blows in the autumn as well as summer.

This shrub is extremely hardy, thriving best in bog earth, and is
propagated most commonly by layers.

Like the _latifolia_, it is regarded in America as poisonous to sheep.




[332]

OENOTHERA FRUTICOSA. SHRUBBY OENOTHERA.

_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calix_ 4-fidus. _Petala_ 4. _Capsula_ cylindrica infera.
_Semina_ nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

OENOTHERA _fruticosa_ foliis lanceolatis subdentatis, capsulis
pedicellatis acutangulis, racemo pedunculato. _Linn. Syst.
Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 358. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 4. L'Herit.
Stirp. nov. t. 2. t. 5._

OENOTHERA florum calyce monophyllo, hinc tantum, aperto.
_Gron. virg. 42._

LYSIMACHIA lutea caule rubente, foliis salicis alternis nigro
maculatis, flore specioso amplo, vasculo seminali eleganter
striato insidente, _Clayt. n. 36._

[Illustration: _N^o. 332_]

Most of the _Oenothera_ tribe are annual, have large yellow flowers,
which open once only, and that in the evening, displaying their beauty,
and exhaling their fragrance at a time which will not admit of their
being much enjoyed; the present species in some respects deviates from
many of the others, the root is perennial, the flowers which are large
and shewy, though they open in the evening, remain expanded during
most of the ensuing day; the flower-buds, the germen, and the stalk
are enlivened by a richness of colour which contributes to render this
species one of the most ornamental and desirable of the tribe.

It is a hardy perennial, growing to the height of three or four
feet, with us altogether herbaceous, and therefore improperly called
_fruticosa_; a native of Virginia, flowering from June to August: was
cultivated in 1739 by Mr. MILLER.

May be propagated by seeds, by parting of the roots, and also by
cuttings.




[333]

CERINTHE MAJOR. GREAT HONEY-WORT.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corollæ_ limbus tubulato ventricosus: fauce pervia. _Semina_
2, bilocularia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CERINTHE _major_ foliis amplexicaulibus, corollis
obtusiusculis patulis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p.
187. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 183._

CERINTHE _glaber_ foliis oblongo-ovatis glabris
amplexicaulibus, corollis obtusiusculis patulis. _Mill. Dict.
ed. 6. 4to._

CERINTHE flore ex rubro purpurascente. _Bauh. pin. p. 258._

CERINTHE major. Great Honiewoort. _Ger. Herb._

[Illustration: _N^o. 333_]

Ancient writers on plants, supposing that the flowers of this genus
produced abundantly the material of which bees form their wax, gave it
the name of _Cerinthe_, which rendered into English would be wax-flower
or waxwort, not honeywort, by which the genus has long been, and is
now, generally called.

Of this genus there are only two species known, the _major_ and
the _minor_, both happily distinguished by the different form of
their flowers, a part from which it is not common to draw specific
differences, though in some instances they afford the best.

The _major_ varies much, the leaves being sometimes spotted, very
rough, and the flowers of a more yellow hue; this is the sort figured
by GERARD in his Herbal, who mentions its growing in his garden (1597).
MILLER considers this as a species but LINNÆUS, HALLER, AITON, and
others, regard it as a variety; our figure represents the _Cerinthe
glaber_ of MILLER.

This is an annual, remarkable for the singular colour of its foliage;
its flowers, though not very brilliant, possess a considerable share
of beauty; both combined render it worthy a place in our gardens, more
especially as it is a plant of easy culture, coming up spontaneously
from self-sown seeds, and being a native of Switzerland, as well as
the more southern parts of Europe, seedling plants produced in the
Autumn rarely suffer by our winters. It flowers in July, August, and
September.




[334]

HYPERICUM MONOGYNUM. CHINESE ST. JOHN'S-WORT.

_Class and Order._



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