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William Dealtry.

The laborer; a remedy for his wrongs; or, A disquisition on the usages of society online

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maintain as many soldiers as they can, and when the war is
over end the expense. War is one of these occasions that
enables many to attach themselves to society, and obtain a
permanent support.

Senator Chase, at the beginning of the war, found this na-
tion with a currency of $300,000,000, which he increased
to $700,000,000. It caused the commodities of life to be
twice as high. To those who furnished supplies, he paid in
paper, earning interest. T n <> se who had saved money could
only purchase half as much as they did. Many statesmen
are in favor of bringing paper money to the value of gold.
This will cause misery to those who are in debt. It will take
more labor to pay the nation's interest. Issuing paper was
an injury to the working people.*

If I were to stand on a highway and take ten cents from
a man I should be punished. If I put a bar across a road,
and say to a traveler you must pay me ten cents to travel
on this road, as I built it, the traveler could say, laborers
built this road, mechanics and farmers clothed and fed them.
You have only used cunning to obtain this road, which has
cost you paper money, the making of which did not take a
day. It is the duty of society to purchase this road by is-

* The writer believes this nation's debts should be paid as agreed on. Taxes
might have supplied the soldier's wants. The debt is a scheme to live easily.



A REMEDY FOR HIS WRONGS. 403

suing paper money and offering it to the unnatural owner for
it. This money will buy him farms and tools, then he can
go to work like the rest of mankind. Working people do
themselves an injustice to allow others to live in idleness
from the profits of the roads and bridges. The pike be-
tween Piqua and Troy, O., receives one-third of its value
annually in tolls. The American people are getting to be
numerous, and it is just that these tolls should be theirs.

Society saves a fourth of its time having money. The is-
sues of money from a State would give us a currency. A
good man never seeks an office. A farmer, having always
good crops, well-fed cattle, obedient, well-behaved children,
neatness on his farm, not overrun with weeds, one not given
to kid gloves or fashionable clothing, who speaks kindly to
his neighbor, and assists the orphans such a one will be
a good public officer. Having learned to live from the soil,
he will not favor paper or credit schemes that will make
coats, hats, shoes, food, etc., twice the value of the usual
price, and then buy large quantities of them on credit for
the use of soldiers, which are to be paid for by future gen-
erations. Common minds know these things are in the
country, and that the tax-gatherer can collect the money to
purchase them, and that the operation can be renewed till
the war is ended. The mind of such a man can not see,
after feeding and clothing a number of soldiers, how the
cost is to be got back again twenty or thirty years from now,
and we still keep on feeding and clothing a number of per-
sons. When a person fills an office well, and is not given
to peculation, how absurd it is to remove him.

There are a number of persons who meet to discuss
"Social Science;" this may give them some light. In the
beginning of this century, Botany Bay had 5,000 criminals.
To reform them, they were set to work on public fountains,



404 THE LABORER;

making fine columns for public buildings, and to work on
the governor's stables. In addition to this, add the mainten-
ance of ladies learning Latin, in cells with carpeted floors
and papered walls, officers of government, policemen with
clubs, professors of colleges, and other persons too numer-
ous to mention, and you make them poor, abject, and envi-
ous. One inquires, Why am 1 made to differ from others?
Why are others fed on turkeys, eggs, and fowls, while I am
in rags, and have the coarsest fare ? * To get the superflui-
ties of life, I will not trample on others ! To gain riches, I
will not push others down ! I will try and bear my bur-
dens ! Society has made me what I am ! f

It must be self-evident if you relieve the poor convicts of
these burdens, you make them virtuous and happy. The
more you pile scholars, philosophers, statesmen, and others
on toiling men, the more hungry, vicious, and ignorant they
become. It is the duty of all to spend a part of their time
in the field and shop. The people of Acadia and uncivil-
ized Paraguay show us that security, order, and virtue can
be attained without our usages. A display of virtue like this
can never happen in highly civilized countries. Columbus
writes to his king and queen thus: "When the Pinto was
wrecked, the natives swam about and collected every thing
on the beach. The property could not have been better
taken care of in Spain. Nothing was stole n." -Jointer bottom.

