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flourishing. There are many small houses by the seaside, whose
inhabitants are chiefly fishermen. They come off to sea on bark logs,
made of several logs fastened side to side, that have one or two masts
with sails to them. There are two men in each bark log, one at either
end, having small low benches, raised a little above the logs, to sit and
fish on, and two baskets hanging up at the mast or masts; one to put
their provisions in, the other for their fish. Many of these were
a-fishing now, and 2 of them came aboard, of whom I bought some fish. In
the afternoon we sailed by one very remarkable piece of land where, on a
small pleasant hill, there was a church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. See
a sight of some parts of this coast and of the hill the church stands on.

I coasted along till the evening and then brought to, and lay by till the
next morning. About 2 hours after we were brought to, there came a sail
out of the offing (from seaward) and lay by about a mile to windward of
us and so lay all night. In the morning upon speaking with her she proved
to be a Portuguese ship bound to Bahia; therefore I sent my boat aboard
and desired to have one of his mates to pilot me in: he answered that he
had not a mate capable of it, but that he would sail in before me, and
show me the way; and that if he went into the harbour in the night he
would hang out a light for me. He said we had not far in, and might reach
it before night with a tolerable gale; but that with so small an one as
now we had we could not do it: so we jogged on till night and then he
accordingly hung out his light, which we steered after, sounding as we
went in. I kept all my men on deck and had an anchor ready to let go on
occasion. We had the tide of ebb against us, so that we went in but
slowly; and it was about the middle of the night when we anchored.
Immediately the Portuguese master came aboard to see me, to whom I
returned thanks for his civilities; and indeed I found much respect, not
only from this gentleman but from all of that nation both here and in
other places, who were ready to serve me on all occasions. The place that
we anchored in was about two miles from the harbour where the ships
generally ride; but the fear I had lest my people should run away with
the ship made me hasten to get a licence from the governor to run up into
the harbour and ride among their ships, close by one of their forts. So
on the 25th of March about ten o'clock in the morning, the tide serving,
I went thither, being piloted by the superintendent there, whose business
it is to carry up all the King of Portugal's ships that come hither, and
to see them well moored. He brought us to an anchor right against the
town, at the outer part of the harbour, which was then full of ships,
within 150 yards of a small fort that stands on a rock half a mile from
the shore. See a prospect of the harbour and the town as it appeared to
us while we lay at anchor.

Bahia de todos los Santos lies in latitude 13 degrees south. It is the
most considerable town in Brazil, whether in respect of the beauty of its
buildings, its bulk, or its trade and revenue. It has the convenience of
a good harbour that is capable of receiving ships of the greatest burden:
the entrance of which is guarded with a strong fort standing without the
harbour, called St. Antonio: a sight of which I have given as it appeared
to us the afternoon before we came in; and its lights (which they hang
out purposely for ships) we saw the same night. There are other smaller
forts that command the harbour, one of which stands on a rock in the sea,
about half a mile from the shore. Close by this fort all ships must pass
that anchor here, and must ride also within half a mile of it at farthest
between this and another fort (that stands on a point at the inner part
of the harbour and is called the Dutch Fort) but must ride nearest to the
former, all along against the town: where there is good holding ground,
and less exposed to the southerly winds that blow very hard here. They
commonly set in about April, but blow hardest in May, June, July and
August: but the place where the ships ride is exposed to these winds not
above 3 points of the compass.

Beside these there is another fort fronting the harbour, and standing on
the hill upon which the town stands. The town itself consists of about
2000 houses; the major part of which cannot be seen from the harbour; but
so many as appear in sight with a great mixture of trees between them,
and all placed on a rising hill, make a very pleasant prospect; as may be
judged by the draught.

