William Dansey.

Horae decanicae rurales. Being an attempt to illustrate, by a series of notes and extracts, the name and title, the origin, appointment, ant functions, personal and capitular, of rural deans (Volume 1) online

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Online LibraryWilliam DanseyHorae decanicae rurales. Being an attempt to illustrate, by a series of notes and extracts, the name and title, the origin, appointment, ant functions, personal and capitular, of rural deans (Volume 1) → online text (page 32 of 38)
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the bilhop for confirmation: "Moreover," in the words cc.M.B.etu.
of King Charles the Second's Declaration concerning can.v.
Ecclejiajiical Affairs (AD. MDCLX.), " the rural fcean and
his affiftants are, in their refpective divifions, to fee that
the children and younger fort be carefully inftructed, by
the refpective minifters of every parilh, in the grounds of
the Chriftian religion, and be able to give a good account
of their faith and knowledge, and alfo of their Chriftian
converfation conformable thereunto, before they be con-
firmed by the biihop, or admitted to the facrament of
the Lord's Supper."


.338 personal function*. [PART IV.

3dotiti cttjt In compliance with which claufe, Bifhop Ward of

(Spilt, arum, . .

foi.339. OKS. Sarum (A.D. MDCLXX.) mltructed his terms rural to ob-
ferve whether the parochial clergy were " diligent in
catechizing the children, and preparing them for confir-
mation" (Officium Becanor. l&ur. &c. in the &ppenfcfx.)

But many centuries before this date, titans rural were
interefted in the other popifh facrament referred to, the

Parochial Ami- fourth of the Romim catalogue, viz. penance. " For the

quities,Vo\. II. .

P. 357. more immediate influence on their clergy, they were

appointed to be their confejjors and penitentiaries, becaufe
they were prefumed to have the character of men of
fufficient literature, and good report and favour with
their brethren ; and were therefore ordained to hear the
confe/Jions of rectors, vicars, and all other priefts and
minifters within the limits of their own tanrg, and to
enjoin them the facrament of penance"



Proceed we then, next, to the duties of fceans rural in

connexion with the folemn fervice of confe//ion and

penance; premifing that " all public criminals who had

been guilty of notorious crimes were obliged, in the

see snicer. T.E. primitive ' days of Chriftianity, to a public

( ' ) For an account of the four {Trades of penitents of the primitive
church, the reader is referred to the very learned notes of the bilhop of
Saint Afaph, in Can. Cone. Niceen. Primi, can. xi. in v. lv MpMp6iM$.
Synodic. Tom. u. p. 71. We have here only to do with penance, as a
part of church difcipline to which arthprtegtg were minifterial. See Gib-
fon's C.I.E.A. Tit. XLVI. cap. 11.

S. V. C. VII. 7.] j&uperbteton of tfje lergg. ^enitcnttatg Sutwjs. 339

or repentance in the church, and were declared unworthy

of communion with Chrift and his flock, till, by confeljion, J. Taylor O /E C -

. , . * . I J , clefiaftical Pe-

repentance, and the fruits worthy ot it, they were ad- nance, ? iv. 41.
judged capable of God's pardon." " In purfuance of
which, the bifhop, and whom he deputed, miniftered to
thefe public fatisfactions and amends." Of the number
of penitentiary delegates, fo conftituted, were &eans rural;
not merely for the clergy, but for the laity alfo, in a
fubordinate degree. As pcenitentiarii 1 of the former, in somner's Antiq.
their refpective tonnes, they received the confejjions of knT p. \?l'
rectors, vicars, capellanes, and all other priefts, and
enjoined them " the facrament of penance:" but when
firft entrufted with this important duty by the bifhop,
the only penitentiary of " infant Chriftendom," it is
impoffible to unravel : " prior ibus quinque fexve fzculis Thomaff. Vet.
penes epifcopum Jblum erat paenitentite publics admini- Difdpim. v. i.
ftratio : penes presbyterum verd. delegatum nonniji epi/copo
abfente, aut cegrotante"

About the time of the Decian perfecution (A.D. CCL.), Primitive CM/-

TN/ ~ i'i i P i T it- tianity, Part in.