A great source of intemperance is from the idle sons of
rich men, who, having no occupation, learn habits of dissipa-
tion. Many, who work, having poor homes, are attracted

Bishop Potter, in his "Arts and Sciences," tells us that sawdust can be
made into palatable puddings. Harper's Family Library.

j- Bishop Potter, in his " Political Economy," gives us the Chaplain's
" Report of" the Conn. State Prison." "Thieves and robbers attempt to jus-
tify their course, on the ground that one man has no right to hold property
more than another, and they take from the rich only."



A REMEDY FOR HIS WRONG&. 405

to the gay drinking saloons. It is not improbable that this
nation spends annually $300,000,000 on tobacco and strong
drink, which in ten years will buy every five persons a good
house having four rooms. A mechanic, when buying a
drink, saw an open door, and heard a female voice, saying :
"Where did you get this fine furniture ? " The reply was :
"The fool's pence bought it." The man repented? Dur-
ing a rain-shower a woman took refuge in his house, and
said : <l J know you, sir: where did you get your fine fur-
niture?" He replied: " The fool's pence bought it." He
told her what she had said, and its effect.

A tobacco-using and liquor-drinking person can cure his
faults by visiting "The Children's Home" or an "Asylum
for Orphans," and see good women clothing and feeding
poor outcasts. The effect will be money foolishly spent
will be used doing good. Another method to cure an afflicted
drinking man is to try and send a poor boy to an industrial
school. This will give him a sincere mourner at his grave,
who will inscribe on his tombstone this affectionate record.

MR. MADE ME A GOOD AND USEFUL MAN.

If a person persists in smoking and drinking, he is liable
to be poor, to be put in a mean coffin, and carried to his
grave in an express wagon as if he was a brute.

To escape the miseries of war caused some pious men to
go to new countries to create homes. They were very sys-
tematic, as will be seen by this account:

They were governed by abbots and priors, who had charge
of the abbey. The next officer was the almoner, who distri-
buted alms at the gate for the poor, and gave home relief.

The sacrist took care of the communion vessels, provided
the bread and wine, kept the altar-cloths clean, furnished
wax-candles, and rung the bell at service and burials.



406 THE LABORER;

The chamberlain had the care of the dormitory, and the
providing of beds, razors, scissors, towels, clothes, and shoes
for the monks, and tools for shoeing the abbot's horses.

The cellarer provided flesh, fish, fowl, wine, wheat, fire
wood, malt, and kitchen utensils for monks and visitors.

The hospitaller, gave entertainment to guests and travel-
lers. He was to have beds, seats, tables, napkins, basins,
plates, and spoons for the guests, and bring them food.

The master of the infirmary took care of the aged and sick,
and prepared food and comfort for their infirm condition.

The head-chanter had the care of the choir service, the
organist, and chorister, and provided them with books. He
had charge of the abbey-seal, chapter-book, records of the
public business, and furnished parchment, pens and ink for
the writers, and colors for the painters of missals.

The rules of St. Benedict directed that six hours daily
were to be given to manual labor in shops in the monastery.
Some were tailors, shoemakers, jewelers, cabinet-makers,
book-binders, sculptors, carvers, painters, and writers.

The cursitor's business was to visit the shops, and notice
who were absent, idle, and talking. It was his duty to go
about during prayers and see that none were asleep.

Institutions like these were wanted to refine and teach
industry to the rude Saxons. They accomplished this, and
became corrupt. These monks got the greatest part of the
land as gifts. They contrived to have the abbey on a run-
ning stream, so as to have a mill. The garden and bake-
house were on the place, so as not to go abroad for supplies.
This made them rich. Then their labor was done by serv-
ants. WiclifF brought some charges against them. His opin-
ions became universal, and these institutions were absorbed
by the men of wealth, who set the poor man to work for
their benefit. A change is coming that will help the poor.



A REMEDY FOR HIS WRONGS. 407

The farmers and mechanics create a pile of food and use-
ful things, annually, amounting to $3,000,000,000. These
various classes of consumers destroy the greatest quantity.

Lawyers, physicians, and clergymen $83,000,000.

Merchants and clerks } 73,000,000.

National and State governments 700,000,000.

Those who insure lives and houses 30,000,000.

Tea makers and gold seekers 200,000,000.

Cost of tobacco and drinking 300,000,000.

Earnings of railroads, bridges, and pikes 100,000,000.

Interest paid on railroad and private debts 100,000,000.

House rents from 3,000,000 of families 90,000,000.

Profits to bankers and brokers 25,000,000.



Amount consumed by non-producers $1,701,000,000.