There are in the town 13 churches, chapels, hospitals, convents, beside
one nunnery, namely the ecclesia major or cathedral, the Jesuits'
college, which are the chief, and both in sight from the harbour: St.
Antonio, St. Barbara, both parish churches; the Franciscans' church, and
the Dominicans'; and 2 convents of Carmelites; a chapel for seamen close
by the seaside, where boats commonly land and the seamen go immediately
to prayers; another chapel for poor people, at the farther end of the
same street, which runs along by the shore; and a third chapel for
soldiers at the edge of the town remote from the sea; and an hospital in
the middle of the town. The nunnery stands at the outer edge of the town
next the fields, wherein by report there are 70 nuns. Here lives in
archbishop, who has a fine palace in the town; and the governor's palace
is a fair stone building, and looks handsome to the sea, though but
indifferently furnished within: both Spaniards and Portuguese in their
plantations abroad, as I have generally observed, affecting to have large
houses; but are little curious about furniture, except pictures some of
them. The houses of the town are 2 or 3 stories high, the walls thick and
strong, being built with stone, with a covering of pantile; and many of
them have balconies. The principal streets are large, and all of them
paved or pitched with small stones. There are also parades in the most
eminent places of the town, and many gardens, as well within the town as
in the out parts of it, wherein are fruit trees, herbs, saladings and
flowers in great variety, but ordered with no great care nor art.

OF ITS GOVERNOR, SHIPS AND MERCHANTS; AND COMMODITIES TO AND FROM EUROPE.

The governor who resides here is called Don John de Lancastrio, being
descended, as they say, from our English Lancaster family; and he has a
respect for our nation on that account, calling them his countrymen. I
waited on him several times, and always found him very courteous and
civil. Here are about 400 soldiers in garrison. They commonly draw up and
exercise in a large parade before the governor's house; and many of them
attend him when he goes abroad. The soldiers are decently clad in brown
linen, which in these hot countries is far better than woollen; but I
never saw any clad in linen but only these. Beside the soldiers in pay,
he can soon have some thousands of men up in arms on occasion. The
magazine is on the skirts of the town, on a small rising between the
nunnery and the soldiers' church. It is big enough to hold 2 or 3000
barrels of powder; but I was told it seldom has more than 100, sometimes
but 80. There are always a band of soldiers to guard it, and sentinels
looking out both day and night.

A great many merchants always reside at Bahia; for it is a place of great
trade: I found here above 30 great ships from Europe, with 2 of the King
of Portugal's ships of war for their convoy; beside 2 ships that traded
to Africa only, either to Angola, Gambia, or other places on the coast of
Guinea; and abundance of small craft that only run to and fro on this
coast, carrying commodities from one part of Brazil to another.

The merchants that live here are said to be rich, and to have many negro
slaves in their houses, both of men and women. Themselves are chiefly
Portuguese, foreigners having but little commerce with them; yet here was
one Mr. Cock, an English merchant, a very civil gentleman and of good
repute. He had a patent to be our English consul, but did not care to
take upon him any public character because English ships seldom come
hither, here having been none in 11 or 12 years before this time. Here
was also a Dane, and a French merchant or two; but all have their effects
transported to and from Europe in Portuguese ships, none of any other
nation being admitted to trade hither. There is a custom-house by the
seaside, where all goods imported or exported are entered. And to prevent
abuses there are 5 or 6 boats that take their turns to row about the
harbour, searching any boats they suspect to be running of goods.

The chief commodities that the European ships bring hither are linen
cloths, both coarse and fine; some woollens, also as bays, serges,
perpetuanas, etc. Hats, stockings, both of silk and thread,
biscuit-bread, wheat flour, wine (chiefly port) oil olive, butter,
cheese, etc. and salt-beef and pork would there also be good commodities.
They bring hither also iron, and all sorts of iron tools; pewter vessels
of all sorts, as dishes, plates, spoons, etc. looking-glasses, beads, and
other toys; and the ships that touch at St. Jago bring thence, as I said,
cotton cloth, which is afterwards sent to Angola.

The European ships carry from hence sugar, tobacco, either in roll or
snuff, never in leaf, that I know of: these are the staple commodities.
Besides which, here are dye-woods, as fustick, etc. with woods for other
uses, as speckled wood, Brazil, etc. They also carry home raw hides,
tallow, train-oil of whales, etc. Here are also kept tame monkeys,
parrots, parakeets, etc, which the seamen carry home.

CLAYING OF SUGAR.

