William Cushing.

Initials and pseudonyms : a dictionary of literary disguises online

. (page 26 of 104)
Online LibraryWilliam CushingInitials and pseudonyms : a dictionary of literary disguises → online text (page 26 of 104)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

secretary of state's office. He was subsequently
chief clerk of the War-office. He repeatedly
mentioned that he had himself, in 1770, heard
speeches of Lord Chatham; and some of these
speeches were actually printed from his notes.
He resigned his clerkship at the War-office from
resentment at the appointment of Mr. Chamier.
It was by Lord Holland that he was first intro-
duced into the public service. Now, here are
five marks, all of which ought to be found in
Junius. 'They are all five found in Francis.
We do not believe that more than two of them
can be found in any other person whatever. If
this argument does not settle the question, there
is an end of all reasoning on circumstantial evi-
dence. — Macadxay.

My own impression is that the " Letters of
Junius " were written by Sir Philip Francis. In
a speech which I once heard him deliver at the
Mansion House, concerning the partition of Po-
land, I had a striking proof that Francis pos-
sessed no ordinary powers of eloquence. — Rocj-
EKS, " Table Talk," p. 272.

I have inserted the foregoing quotations, to in-
dicate what has been said in favor of Francis'
claims; if the reader is curious enough to pur-
sue the subject more extensively, he will find a
chapter on the disputed question in the " Memoirs
of Sir Philip Francis," by Parkes and Merivale,
L. 1867, i. 223-303. See also Taylor's works, Nos.
XL. and XLViii. ; Wade, ii. xxx.-xc. No. Lxsni. ;
" Notes and Queries," 1st Ser., xi. 117, and Nos.


The following letter, taken from the " Athe-
nffium," March 10, 1861, may be of interest in this
place : —

My Dear Paekbs, —

I have often tried to guess the meaning of the
motto to Junius, "Stat nominis umbra," "The
shadow of the name stands." But in looking, the
other day, at the title-page of the " Etymologicou
Anglicauum," I thought that I could guess the
meaning. The title is, —

Franciscii Junii

Prancisci Filii


iVnd under the frontispiece are these words : —

Frauciscus Junius,

Francisci Filius.
We know that Sir P. Francis often gave ob-
scure hints as to his authorship of Junius. I
think that by the words, " Stat nominis umbra,"
he meant to indicate that Junius was the son of
Francis. This may seem far-fetched ; but what
other explanation of the motto can 5'ou give ? My
explanation is that he meant to establish a claim
to the authorship, without being forced to make
that claim ; which, in fact, he never had the cour-
age to do. X. W. SENIOR.

Taylor, in Woodfall's edition of 1812, was the
first person who fixed upon Francis as the author;
but he fell into one of the snares which Junius
had adroitly laid for enquirers. Misled " by one
of those well-contrived feints that were meant to
mislead," Mr. Taylor inferred that .Junius must
be a person of advanced years, and fixed upon
the Rev. Philip Francis, the father of Sir Philip,
as the author. The elder Francis was a fine classi-
cal scholar, celebrated for his masterly transla-
tions of Horace and Demosthenes ; but when Mr.
Taylor discovered him to be ten years older than
he had at first been led to believe, he devoted all
his attention toward proving the claims of the
younger man, and embodied his researches in a
subsequent volume.


Sir Nathaniel Wraxall is convinced that Sir
Philip Francis was the author of Junius. I do
not yet believe it. He was too vain a man to let the
secret die with him. — Sir Egerton Brtdgbs'
" Notes on Wraxall's Memoirs."

I persist in thinking that neither Mr. Burke
nor Philip Francis was the author of the let-
ters under the signature of Junius. I think the
mind of the first so superior, and the mind of the
latter so inferior, to that of Junius, as to put
the supposition that either of them was Junius
whollv out of the question. — Mr. Charles But-
LER's'Letter to Mr. E. H. Barker, June 14, 1828.

We must all grant that a strong case has been
made out for Francis; but I could set up very
stout objections to those claims. It was not in
his nature to keep a secret. He would have told
it from vanity, or from his courage, or from his
patriotism. His bitterness, his vivacity, his acute-
ness, are stamped, in characters very peculiar,
upon many publications that bear his name; and
ver J' faint indeed is their resemblance to the spirit,
and, in an extended sense of the word, to the style,
of Junius. — Dr. Parr.