In our Senate it was said: "Your manual laborers are
but slaves ; and if they knew their power, your government
would be reconstructed." Laborers working for a rich man
give him an easy abundance. Were they philosophers, they
would say: "We want not your money ! Go work, add to a
world's wealth ! " To make a store front a mass of statues,
eyeless faces, and fine stone-carvings, in which to put our
hats and shoes, is unnecessary and wasted labor ?

Pious "Aunt Effie" expected to die with hunger. " The
Shepherd of the Plain," for his Sunday dinner had potatoes
and salt. The family, in the "First of the Week," were
thankful for gravy on their Sunday food. The meat was
eaten next day. On Wednesday the bones were stewed.
The diet, the rest of the week,was bread and potatoes. "The
Happy Waterman " was a frugal Christian, which enabled
him to buy a boat, and comforts for home. This was taken
as evidence that he had found a lost purse of gold. It cost
him much to get acquitted. These sorrowful tales, and oth-
ers, are found in a Methodist book-store in this city, which
is as beautiful as can be seen anvwhere. The two entrances



408 THE LABORER;

are arched. The window top is a quarter of a circle in each
corner, joined by a straight line. Six delicate columns, with
foliated capitals ornament the doors. On the arches are ob-
lique openings, and carved leaves and scrolls. The upper
windows are columned in the corners. The highest win-
dows have between them as brackets a smiling female face,
and two male faces with sheep's horns. The cornice has
four gargoyle likenesses in it. The imposing cornice has on
it two large globes. Poverty comes from ill-spent labor.

A book printer sets up "Notes on the Revelations," or
"On the Infallibility of the Pope." He then has to wait
till another work comes in, which is u The Prairie Boy," or
"The Fisherman's Son." While waiting for work, the prin-
ter often loses six months in the year. There are so many
new titled books made in a year, that their names can not be
read or remembered., This printer is an involuntary idler.

Laborers would be happier if they would leave those, who
draw such large supplies of their toil for frivolous uses, and go
into the wilderness and found new homes. Skilled laborers,
by exchanging labor, can have, in two years, houses and mills
to make life happy. They need not labor more than four
hours in a day, and live free from painful fears and cares.

The earth has an abundance. Labor has multiplied forty
times by machinery since we have become a nation. Most
of our people t are poor. We are further from freedom now
after a national existence of a century. The cause is dele-
gating power to rich men, who use it to benefit themselves.





CHAPTER XVIII.

CONCLUSION.

A WASHINGTON LETTER THE PACIFIC RAILROAD A MEANS or ACQUIRING
TERRITORY WITHOUT WAR How THE KING OF PRUSSIA OBTAINED REVE-
NUE FROM A CANAL GENERAL DEARBORN'S TESTIMONY ON MERCHANTS.

" Love mercy, do justice, and walk humbly with thy God." BIBLE PRECEPT.

[OMMON sense should be the guide of the laborer
on the subject of political economy. The political
economists, whose books are used in the colleges,
mislead the laboring men so as to have ease. They flatter the
follies of the rich, that they may gain their money. States-
men at Washington will not ameliorate the laborer's condi-
tion, as it would doom them to toil, and put an end to the
extravagant dressing, feasts, and parties of their wives and
daughters. If you remonstrate with these people on the
sin of destroying what has cost so much toil, they will tell
you it is good for trade, it gives work to mechanics. If you
tell them it is cruel to keep servants so long on their feet, to
wait on them and prepare their food, it will awaken no pite-
ous feelings, or a desire to share their toils.

A Washington letter tells us of a poor boy in its jail, who
writes to his sister thus: " C I have a nice, warm room, good
bed, and plenty to eat. I believe I will be sent to the peni-
tentiary, where I will be clothed, fed, and taught a trade,
and be able to obtain my living.' His companions in the
street shouted to him, and hoped soon to be with him.

409



4io THE LABORER;

"How many of these rogues in punishing do we make?
The rich grow richer, and the poor poorer. What will be
our proportion after a time? What are the terrors of the
penitentiary to a half-starved boy?