Dr. Cave thinks, the lubordinate public penitentiary was ch.v. p.asi.
firft appointed "fome holy, grave, and prudent pres-
byter " as " a kind of cenfor morum, to inquire into the
lives of Chriftians, to take an account of their failures,
and to direct and difpofe them to repentance." But the
arcfipusbgtr appears not in connexion with this vocation
till fullyfoe hundred years after this date. However, we
may fay, in general terms, that rural arc&pwsts at an

(*) Poenitentiarius parochus fcil vet alius Jacerdos, cui jure cano- Soinner's Gloff.
nico incumbit plebisfibi commiffee, aut alicujus fingularis perfonee, con- ^ Scri P t - K -
feffiones audire, et pro ralione delicti, juxta difciplinam ecdejiajiicam,
pcenas dare. Vulgo, a Confeffbr.

Z 2


tf er*onal function*.


Para i.



J. Tavlor of

early date (according to the Decretum 1 of Gratian, A. I).
DVI., but in Thomaffin's opinion nearly three centuries
later) whether themfelves confeffbrs or not before that
time, were then, at leaft, minifterial to the bifhop in
preparing lay-penitents (in relation to the laity they
appear in a penitentiary capacity before they do in rela-
tion to the clergy} for undergoing 2 the folemn fervice of
penance on the firft day of the quadragefimal fad that
godly difcipline of the primitive church, to which
reference is made at the beginning of our comminution

At the church door flood the " pcenitentes facco induti,
nudis pedibns, vultibus in terrain demi/fis, reos fe ej/e ipfo
. habitit, et vultu protejiantes" and were received by the
priefts and arcfjprfests; who diligently examined their
P a ft courfe of life, and impofed the eftablimed degrees of
penance proportionate to their guilt. After which the

( ' ) The text of the canon law, compiled by the monk of Bologna
(A.D. MCL.), is here erroneous. Nothing of the kind is to be difcovered
j n an y O f th e canons of the council of Agatha, now extant The mif-
take, however, is of long ftanding, Gratian having tranfcribed it from
the bifhop of Wormes's Magnum Decretorum, feu Canonutn Volumen
(yi.D.M.), and Burchard, again, from the collection of Rheginon, abbot
of Prumia (A.D. DCCCCVI.), who, as I have elfewhere noted, antedated
the canon in queftion nearly three hundred years. It probably belongs
to the age of Charlemagne. See Thomaflin V. et N. E. D. de B. Part n.
L. i. c. v. Tom. i. p. 225.

(*) " Though, by the nature of the thing," fays Jeremy Taylor, " they
only could be neceflarily and eflentially obliged, who had done public
and notorious offences ; yet fome, obferving the advantages of that way
of repentance, the prayers of the church, the tears of the bifhop, the
companion of the faithful, the joy of abfolution and reconciliation, did
come in voluntarily, and to do that by choice which the notorious cri-
minals were to do of neceflity."

S V. C. VII. 7.] j&upn-btetoix of t^e lergg ^cmtentiarg IButwjj. 341

fceans or arcljpwsts, (" &ecam i.e. ard)fpr*sbptuf parocfif-
arum,") and their coadjutors, introduced them into the
prefence of the bifhop, in the church, for the latter to
perform his part of the penitential procefs. The feafon
of Lent having paft, on Eafter-day the penitents were
again prefented by their fccans and presbyters, in com-
pliance with the conclufion of the fame canon, to receive
the holy facrament of the Lord's Supper at the altar.
For "in the primitive records of the church, there was j. Taylor of EC-
no form of abfolution judicial, nothing but giving the SM^O.
penitents the holy communion, admitting them to the
peace of the church, to the fociety and privileges of the
faithful ;" " which was done by the bifliop, (the hiffheft cave's Primitive

, . r . J Chriflianity,

order of the church being the prime agent in difpenimg Partm.ch.v.

its higheft power, the pardon of a penitent finner), or,

in his abfence, by the prieft or confejjbr, who took the j. Taylor of EC

fupplicants from the ftation of the penitents, and placed *! Tiv P 55.

them amongft the faithful communicants ; either by

declaring that their penances were performed, or not to

be exacted V

The fynod of Pavia ( A.D. DCCCL.) introduces rural ss. cc. T om .
arcftpwsts to us, in its fixth canon, in the character of n
penitentiaries appointed to excite public criminals to
public penance, while private fins were to be atoned in
private confe//ion to inferior priefts, approved of by the
bifhops and arc&prfsbgtm : . . . . " Oportet ut plebium
per Jingulos unumquemque patremfamilias

(*) See Burnet on the Thirty -nine Articles, p. 373, Art. xxv. Pe-
nance ; and Preface to the Hi/lory of the Reformation, Vol. u. pp. xvi.
xvii. ; Soames's Bampton Lectures, pp. 266, feqq. ; and Proofs and II-
luftrations, pp. 287, feqq. ; and Tomline's Chriftian Theology, Vol. n.
pp. 425-6.