With reference to the claims of Sir Philip, I
am inclined to use the form of argument called a
" dilemma." Thus, if Sir Philip Francis was the
author of the letters, he was a scurrilous libel-
ler; if he was not, he was splendide mendax,—
utnim horum mavis accipe. — John Wilkins,
in 1865.

Francis' claims are also adversely discussed in
Fellows' "The Posthumous Works of Junius."
No. LX\'ii. ; Jaques, p. 173, No. lxxv. ; "Notea
and Queries," 2d Ser., vi. 43; 3d Ser., viii. 1 '3,

[" Junius " Lettkks.]


.056. xi. 102; 4th Ser., xi. 130, 178, 202, 243, 387,
425, 465, 512, xii. 33, 69, 81; and Nos. lit., ltiii.,
LXIV., Lxxxni.

George III., King of England.

'*' Ma'am Serres condemns all aspirers to pot
That prate of a Junius, since Uncle Wilmot
Ranks scribe of each letter she dares pledge her

As sure as not one came from King George the
See Ireland's poem, " Scribbleomania," p. 308,
for a curious note on this subject.

Gibbon, Edward, b. 1737 ; d. 1794.

This claimant, beyond holding a position, does
not seem to have distinguished himself to any
extent in the politics of his day, his mind being
too absorbed in the great task which has m.ide
him famous. See Nos. lii., liv.

Glover, Richard, b. 1712; d. 1785.

Johnston declares that be has no faith in the
claim of Glover, although bis advocates, as cor-
roborative facts, assert that he " wore a bag, with
his wig accurately dressed, and carried a small
cocked hat under bis arm, before the year 1776,
and in this costume constantly walked, in fine
weather, from his house in St. James Street, in
Westminster, into the city"; this fact being
brought forward in proof of his being identical
with the " tall gentleman " who threw the letter
into Mr. Woodfall's office in Ivy Lane.

"Wr.asall, in bis "Memoirs of his own Time,"
1836, ii. 97, states that Glover's son assured him
that " be had not the least reason to suppose or
to believe that bis father composed the letters of
Junius." See Nos. XLI., XLll.

Grattan, Henry, b. 1750 ; d. 1820.

Grattan's claims were advocated by R. Perry
In 1861; in the 1806 edition of the "Letters,"
published by Almon, the compiler says that it
was supposed by some that Grattan and Maclean
■were the joint authors. Mr. Almon addressed a
letter of inquiry to the Irish patriot, which evoked
the following reply : —

Sir, — I frankly assure you that I know noth-
ing of Junius, except that I am not the author.
When Junius began I was a boy, and knew noth-
ing of politics, or the persons concerned in them.

I am. Sir, not Junius, but your very good
wisher and obedient servant,

Dublin, Nov. 4, 1805. H. GRATTAN.

Greatrakes, William, b. 1729; d.

This claimant is brought forward in the " Gent.
Mag." for December, 1813, Ixxxiii. 547; in Cov-
entry's "Critical Enquiry," No. LXI. ; and in
Wraxall's "Memoirs."

Greatrakes, a native of Ireland, died suddenly
at Hungerford, on his way from Bristol to Lon-
don, and was buried there, with the words " Stat
nomiivis umbra " inscribed on his tombstone. As
this motto figures on the " -Junius " title-page, it
is easy to imagine how he comes to be classed
among the claimants. Britton undertakes to prove
that Greatrakes was the amanuensis employed by
Junius to copy his letters for the " Public Adver-
tiser"; "but it ought first to be shown," says
Wade, " that Junius employed an amanuensis.
If he did, and Greatrakes was his penman, it
could hardly give him a claim to the motto of his
principal. That was a distinction, which, if it
has any significance, could be applicable only to
the shadow of a shade that wrote the letters, not
the copyist of them."

Grenville, George, b. 1712 ; d. 1770.

The prime-minister died before the letter*
were discontinued, hence but little attention
need be paid to his claims.

Grenville, James, d. 1783.

He was the brother of the preceding, and Lord
of the Treasury. Although he has been accused
of the authorship, he himself established no claims
to the honor.