The sugar of this country is much better than that which we bring home
from our plantations: for all the sugar that is made here is clayed,
which makes it whiter and finer than our muscovada, as we call our
unrefined sugar. Our planters seldom refine any with clay, unless
sometimes a little to send home as presents for their friends in England.
Their way of doing it is by taking some of the whitest clay and mixing it
with water, till it is like cream. With this they fill up the pans of
sugar that are sunk 2 or 3 inches below the brim by the draining of the
molasses out of it: first scraping off the thin hard crust of the sugar
that lies at the top, and would hinder the water of the clay from soaking
through the sugar of the pan. The refining is made by this percolation.
For 10 to 12 days time that the clayish liquor lies soaking down the pan
the white water whitens the sugar as it passes through it; and the gross
body of the clay itself grows hard on the top, and may be taken off at
pleasure; when scraping off with a knife the very upper-part of the sugar
which will be a little sullied, that which is underneath will be white
almost to the bottom: and such as is called Brazil sugar is thus
whitened. When I was here this sugar was sold for about 50 shillings per
100 pounds. And the bottoms of the pots, which is very coarse sugar, for
about 20 shillings per 100 pounds, both sorts being then scarce; for here
was not enough to lade the ships, and therefore some of them were to lie
here till the next season.

THE SEASON FOR THE EUROPEAN SHIPS, AND COIR CABLES: OF THEIR GUINEA TRADE
AND OF THE COASTING TRADE, AND WHALE KILLING.

The European ships commonly arrive here in February or March, and they
have generally quick passages; finding at that time of the year brisk
gales to bring them to the Line, little trouble, then, in crossing it,
and brisk east-north-east winds afterwards to bring them hither. They
commonly return from hence about the latter end of May, or in June. It
was said when I was here that the ships would sail hence the 20th day of
May; and therefore they were all very busy, some in taking in their
goods, others in careening and making themselves ready. The ships that
come hither usually careen at their first coming; here being a hulk
belonging to the king for that purpose. This hulk is under the charge of
the superintendent I spoke of, who has a certain sum of money for every
ship that careens by her. He also provides firing and other necessaries
for that purpose: and the ships do commonly hire of the merchants here
each 2 cables to moor by all the time they lie here, and so save their
own hempen cables; for these are made of a sort of hair that grows on a
certain kind of trees, hanging down from the top of their bodies, and is
very like the black coir in the East Indies, if not the same. These
cables are strong and lasting: and so much for the European ships.

The ships that use the Guinea trade are small vessels in comparison of
the former. They carry out from hence rum, sugar, the cotton cloths of
St. Jago, beads, etc. and bring in return gold, ivory, and slaves; making
very good returns.

The small craft that belong to this town are chiefly employed in carrying
European goods from Bahia, the centre of the Brazilian trade, to the
other places on this coast; bringing back hither sugar, tobacco, etc.
They are sailed chiefly with negro slaves; and about Christmas these are
mostly employed in whale killing: for about that time of the year a sort
of whales, as they call them, are very thick on this coast. They come in
also into the harbours and inland lakes where the seamen go out and kill
them. The fat of them is boiled to oil; the lean is eaten by the slaves
and poor people: and I was told by one that had frequently eaten of it
that the flesh was very sweet and wholesome. These are said to be but
small whales; yet here are so many, and so easily killed, that they get a
great deal of money by it. Those that strike them buy their licence for
it of the king: and I was informed that he receives 30,000 dollars per
annum for this fishery. All the small vessels that use this coasting
traffic are built here; and so are some men of war also for the king's
service. There was one a-building when I was here, a ship of 40 or 50
guns: and the timber of this country is very good and proper for this
purpose. I was told it was very strong, and more durable than any we have
in Europe; and they have enough of it. As for their ships that use the
European trade some of them that I saw there were English built, taken
from us by the French, during the late war, and sold by them to the
Portuguese.

OF THE INHABITANTS OF BAHIA; THEIR CARRYING IN HAMMOCKS: THEIR
ARTIFICERS, CRANE FOR GOODS, AND NEGRO SLAVES.