34-2 personal ^function*. [PART IV.

conveniant, quatenus tarn ipji, quam omnes in eorum domi-
bus commor antes, qui publice crimina perpetrarunt, public^
poeniteant ; qui verd occulte deliquerunt, illis confiteantur,
quos epifcopi et plebtum arcfupresbptert idoneos adfecretiora
vulnera mentium medicos elegerint; qui, fi for/itan in
aliquo dubitaverint, epifcoporum fuorum non diffimulent
implorarefententiam &c."

A farther notice of &eans rural, as fupervifors of eccle-
fiaftical penance, appears in the councils of the diocefe of
nincmariQpcra, Rheims under Archbifhop Hincmar : " Et femper de
kalendis in kalendas menfium, quando presbyter i de &ecaniis
fimul conveniunt, conlationem de pcenitentibus fuis habeant,
qualiter unufquifque fuam poenitentiam facial, et nob is per
comminijirum nojirum renuncietur, ut in actione poehi-
tentiae penfare valeamus, quandd quifque poenitens recon-
ciliari debeat. Et ji forte quis ad poenitentiam venire
noluerit infra quindecim dies pofi perpetration em peccati,
et exhort at ionem presbyteri in cujus parochid actumfuerit,
et fedulitatem Decant ac compresbyterorum fuorum, atque
injtantiam comminiflrorum noflrorum, decernatur qualiter
qui peccatum perpetravit, et ad pcenitentiam redire con-
temnit, a ccetu ecclejite, donee ad pcenitentiam redeat,
fegregetur &c." Which ' fentence of excommunication
the Irran generally denounced, as the moft dignified pres-
byter of his diftrict, a judge delegate, and the organ of

. Wbfccrrta, ( l ) Bifhop Kennett fuggefts to the bifhop of Lincoln, on the occafion
assT ofreftoring Oeanft rural in the diocefe of Lincoln, that there are many
parts of difcipline that may be committed to them without any pretended
i rival ion upon the archdeacons or others ; and particularly calls his lord-
fhip's attention " to letting the fentences of excommunication and abfo-
lution be denounced more efpecially by rural Deans. &c."

S. V. C. VII. 7.] Jbuperbteton of tfce @lergg. ^enttcntiarg ut*. 343

the church's cenfure on contumacious offenders againft
her difcipline.

In addition to fupervifing the due performance of thefe see WMtaker-s

Hift. of Man-
duties of lay-penance, that teans rural were actual che/ter, vol. n.

. . T B.II. * m.p.386.

receivers 01 private conjejjion, and impofers 01 condign
penance for the clergy more particularly, is the averment
of Somner, Van Efpen, Kennett, Whitaker, and others ;
and the vicar of Ambrofden and the Hiftorian of Man-
chefter refer to Archbifhop Peckham's eighth conftitution
(A.D. MCCLXXXI.), " De uno confeffore in quolibet tocanatu
faciendo," as their authority for the fact. But, however
probable it may be, that the arc&prtsriBtu of the fceanrg is
alluded to as the long-eflablimed confeffbr, it is not
expreffly declared. The canon notices it to be an
inftitution of antiquity, " Ut in quolibet tocanatu unus fit cc.M.B.etn.

. . . . Vol. ii. p. 54.

rector aut vicarius, literaturd fufficienter illujiratus, gratia
famdque laudabili infignitus, ad confeffionem rectorum,
vicariorum, aliorumque facer dotum ac minijlrorum ecclejice
audiendam, injungendafque pcenitentias, &c." complains
that the rule had been allowed, by the negligence of the
clergy, to fall into defuetude, and re-enacts it in its prif-
tine vigour and inviolability ; referring, as Lyndwood
fuppofes, to the fifth conftitution of Cardinal Otho, and
the nineteenth of Stephen Langton (A.D. MCCXXII.) But
fcecanal confeffors are rather fuperfeded by the Legatine
canon of the former, under the fanction of the tenth
canon of the Lateran council of MCCXVI. (by which
bifhops are bound to have qUiJiants in preaching, hearing
confej/ions, and enjoining penances^) : for the cardinal or-
ders, " Ut per quojlibet fcecanatus prudentes viri et Jideles cc.M.B.etH.
conjtituantur per epifcopum confeffbr es; quibus perfona et
minores clerici valeant confiteri, qui Decants erubefcunt