Hamilton, William Gerard. b.

1729; d. 1796.

This claimant is mentioned in Dr. Good's
essay; and a letter in the " Public Advertiser"
of Nov. 30, 1771, is addressed to William Junius
Singlespeech, Esq. Fox said, that, although he
would not back Hamilton against the field, he
would back him ag.ainst any single claimant; and
Wraxall declares, that, " throughout the various
companies in which, from 1775 down to the pres-
ent time, I have heard this mysterious question
agitated, the great majority concurred in giving
to Hamilton the merit of composing the ' Let-
ters ' under examination." Mrs. Piozzi and Sam-
uel Johnson were both inclined to believe in his

The only reason that appears for these letters
ever having been attributed to Hamilton was that
he happened to be aware of the context of a let-
ter which did not make its appearance until the
following day. (For a full account of this curious
story, the reader is referred to "Notes and Que-
ries," 2d Ser., vi. 44.)

The arguments against him are four in num-
ber, and very conclusive: —

1. He was Chaucellor of the Exchequer in
Ireland from September, 1769, to April, 1704, —
the period when all the letters appeared.

2. When questioned on the subject, by Earl
Temple, he positively denied the authorship. See
Dr. Good's " Essay," p. 56.

3. Woodfall declared that neither Burke nor
Hamilton were responsible for the Letters.

4. Hamilton again distinctly denied the author-
ship, just before his death, when questioned by a
member of the House of Commons.

Hollis, James.

He is referred to, as a claimant, by Wade and

Hollis, Thomas, b. 1720 ; d. 1774.

Alluded to in Coventry's "Critical Enquiry,"
No. LXi.

Jackson, Sir George, Secretary of the

For an account of the claims advanced in his
favor, see " Notes and Queries," 1st Ser., i. 172,
276, 322.

Jones, Sir William, b. 1746; d. 1794-

Mentioned, as a claimant, by Coventry and

Kent, John. d. 1773.

Kent wished to pass for Junius ; but, accord-
ing to Almon, he was only a newspaper editor,
at a small weekly salary. See the "Letter"
dated July 21, 1769, in which Junius refers to
this personage.

IJee, Maj.-Gen. Charles, b. 1731 ; d.


In 1803, Gen. Lee is said to have acknowl-
edged himself the author. If the reader is de-
sirous of seeing some curious evidence against
the claimant, he is referred to Wade, i. 61-67.


["Junius" Letteb8.]

While Girdlestone (Nos. xxxiii. and xxxYii.)
as effectively espoused his claims.

liloyd, Charles, d. 1773.

Lloyd was the private secretary to George
Grenville, and among those who believed in his
claims was Dr. Parr. It must not, however, be
forgotten, that this claimant died, an old man,
just after the letters had ceased, which fact is
scarcely in harmony with the spirit they exhibit.
See the interesting book by Mr. Barker, Nos.
i.sill., LXIV.; also Jaques' work, 147-171, No.


liyttleton, Thomas, 2d Lord. b.
1744; d. 1779.

Mr. Dilke, in his " Papers of a Critic," vol.
ii., and Mr. Thorns, in "Notes and Queries," 1st
8er., xi. 198, have shown that Lyttleton no
longer deserves a place among the Junius claim-

See also "Notes and Queries," 1st Ser., viii.
31; "Littell's Living Age," xlii. 223; and the
" Quarterly Review," xc. 91.

Maclean, Laughlin. b. 1727; d. 1777.

This claimant had been under-secretary of
«tate during Lord Shelburne's possession of the
office for the southern department. (See Ju-
nius' "Letter," of date March 0, 1771.) During
the years 1769 and 1770, when Junius was most
active, Mr. Maclean "was absorbed in his own
pecuniary difficulties consequent on gambling in
India stock " ; and in 1772 he was acting as
collector in the city of Philadelphia in this
country, while the "Letters" were"slill appear-
ing in lEngland. See Gait, " Life of West." Al-
mon, in 1S03, thought that he was a joint-author
with Grattan. Twenty-two arguments have been
published in favor of Maclean, in '■ Waidie's (P.)
Library," edited by John Jay Smith. See also
" Notes and Queries," 2d Ser., vii. 310.