Besides merchants and others that trade by sea from this port here are
other pretty wealthy men, and several artificers and tradesmen of most
sorts, who by labour and industry maintain themselves very well;
especially such as can arrive at the purchase of a negro slave or two.
And indeed, excepting people of the lowest degree of all, here are scarce
any but what keep slaves in their houses. The richer sort, besides the
slaves of both sexes whom they keep for servile uses in their houses,
have men slaves who wait on them abroad, for state; either running by
their horse-sides when they ride out, or to carry them to and fro on
their shoulders in the town when they make short visits near home. Every
gentleman or merchant is provided with things necessary for this sort of
carriage. The main thing is a pretty large cotton hammock of the West
India fashion, but mostly died blue, with large fringes of the same,
hanging down on each side. This is carried on the negroes' shoulders by
the help of a bamboo about 12 or 14 foot long, to which the hammock is
hung; and a covering comes over the pole, hanging down on each side like
a curtain: so that the person so carried cannot be seen unless he
pleases; but may either lie down, having pillows for his head; or may sit
up by being a little supported with these pillows, and by letting both
his legs hang out over one side of the hammock. When he hath a mind to be
seen he puts by his curtain, and salutes everyone of his acquaintance
whom he meets in the streets; for they take a piece of pride in greeting
one another from their hammocks, and will hold long conferences thus in
the street: but then their 2 slaves who carry the hammock have each a
strong well made staff with a fine iron fork at the upper end, and a
sharp iron below, like the rest for a musket, which they stick fast in
the ground and let the pole or bamboo of the hammock rest upon them till
their master's business or the complement is over. There is scarce a man
of any fashion, especially a woman, will pass the streets but so carried
in a hammock. The chief mechanic traders here are smiths, hatters,
shoemakers, tanners, sawyers, carpenters, coopers, etc. Here are also
tailors, butchers, etc., which last kill the bullocks very dexterously,
sticking them at one blow with a sharp-pointed knife in the nape of the
neck, having first drawn them close to a rail; but they dress them very
slovenly. It being Lent when I came hither there was no buying any flesh
till Easter-eve, when a great number of bullocks were killed at once in
the slaughterhouses within the town, men, women and children flocking
thither with great joy to buy, and a multitude of dogs, almost starved,
following them; for whom the meat seemed fittest, it was so lean. All
these tradesmen buy negroes, and train them up to their several
employments, which is a great help to them; and they having so frequent
trade to Angola, and other parts of Guinea, they have a constant supply
of blacks both for their plantations and town. These slaves are very
useful in this place for carriage, as porters; for as here is a great
trade by sea and the landing-place is at the foot of a hill, too steep
for drawing with carts, so there is great need of slaves to carry goods
up into the town, especially for the inferior sort; but the merchants
have also the convenience of a great crane that goes with ropes or
pulleys, one end of which goes up while the other goes down. The house in
which this crane is stands on the brow of the hill towards the sea,
hanging over the precipice; and there are planks set shelving against the
bank from thence to the bottom, against which the goods lean or slide as
they are hoisted up or let down. The negro slaves in this town are so
numerous that they make up the greatest part or bulk of the inhabitants:
every house, as I said, having some, both men and women, of them. Many of
the Portuguese, who are bachelors, keep of these black women for misses,
though they know the danger they are in of being poisoned by them, if
ever they give them any occasion of jealousy. A gentleman of my
acquaintance, who had been familiar with his cookmaid, lay under some
apprehensions from her when I was there. These slaves also of either sex
will easily be engaged to do any sort of mischief; even to murder, if
they are hired to do it, especially in the night; for which reason I kept
my men on board as much as I could; for one of the French king's ships
being here had several men murdered by them in the night, as I was
credibly informed.

OF THE COUNTRY ABOUT BAHIA, ITS SOIL AND PRODUCT.

Having given this account of the town of Bahia I shall next say somewhat
of the country. There is a salt-water lake runs 40 leagues, as I was
told, up the country, north-west from the sea, leaving the town and Dutch
fort on the starboard side. The country all around about is for the most
part a pretty flat even ground, not high, nor yet very low: it is well
watered with rivers, brooks and springs; neither wants it for good
harbours, navigable creeks, and good bays for ships to ride in. The soil
in general is good, naturally producing very large trees of divers sorts,
and fit for any uses. The savannahs also are loaded with grass, herbs,
and many sorts of smaller vegetables; and being cultivated, produce
anything that is proper for those hot countries, as sugarcane, cotton,
indigo, maize, fruit-trees of several kinds, and eatable roots of all
sorts. Of the several kinds of trees that are here I shall give an
account of some, as I had it partly from an inhabitant of Bahia, and
partly from my knowledge of them otherwise, namely sapiera, vermiatico,
comesserie, guitteba, serrie, as they were pronounced to me, three sorts
of mangrove, speckled wood, fustick, cotton-trees of 3 sorts, etc.,
together with fruit trees of divers sorts that grow wild, beside such as
are planted.