"I think we have succeeded in catching the most harm-
less of our criminals; the weak alone are detected. The
cold, cautious, calculating scoundrel goes unpunished. On
the floor of the Senate or House note the faces of the men
who have stolen their thousands, and see their clear, intellect-
ual countenances. These are the larger and more danger-
ous rogues, who have not only escaped conviction, but are
honored among men. They move in the best society, their
wives are admired, and daughters sought after."*

This will ever be the condition of society while the men
of wealth make the laws. The laborers should leave their
farms and shops, to attend primary meetings, and send to
rule their own classes, those who are free from selfishness
and avarice. All power only should be vested in those who
toil ; without their labor we would all soon perish. A good
man will resolve not to be rich. He will labor with his own
hands, and will tell, if he knows, what is the cost price of
goods. He wants no profits, and will invite others to be-
come his partners. A man, to be rich, is evidence that he is
wanting in benevolence, and is not fit to make laws. To
prove which, take the example of a man in Illinois, who owns
40,000 acres, or eight miles square, which are cultivated
by 3,500 persons. He is richer than all of them.

Our rulers knew that conquest is attended with danger,
and that legislation is the same as conquest. For instance,
beyond Missouri are large tracts of land, stretching to the
Pacific Ocean, which, at the proper time, would have been
filled with a laboring people, who would rely upon their own
* Cincinnati Commercial, January 29, 1869.



A REMEDY EOR HIS WRONGS. 411

resources; they would surround themselves with all kinds of
factories, and be strangers to luxury, having ease and leisure.
Our rulers wish to make the people slaves, the victims of
merchants, and a prey to land speculators. This was done
by making a decree, that an area equal to three times Great
Britain shall belong to a few, who shall build a railroad to
the Pacific. These share the plunder with the rulers, and
will be a means of gaining enormous tribute out of the set-
tlers. The design is to compel them to send wool and get
clothing from a distance.

Once the king of Prussia built a canal at the State's ex-
pense, and rented it to the highest bidder. If the people
will use the herb which East India merchants introduced
among us, it would have been wise had Congress printed
$100,000,000, which would have cost $200,000, and built
the road, and then rented it to the highest bidder every ten
years ; it would give an increasing revenue. Franklin said :
" Silks and satins put out the kitchen fires. Tea can not
be called a necessary. Were all men scholars, we would
want bread."

A fearful retribution seems to overtake traders. Gen.
Dearborn, a collector of the port of Boston, said : ll He was
satisfied that, among 100 merchants, not more than three
ever attained independence." This is the testimony of
others. Woes are pronounced against riches in the world
to come.

John Adams kept an account how he spent his time from
1 763 to 1 795. This is an entry : " This day my men have
made hay, and I have read Plutarch." Would it not have
been more humane if he had said, I have this day made my
hay, and read Plutarch in the evening? It would have re-
lieved his drudges, who would have had an opportunity to
obtain some learning also. How natural it was for Messrs.



412 THE LABORER;

Adams, Hamilton, and Morris, when sent to frame the
usages of society, so to do it that they could have easy lives.

To society belongs the roads and bridges. Private indi-
viduals owning these have obtained them through the base-
ness of rulers. Common roads in England are owned by
the community, and their earnings are devoted to keeping
the poor. A king does not like to hear the murmurings of
his people. He contrives to have as few as possible to eat
up his people's subsistence. The Prussian king wears his
coat so long, it would not sell for a dollar. He is frugal, to
save his people from being absorbed by other nations.

In republics are many tyrants, who fatten on the people,
eat up their food, and consume their clothing. Their plan
is to fill an office, make all they can, and retire at the end
of two or four years. Americans would be very wise if
they would keep the revenue and post-officers in their places
for life, if honest. It is so in England, where losses are
rare. The king's courier was solicited to take private mes-
sages with his king's, which was the means of a post-office
being owned by a nation. Congressmen send their clothes,
and even bags of potatoes to their homes, which is a cause
why the post-office is deficient in means to pay expenses.

A great source of revenue to rulers is to receive bribes
from those to whom they grant privileges, such as bankers,
life-insurers, and others. The time was when men went
about telling fortunes, practicing palmistry, or telling where
gold was hidden. These have taken to life-insurance, with
permission of ct the collected wisdom of the nation," caus-
ing men, in this case as in the others, to live without doing
any thing of utility. Says a Massachusetts Report, by John
E. Sanford : "There are in this State, in 1867, forty-seven
life-insurance companies. The number of policies issued,
in fourteen months, was 145,000, and the amount insured




It persons would hang up in their rooms a copy of the ten commandments, u
list or" the insurance rules, and keep houses apart, fires would not often happen.
If taxes were abolished, the State would derive nearly enough revenue to pay its ex-
penses, if it would insure the property of its citizens. Many patriotic people would
like to serve society insuring, at a small salary for life. If those who insure men's
lives, and those who subsist from the profits of insurance, were to work at cultivat-
ing the earth, they could feed 10,000,000 of persons. Life insuring persons are
supposed to prevent poverty; they cause more poverty than they prevent. Nothing
will end the ills of life but universal, useful labors; it will make earth a paradise.