Marshall, Rev. Edmund, d. 1797.

This gentleman, vicar of Charing, in Kent,
occasionally wrote political letters in the " Kent-
ish Gazette," over the pseudonym of "Cantia-
nus." His claims are referred to in Nichols'
"Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Cen-
tury," viii. 6S0.

Paine, Thomas, b. 1737 ; d. 1809.

See No. T.xsxix. The audacity of the author
of this work is my apology for its insertion.

Pitt, William, Earl of Chatham, b.

1708; d. 1778.

Chatham could not very well have been -Ju-
nius, as the latter was very anxious to obtain
duplicate proofs from the printer to forward to
Pitt (see the "Chatham Papers," p. 52), and the
celebrated letter to Lord Mansfield, it is well
known, was sent to Chatham some days before
it was printed. Moreover, Pitt, " though most
effective in oratory, was careless in literary com-
position; inexact, loose, and repctitionary: very
unlike Junius, who not only polished his public
letters to the highest finish, but never let the
most brief or trivial private note escape him un-
marked by the hand of a master." See also
" Notes and Queries," 3d Ser., viii. 356, 440, and


Portland. William, Duke of. b.

1738; d. 1809.

See Mr. Johnston's work. No. xlvii., in which
the author argues that the principal object of the
'• Letters" was the restoration of the estate of
the Duke of Portland, part of which had been
ti.ken from him in 1767 and granted to Sir .James

Lowther, who had married Lord Bute's daugh-

Pownall, Thomas, b. 1722 ; d. 1805.
— See No. lxxxiv.

Rich, Liieut.-Col., Sir Robert. — See


Roberts, John. d. 1772.

This gentleman was anonymously accused of
having written the Letters in the " Public Ad-
vertiser," March 21, 1772, et passim. He died
July 13, 1772, before the Junius Letters were

Rosenhagen, Rev. Philip.

Upon the authority of Gerard Hamilton, it is
related by Almon that Rosenhagen endeavored
to obtain a pension from Lord North, by stipu-
lating that Junius (he himself) should write no
more. But there is no similarity in the hand-
writing of this claimant to that of Junius, and,
moreover, Rosenhagen being of foreign extrac-
tion, could hardly be master of the idiomatic
phraseology that Junius had at his command.
See also " Notes .and Queries," 3d Ser., v. 16.

Sackville, George, Viscount, b.

171G; d. 1785.

Dr. Good, in his preliminary essay to Wood-
fall's edition of 1812, states that " Sir William
Draper divided his suspicions between this
nobleman and Mr. Burke, aud upon the personal
and unequivocal denial of the latter, he trans
ferred them entirely to the former : and that Si)
William was not the only person who suspectet
his lordship even from the first, is evident from
the private letter of Junius, which asserts that
Swinney had actually called upon Lord Sack-
ville and taxed him with being Junius, to his
face. (See Private Letter, 5.)

Sackville on one occasion observed to a friend,
"I should be proud to be capable of writing as
Junius has done; but there are many passages
in his letters I should be very sorry to have writ-
ten." His lordship, moreover, was afterward
created Lord George Germaine, a favorite of
George III., and unlikely to be his accuser. See
also Chalmers, " Appendix to the Supplemental
Apology," p. 7 (No. xxs) ; Wraxall, " Memoii-s
of his own Time," ii. 90; and Nos. LXi., lsvi.,


Shelburne, Earl of, Marquis of Lans-
downe. d. 1804.

He disclaimed the distinction, only a week
before his death, on being personally applied to
on the subject of -Junius by the late Sir Richard
Phillips. —-Wade.

See also Barre and Dunning, aj}te.

Stanhope, Philip Dormer, Earl of
Chesterfield, b. 169-5; d. 1772.

Chesterfield was over seventy years of age
when the Letters appeared, and Mr. Dilke, in
the "Papers of a Critic, " ii., states that he wrote
to the Bishop of Waterford, — "I am prodig-
iously old, and every month of the calendar adds
at least a year to my age. My hand trembles to
that degree that I can hardly hold my pen. My
understanding stutters and mj' memory fum-

See Nos. lv., lxxix., lxxx.