ITS TIMBER-TREES; THE SAPIERA, VERMIATICO, COMMESSERIE, GUITTEBA, SERRIE,
AND MANGROVES.

Of timber-trees the sapiera is said to be large and tall; it is very good
timber, and is made use of in building of houses; so is the vermiatico, a
tall straight-bodied tree, of which they make plank 2 foot broad; and
they also make canoes with it. Comesserie and guitteba are chiefly used
in building ships; these are as much esteemed here as oaks are in
England, and they say either sort is harder and more durable than oak.
The serrie is a sort of tree much like elm, very durable in water. Here
are also all the three sorts of mangrove trees, namely the red, the
white, and the black, which I have described. The bark of the red
mangrove is here used for tanning of leather, and they have great
tan-pits for it. The black mangrove grows larger here than in the West
Indies, and of it they make good plank. The white mangrove is larger and
tougher than in the West Indies; of these they make masts and yards for
barks.

THE BASTARD-COCO, ITS NUTS AND CABLES; AND THE SILK-COTTON-TREES.

There grow here wild or bastard coconut-trees, neither so large nor so
tall as the common ones in the East or West Indies. They bear nuts as the
others, but not a quarter so big as the right coconuts. The shell is full
of kernel, without any hollow place or water in it; and the kernel is
sweet and wholesome, but very hard both for the teeth and for digestion.
These nuts are in much esteem for making beads for paternosters, boles of
tobacco pipes and other toys: and every small shop here has a great many
of them to sell. At the top of these bastard coco-trees, among the
branches, there grows a sort of long black thread-like horsehair, but
much longer, which by the Portuguese is called tresabo. Of this they make
cables which are very serviceable, strong and lasting; for they will not
rot as cables made of hemp, though they lie exposed both to wet and heat.
These are the cables which I said they keep in their harbours here, to
let to hire to European ships, and resemble the coir cables.

Here are 3 sorts of cotton-trees that bear silk-cotton. One sort is such
as I have formerly described by the name of the cotton-tree. The other 2
sorts I never saw anywhere but here. The trees of these latter sorts are
but small in comparison of the former, which are reckoned the biggest in
all the West India woods; yet are however of a good bigness and height.
One of these last sorts is not so full of branches as the other of them;
neither do they produce their fruit the same time of the year: for one
sort had its fruit just ripe and was shedding its leaves while the other
sort was yet green, and its fruit small and growing, having but newly
done blossoming; the tree being as full of young fruit as an apple-tree
ordinarily in England. These last yield very large pods, about 6 inches
long and as big as a man's arm. It is ripe in September and October; then
the pod opens and the cotton bursts out in a great lump as big as a man's
head. They gather these pods before they open; otherwise it would fly all
away. It opens as well after it is gathered; and then they take out the
cotton and preserve it to fill pillows and bolsters, for which use it is
very much esteemed: but it is fit for nothing else, being so short that
it cannot be spun. It is of a tawny colour; and the seeds are black, very
round, and as big as a white pea. The other sort is ripe in March or
April. The fruit or pod is like a large apple and very round. The outside
shell is as thick as the top of one's finger. Within this there is a very
thin whitish bag or skin which encloses the cotton. When the cotton-apple
is ripe the outer thick green shell splits itself into 5 equal parts from
stem to tail and drops off, leaving the cotton hanging upon the stem,
only pent up in its fine bag. A day or two afterwards the cotton swells
by the heat of the sun, breaks the bag and bursts out, as big as a man's
head: and then as the wind blows it is by degrees driven away, a little
at a time, out of the bag that still hangs upon the stem, and is
scattered about the fields; the bag soon following the cotton, and the
stem the bag. Here is also a little of the right West India cotton-shrub:


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