&14 personal ^function*. [PART IV.

conjiteri, forjitan et verentur. In eccle/iis vero cathe-
dralibus confeflbres inftitui pro'dpimus generales."-
making no allufion whatever to the inftitution of titans
themfelves as penitentiary minifters for the clergy, though
the canon feems to acknowledge their pre-exiftence in
that capacity. Nor does any occur in the earlier tran-
fcript of the Lateran, viz. the fixteenth canon of the

Vol. i. p. 609. provincial Scotch council (A.D. MCCXXV.), " De confej/b-
ribus conftituendis" alfo referred to by the fame cele-
brated antiquaries, as authorities. The words of both
point to a fecond clafs of confejfbrs, befide the fcccanal,
for the inferior clergy, when either afhamed or afraid to
apply to the fceans rural in that capacity, the latter
remaining, at the fame time, the proper, canonical reci-
pients of clerical confeffion in general, the " confeflbres
nati " of the priefthood of each fceanrp, upon fome earlier
appointment, not incorporated, as far as I can difcover,
in any antecedent capitulary or fynod ; but occurring,
for the firil time, in the tomes of the councils (A.D.

ss. cc. Tom. MCCLXXXIV.), in the Sunodus apud S. Hippolytum " Sta-

x,v. col.786. . '* .. * . .7 .

tmmus, ut Jinguli plebam, rectores, vicaru, et capellam
nojlr<E dicecejis de gravioribus fuis peccatis confiteantur
fuo tecano : Decant nobis, ac etiam archidiacono, feu iis,
quos eis dederimus confe//bres"

E^^fv de T* 16 nineteenth Oxford conftitution of Stephen Lang-
p*mte*iiu,A.D. ton (A.D. Mccxxn.), above cited as being a reference of

' . ( I \ \ \ '. if. ^ o

cc. M. B tt H. Peckham on the authority of Lyndwood, ordains cer-
tain difcreet confejjbrs to be felected by the bifhop and
archdeacon to receive 1 the confeffions of rural &eans them-

(' ) That is, fays Lyndwood in his glofa (L. v. Tit xvi. gl. e, p. 327),
thofe rural Dtans " quvfunt beneficiati vel alias in facerdotio conjlituti,


S. V. C. VII. 7.] &upnbteion of tf)e Urgg ^enitentiats IButie*. 345

felves, when fearful of having recourfe to their prelates

for that purpofe. And thefe functionaries, in all proba-

bility, were of the fame character and inftitution as the

"presbyteri idonei literature competentis, et probate om-

nibus opinionis" of the canon de Poenitentid of the fame VOL i. p. 595.

archbifhop, publifhed on the fame occafion at Oxford,

as the " duo presbyteri, moribus et fcientid prediti " of

the earlier Dublin fynod (AD. MCCXVII.) and the Chi-

chefter conftitutions (A.D. MCCLXXXIX.) as the "duo ad >/<*. P . 548.

minus confeffbres" &c. of the Durham council (^LU.MCCxx.)

the " prudentes viri etjldeles" of Otho, and the Scotch vol. n. P . 170.

council, and the " rector aut vicarius, literaturd fuffi- vol. i. P . 577.

cienter illujiratus" &c. of the Lambeth fynod ; but dif-

tinct altogether from rural treans or ardjpnests: though,

I believe, one gloffator, Cardinal Hoftienfis, applies the Ly
latter canon of Peckham to arcfjpwsts of the cftg and j. T. '
countrg in the character of penitentiaries of the priefthood
by delegation of the bifhop.

The " penitent iarii communes" of Peckham's conftitu-

. . . communes pceni-

tion were lo called " qma deputati Junt commumter tarn
pro Idicis quarn pro clericis:" whereas the others were
" P.fpeciales quoad perfonas clericorum, quorum potejias
extendi non debet ad laicos, niji hoc in eorum potejiate in
Jpecie vel in genere contineatur."

The Meath canons of A.D. MCCXVI., fo full in general

vel ratione jurifdiclionis quam forte exercent, immediate fubfiint epifcopo
in foro ammae. Aliter autem Ji tails Dccanug fit parochianus alicujus
curati inferioris epifcopo, fibi debet confiteri."