Suett, Richard, d. 1805.

See No. liii. A work described as " a clumsy
display of wit and learning; the former consist-
ing of stale anecdotes and ill-put jokes; the lat-
ter of loolced-for quotations. To justify hi*

[" JuNins " Letteks.]


catchpenny-title, about a dozen pages at the end
are given to the author's interview with a dying
Btranger, who confessed himself to be Suett the
comedian, and the author of Junius.

Temple, Kichard, Earl. b. 1711 ;
d. 1779.

The third volume of the " Grenville Papers,"
edited by William J. Smith (L. ]8o2), contains a
discussion on the authenticity of the Junius Let-
ters, with specimens of the handwriting of Rich-
ard Grenville, Lord Temple, et al., assuming the
latter to be Junius, and his wife the amanuensis.

Mr. Wade very justly observes that "Earl
Temple was not reputed by a discerning judge
to be a writer of competent power to wing the
shafts of Junius . . . Temple was an active poli-
tician, a Peer of Parli.iment, and brother-in-law
of Lord Chatham, and had no need of the ' Pub-
lic Advertiser ' to circulate his opinions." See

Tooke, John Horne. b. 1736 ; d.
1812. •

In the "Memoirs of John Horne Tooke," ii.
358, I find it stated that he always appeared
much perturbed when the subject of Junius was
introduced. He was once asked if he knew the
author, and crossing his knife and fork on his
plate and assuming a stern look, he answered,
"I do." " After this," says ilr. Stephen, "his
manner, tone, and attitude were all too formida-
ble to admit of any further interrogatories."
See Nos. Yiii., sxviii., xliii., xliv., lxv.,

Walpole, Horatio, Earl of Oriord.
b. 1717 ; d. 1797.

Coventry has thoroughly exploded any claims
•which this personage may have been invested
with. See Wilke's " PapeVs of a Critic," ii. 158.

Wedderbum, Alexander. Lord
Loughborough, b. 1733; d. 1805.

Lord Holland, in his " Memoirs of the Whig
Party," remarks that George HI. alwaj's re-
garded Lord Loughborough as Junius. I be-
lieve that Lord Holland adds that King William
IV. was his informant.

Lord Campbell repudiates the notion of Wed-
derburn being Junius. Sir Nathaniel Wraxall,
in his "Memoirs of his own Time" (ii. 97),
states that "during many j-ears of my life, not-
withstanding the severity with which Wedder-
burn is treated by ' Junius,' I nourished a strong
belief, approaching to conviction, that the late
Earl of Rosslyn, then Mr. Wedderburn, was
himself the author of these Letters, and that
persons of credit had recognized the handwrit-
ing to be that of Mrs. Wedderburn, his first

WCkes, John. b. 1727 ; d. 1797.

It is said that a wag first propagated the re-
port that Wilkes was .Junius, in the columns of
the " Gazetteer." He asserted that, while going
over St. George's Fields, he picked up a piece of
blotted MS., containing a portion of the last
Junius Letter, which had been thrown out with
the sweepings from King's Bench jsrison, where
Wilkes was then a prisoner. A correspondent
of the " Gent. Mag." (lix. 786) renewed the
statement, but nothing in support of the hypoth-
esis has been produced.

John Mason Good, in his preliminary essay,
remarks, " that Wilkes is not the author must
be clear to every one who will merely give a
glance at either the public or the private letters.
Wilkes could not have abused himself in the
manner he is occasionally abused in the former;

nor would he have said in the latter (since there
was no necessity for his so saying) , ' I have been
out of town for three weeks,' at a time when he
was closely confined in the King's Bench."
See Nos. yiii., xi.

Wilmot, James, D.D. b. 1726; d.

Wm. Beckford, the author of " Vathek," is
said in a conversation in the " New Monthly
Magazine," to have expressed his opinion that
Wilmot was Junius, but he adduced no facts to
prove his statement.

Probably the only other personage who be-
lieved in the claims of Wilmot was his niece, the
celebrated Olivia Wilmot Serres, ci-devant
Princess of Cumberland, and she was an impos-
tor herself. See Nos. xxxix., l. ; the " Gent.
Mag." for 1S13 and 1814; and "Notes and Que-
ries," 4th Ser., ii. 113.