A REMEDY FOR HIS WRONGS. 413

for was $420,000,000. The number of policies dropped
for want of persistency was 40,000, which called for the sum
of $100,000,000. To satisfy the claims of those who
were bereaved $9,000,000 was paid. Twenty-seven insur-
ance companies had a surplus of $7,595,675. The sum
paid to the companies during the year, was $62,000,000,
and it was paid by 430,000 policy holders, to whose friends
the companies owe $1,200,000,000."*

These facts may be made out of this report, for every
eighteen dollars paid out, fifteen accumulates in the treas-
uries, and their accumulations are $100,000,000. The great
States of New York and Pennsylvania also insure as much
as Massachusetts, and it is not improbable that their gains
are the same, which will hire 54,000 laborers, whose pro-
ductive powers, with machinery on good farms, will main-
tain 3,000,000 of persons.

This nation has machinery equal to 150,000,000 of peo-
ple. Every one has working for him five inanimate slaves,
fed with fire, that want no food or clothes. Modern sci-
ence and skill has taught us to make the earth yield twice as
much as it did fifty years ago. Why do fathers resort to
life-insurance companies to provide for their children ? The
money thus acquired may be lost in business or soon spent,
then there has to be a return to toil at last, which finds the
person unskilled, unused to labor, with perhaps, no strength.
Parents should very early inure their children to plainness
in dress and diet, to toil and discipline. Children, strangers
to costly food and apparel, will not wish for them, and, being
taught industry, will not be feeble and helpless. One who
insures lives is a person who is determined to get the products

* Let no one accuse me of wanting human feelings, because I attack these
institutions. The ruler of the Universe has done his part well in giving us a
beautiful earth to cultivate, and we suffer refusing to do it.

36



414 THE LABORER;

of others without giving any hard labor for them. He is
one who gets as much as he can for as little as he can.

The shoemakers of this city [Cincinnati] have had their
wages increased by a strike, which will be the means of in-
creasing the difficulties of the other laborers, to purchase
their shoes. If these, in retaliation, increase their wages,
the shoemakers will have gained nothing. For many gen-
erations strikes have been made without any benefit.

If the shoemakers were to carry their factory into the
country, instead of paying 180 rent for four rooms, they
need only pay $60. Do these shoemakers pay a quarter of
a dollar a pound for their lard and hams? These, by pre-
paring and curing for themselves, need only cost one-eight
of a dollar per pound. A society of shoemakers, purchas-
ing potatoes at wholesale prices, and distributing them to the
members, will save a third of the price. Two acres of tile-
drained soil will give a family of six half their food, and the
winter's food of a cow and chickens. If the tour de ordure
be made the receptacle of chips, weeds, ashes, and straw,
and these put on the acre for the cow, it will make cabbages
so large that they will be the diameter of a barrel. Of corn,
125 bushels can be obtained on the acre, sixty of which
will feed the cow 120 days, and the remainder will fatten
780 Ibs. of pork. There will be a fatted calf to kill. The
cow will eat up the corn-stalks, beet-tops, cabbage leaves,
and a load of hay during the winter, and will give a pound
of butter every day. The milk will make tea not wanted.

A cow has been taught to drag a plow and rake between
rows. It helping, the garden can be cultivated very easily in
one hour each day during the summer. It will do a woman
no harm to work an hour daily in the garden. Apples are
$2.25 a bushel, which sum can be saved in a country home.
The English laborer seems in a fair way of gaining inde-



A REMEDY FOR HIS WRONGS. 415

pendence. There are 700,000 members belonging to the
"Trades Unions," who have millions in their treasuries.
In their "Benefit Societies" and "Savings Banks" they have
$500,000,000. Many thousands of them are partners with



Online LibraryWilliam DealtryThe laborer; a remedy for his wrongs; or, A disquisition on the usages of society → online text (page 32 of 33)