So fays the Pcenitentiale Joannis De Deo, " de confefflone arci)tprc?i- Excerpta ex
fegtctorum, cap. xi." " ^Irc^iprcsligtert ruraleg, qui Decant a quibufdam i^Ame^d^ '
vocantur, et quandoque plcbant, et qnandoque abbates, licet improprie, Theodor. Pa-nit.
debent epifcopo confiteri, et alteri de licentid epifcopi."

346 personal function*. [PART IV.

on the duties of arctpresbpters rural, as the appointed
immediate fucceflbrs of the tftorepfscopt of Ireland, are
filent on the fubject of their penitentiary functions ; fave
that they order them to take care that the canonical
penances of the church be duly performed in their dif-
tricts, and that they themfelves be prefent at them as

cc.M.B.eiH. witneffes : " vi. Curent infuper paenitentias canonicas a

nobis vel ojficialibus noftris impojitas delinquentibus debitd,

et ed, qua decet fohnnitate, peragi, et perimpleri in eccle-

Jiis infra fuos Unities, quibus ipji cum presbyteris parochia-

libus interjint, tanquam tejies, ut qua humilitate et devo-

tione pcenitentia laboribus defuncfi funt, tejiificare po//int."

being fupervifors of impofed penitential performances

exactly upon the fame footing as the Rhemifh beans of

Archbifhop Hincmar before quoted.

However, that beans rural were the confej/brs of the
Gallican clergy of their refpective fceanries in the year
MCCLXXXIV, is expreflly affirmed in a canon of the fynod
of Saint Hippolyte, already quoted from the volumes of
the councils : and the fynods of Arras (A.D. MCCCCLV.),

vanEfpen and of Saint Omer (A.D. MDLXXXIII.), continue them, as

/ E. U. P. ii. .. ...

TIL n. cap. v. the proprii facer dotes of their fubject prielts, in the capa-
city of receiving confej/ion. All perfons are bound, by

the latter fynod, " cotifiteri proprto facerdoti"

" Proprium autem facerdotem ilium intelligi declaramus,
cujus curce quifque proprie fubjectus e/L Sic parochus

proprius facer dos eft parochianorum fuorum &c Sic

arcfjipresbpterum feu trtcanum (Kfirtstfanftatfs cujufque loci
proprium facerdotem ejje et agnofci volumus paftorum fui
Ijecanatus. Sic arc&ipresbpterum cibttatensem, proprium
facerdotem, ut pajlorum fui ijecanatus, ita et cteterorum
arcbtpresbnterorum Jive Irecanorum Clwstt'amtatt's," &c.

S. V. C. VII. 7.] &uperbteion of tf)e lorgg ^nifcntiarg m\itit*. 347

The fynod of Arras prefcribes (De facramento confef- conft. s yno d.
Jionis}, " Qudd curati parochiales, presbyteri, capellani in A.'D. MCCCCLV.'
eorum parochiis moram facientes, et in eifdem capellas ha-
bentes, confiteantur fuis tocanig et non aliis, niji de nojird
proceJTerit, vel dictorum fcecanorum licentidfpeciali;" ....
" tftcanf nobis aut in nojird abfentid nojtro vicario generali"

Granting that rural teans were primitively invefted
with the capacity of hearing clerical confeflion, of inflict-
ing penance, and giving or withholding abfolution, and
enjoyed a priority of inftitution in thefe duties, how
came it to pafs that they were virtually fuperfeded, latter-
ward, on almoft all occafions, by other priefts of inferior
rank and ftation ? Whence happened it that the pres-
byter fuperfeded the arcftpresbpter ? The negligence, it
may be, of the clergy, and contempt of the titans in
fupporting the laudable practice of confefTion, the bifhop
of Peterborough fuggefts, operated to the introduction
of fecondary penitentiaries. But the principal reafon of
the decay of tecanal confeffors is to be fought in the
union of penitentiary and judge in the fame functionary.

The foeans, having by delegation from the bilhop a
judicial power over the inferior clergy, might poffibly
betray the private confeffions of the latter in fuch caufes
as might afterwards come before them in their ordinary
courts of Cfwstt'anitB ; and thus, through a religious
exercife for the relief of confcience, the confej/ing clergy
might be inftrumental to their own judicial crimination.