Wray, Daniel, b. 1701 ; d. 1783.

Wray was Deputy Teller of the Exchequer
by f.ivor of the Hardwicke family. See Nichols'
"Illustrations of Literary History"; "Notes
and Queries," 2d Ser., ii. i64; and No. lsviii.

III. The Bibliography of Junius.

When a title is preceded by an asterisk (*) , it
is to indicate that the work in question has been
personally examined by me. Subsequent editions
of the same work are omitted.

I. *rearne, Charles. — An Impartial
answer to the Doctrine delivered in a
Letter which appeared in the Public
Advertiser under the signature of "Ju-
nius." L. 1709. 8vo.

II. *The Political Contest, containing
a Series of Letters between Junius and
Sir Will. Draper : also the whole of Ju-
nius's Letters to his Grace the D*** of
G****** [/.e., the Duke of Grafton],
brought into one point of view. L.,
Newbery, s. a. but Aug. 1769. 8vo.

See also "Notes and Queries," 1st Ser., vi.
224, 239, 261, 285, 383.

III. The Political Contest, Part IL ;
being a Continuation of Junius' Letters
from the 6th of July to the present
Time. L., Newbery, s.a. but Sept. 1769.

ly. The Political Contest, containing
all the Letters between Junius and Sir
William Draper. Also the wliole of Ju-
nius's Letters to the D*k*s of G*****n
and B***»d [i.e., Bedford]. And his
last Letter on the Rescue of a General
Officer. Dublin, 1769. 8vo.

Lowndes states that this is called the third
edition, and that it is probably a reprint of the
second London edition.

V. *A Collection of the Letters of
Atticus, Lucius, Junius, and others.
With observations and notes. L., Al-
mon, 1769. 8vo.

VI. [Same title.] New Edition, con-
tinued to the end of October, 1769. L.,
Almon, 1769. 8vo.


["Junius" Lettk::s.}

vii. [Same title.] New Edition, con-
tinued to the end of November, 1769.
L., Almon, 1769. 8vo.

VIII. * Interesting Letters selected
from the Correspondence of Messrs.
Wilkes, Home [Tooke], Beckford, and
Junius. With anecdotes never before
published. L., NichoU, 1769. 8vo.

This is a small pamphlet of 64 pages, and a
parody on the subject.

IX. A Vindication of the D of

G [i.e. the Duke of Grafton], in

Answer to a Letter signed "Junius " in-
serted in the " Public Advertiser " of
Saturday, the 18th of March. L., Nich-
oll, 1769. 8vo.

X. Two Letters from Junius to the

D of G , on the Sale of a Patent

Place in the Customs at Exeter. To
which is added, a Letter from Junius,
containing an Address supposed to have
been made to a Great Personage. Taken
from the " Public Advertiser." L. [no
publisher's name], December, 1769. 8vo.

XI. *An Address to Junius on his Let-
ter in the " Public Advertiser," Dec.
19, 1769. L. [no publisher's name]

1769. 8vo.

A pamphlet, in which the letters are attributed
to Wilkes. A second edition appeared in 1770.

XII. The Twelve Letters of Canana :
on the impropriety of petitioning the
King to dissolve the Parliament. L. [1
a publisher's name] 1770. 8vo.

A pamphlet of 44 pages, and exceedingly
scarce. See also " Notes and Quei'ies," 2d Ser.,
vi. 44.

XIII. Two Remarkable Letters of Ju-
nius and the Freeholder, addressed to

the K [i.e. the King], with Answers

and Strictures. L. [no publisher's name]

1770. 8vo.

A pamphlet entitled " The King's Answer to
Junius" appeared in Philadelphia the following

XIV. Letters of Junius. Dublin [?
a publisher's name], 1770. 8vo.

A volume of 108 pages, and evidently a reprint
of Almon's collection of the early letters. See
v., VI., and VII., ante.

XV. A complete Collection of Junius's
Letters, with those of Sir William Dra-
per. L., A. Thomson, 1770. 8vo.

This publisher issued a second edition with

Online LibraryWilliam CushingInitials and pseudonyms : a dictionary of literary disguises → online text (page 26 of 104)