This explains why the rectors, vicars, capellanes, and
others, were my of approaching our predeceffors in the
exercife of their confeffbrial functions ; and upon this
contrariety of office, John de Athon, ever at war with the
titan and his privileges, grounds their unfitnefs for pent-

348 #er*onal function*. [PART IV.

duties. Gloffmg upon " erubejcunt " in Otho's
conflitution, he fuggefts, that, as the fame perfon could
not with decency act in a double capacity, in a peniten-
tial and judicial court, the titan ought not to be appointed
a confe//br at all, " non debet tails confejjor injlitui"
And yet he immediately weakens the force of this
alleged reafon, by fubjoining, in his glofs upon " veren-
tur," that there is no caufe for alarm on the part of the
confeffing clergy, " cum in foro pcenitentiali confe/Jionem
audit facer dos vice DEI (! !) nee prodere poteft peccatorem
impune." Difclofure of the fecrets of conjeffion was
forbidden under fevere penalties by the church of Rome.
But befides thefe coadjutors of the fceans in this depart-
ment of their office, (and being canonically appointed
by the bifhops in council to the confefforial duties, no
ufferii de chrif- one could gainfay their right of interference,) others,
c&et staiv who were mere interlopers and ufurpers of the power,
feqq.'wc^Si'pa-' appeared in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries : thefe
6i2 P 693,694. ' were the monks, tiiefratres prcedicatores and minor es
who, in England, during the reign of King John and
Henry III., wrefted out of the hands of fceans rural, and
penitentiary priefts as well, the entire authority and
privilege of hearing confel/ion, and adjufting penance;
whence, in the words of Matthew Paris, the dignity and
condition of the ordinary clergy "non mediocriter viluit."
To fuch a pitch of arrogance had thefe men arrived,
when Peckham fucceeded to the archiepifcopal chair of
Canterbury, in the reign of Edward I., that they alleged
a grant of fome general privileges in their favour from
the apoftolical fee, whereby they pretended themfelves
to be conftituted confeflors, totally independent of the
bilhops of the country ; and, under a falfe plea of

S. V. C. VII. 7.] &uperbteum of t&e lecgg tfnutentUwg duties. 349

foreign inveftiture, meddled with the fpiritual function of
binding and looting, (at no period allowed to be exer-
cifed dejure by mere monks out of their own convents)
to the lamentable fubverfion of the difcipline of the
church. For this unauthorifed ulurpation they were cc.M.B.etu.
feverely reproved by Peckham, in his fixth Lambeth
conflitution, and again by Archbiihop Reynolds in the
reign of Edward II. 1

In the fynod held at Chichefter (A.D. MCCLXXXIX.), it cc.M.B.etu.
was ordered that no one mould be fent before the
pcenitentiarii on account of any crime which he had
neither confejjed nor been convicted of; all enormous
fins, at the fame time, being referved to the bifhop's
tribunal, or that of his deputy fpecially appointed. And
when difpatched to the penitentiary, the penitent was to
be the bearer of letters to him from the tean or arch-
deacon, gratuitoufly bellowed at the fuit of the finner ;
who was alfo to bring back from the confeffbr a reply,
Hating the nature of the penance, and for what crime, in
particular, it was enjoined. Can. xu.

The councils of the church enumerate the different

grades of fins, and violations of difcipline, and the con-

feffbrs to whom the claffified tranfgreffors might cano-

nically apply for abfolution 2 . Thus, for example, in the

(*) SeeMatth. Paris, locis citatis ; Fuller's Hiftory of Abbeys, Book vi.
p. 275 ; Van Efpen Jur. Ecclef. Univ. P. n. T. vi. ; de Sacramento Pce-
nitentiae, c. v. de ordinario pcenitenticB miniftro, pp.315, feqq. ; and
Sharon Turner's Hiftory of England, Part iv. c. in. pp. 402, feqq. note,
p. 4 13.

( 2 ) &rcf)tpu?!f>Bter cibttatengig licet omnes de epifcopatu poffit abfol- Barthoi. Fumi
vere, non tamen a re/ervatis fine fpeciali licentid epifcopi, fecundum Jo. ^ urea Armitta ;
an. in. c. ft epifcopus, de pee. et sc. 1. vi. 7*0/1 autem fie arcfripreg&gter P 38 Ald>




CC. Rotomag.
Provinc. P. II.
p. 456.

P. 514.

Decreta An-

tiifua Synodi
p. 134.

Conft. et Decret.
Synod. Salif-
burg. p. 245.

council of Rheims (A.D. MCCCCVIII.), we have a lift- of
" cafus pcenitentiariis per becanatus commi/ji" " cafus
presbyterorwn parochialium " " cafus nobis et pcenitenti-

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