William Dwight Whitney.

A compendious German grammar online

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fort, adv. fbrtk, away.
fprtsc^cn^ v. 0(867). |po

away.
fraacii, V. y. aak.
ifrou,/. »atics. woman,

wife.
Vraubiiirfk *sl, rn. young

lady.
fmicn, V. y, re/L rejoioe.

— f^reuc midf, am glad.
Vv'Stttiby m, shtif »be.

flriend.
ffm,acif. fkwak.
frobf a4f, cheerfoL
9rof<^, m. »t^el| •Sf^c.

flrojg.
fSbren, v. iVI lead. ~

fiitbrt, iMda.
fir, prq». for.
9h§^ fiitf «f(iy viklc* itaot.

— MkfMt(tll.2).



Mi,/rom gabcK. («▼«•
Oartctif fill. »ni/ •ftiics.

Ipardea.
^Atttftn. fttcOf •tten* has*

hand.
9tbir$t, n. *^ti, *9e.

mountain rango^
$Aattn, V. 0(LS). bear.

— ^thottn, bora,
gcbcn, V. 0. (886J3). i^^o.

Mvtodftnp jrotn ovcdyCK.
iMurt^/. »tes. blrtk.
i^fB^r#/ 'tea. danger.
Ocfo^rtt, m. *Un, »tem.

comrade.
9cfallcti^v. 0(IL8). pleaae.

— §ifiat, pleaaea.
^ifm^bettffiwnffttbm-
Btiftn, V. 0. (867). (o.

— 9^ goea.

•dH, m. *it%i ttn.
(Skoat) amrit

ffdt^tU adj, teamed.

gcfd^^cn, V. O(ILl). hap-
pen. — 8cf(^a(, hap-
pened, took place.

gefcbeit^ from fc^cn.
aeea.

0<^ni, adv. yeaterday.

^ttt^antfrom t^int.

9(tacfbt# pa^^> ^/ i»eib<n*

— tvurbc gctaei^t, waa
conaecrated.

gewif, a4;. sure, certain.
Skbf/rom gcben. si^-el
gicbt^/rom flcbcn. cl'vea.
%Uidi, adv. immeoiately.
^VSkdlid^, aclf. happy.
Oolb, n. sbed. gold.
®ottf m. «tie«, s9ttet. god.
<9rob, a. »beS, «ftbcr.

grave.
Oraf,m. sfen,*fea. count
9to%, adj, (5 in eompoT'

iaon), great.
%wt, adj.



l^aht,from (obctt. ka-re.
baben,v.^ irregr. (S39.1).

kave.
balt«n, V. 0(118). kold.

— bait fUk, holda, keepa

itaell
^amtncf f tn. tiy •Anmcr.

kaaanaer.
^oib, / •*abc. kand.
•.0(IL8).r



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VOCABULARY TO THE EXEEOISES.



})avt, a^. (& in compar-
ison), bard*

^afffti^ V. li. bate.

iaUfrom ^abcn. bas.

iatttn,from ^aben, had.

^aui, n, «fe9, rftufer.
house.

^«be«, V, 0(in5).
(beaire) raise, lift.

^(1^, m. sben, sben. hero.

|»((fcn, v. 0(1.3). l&elp.

iftvanntt}^tn, v. K draw

^crr^ m. »trn, srren (98).

master.
lycutCf ae?v. to-day.
^t\,n. sjend, ^^jen. heart.
^fcr, cbdv. here.
l^ilUfromY^tXUn (270.2).
^incmwcrfett, v. 0(1.3).

throw in.
Ijod), adj. (139.1) (d m

compamon). high.
\^o\^t,from l^oc^.
^orcn, V. N. hear.
^oriir n. »ned, s5rneT.

horn.
^tit, m. sted, «fite. hat.



i&i,pron. (151). I.
iljiKtr, prow.., from cr.
i^r^poss. a^y. (157). her,

its, their.— iljrc, iliretn,

il^ren, iOrcr, xl^tt^, cases

of ibr.
3!)r, poss. adj. (157).

your.
tm = in btm (65).
tmmcr, adv. always.
in, prep, in, into.
itt« = (n hai (65).
<fl,/rom fcitt (289.2). U.



3flf>r, ». srefi, sre. y^ar.

Sonuar, m. ^rS, «i:e. Jan-
nary.

je, atfv. ever.

itt, pron. adj. (190).
eacn, every. — icbcm,
feb«r, cases ofitt. •

dcbcrmann, pron. (187).
every one.

\€n,pron. adj. yon, that.

ttf^t, adv. now.

iniig, adj. (fi in compari-
son), yonng*

fait, €K^. (a in compari-
con). cold.



fotm, /rom Hnntn*

^aft, m. sfeS, «f(. cheese.

(aufen, v. M buy.

t€nntn,v. N". irreg. (249).
(hen) know.

^inh, n. «be9, sber. child.

Stixdit,/. sj^en. church.

^leib, n. sbeS, »ber. gar-
ment.

((efn, adj. small, little. ,

Stncibt,m. sBen, sben. boy.'

f ommcn^v. 0(267). come.

l9nntn,v.N. irreg. (251).
can.

Stopf, m. »fe8, s&pfe. head.

fofibaT, adj. precious.

{rant, ac^. (o in compar-
ison), sick.

Stttu\, n, ^ii, sjc. cross.

tvitd)tn,9» 0(IIL3). crawl.

HHeg, y^/• •^ed, sge. war.

^ugcl,/. tfgeln. ball

lum, adj. (u in compar-
ison), short.



la^en, from {jegeit.

{al^tn, adj. lame.

ianQ, adj. (a in compar-
ison), long.

£ang(,/. sgen. length.

lafitn, V. 0(113). let. —
la^t, lets.

Uhtn, V. K live.

tt\^Ttt,m. sx%, »T. teacher.

*cib, »i. sBeS, stcr. body.

letc^t, a^j. light, easy.

Ielb<ii,v. 0(111.1). suffer.

Uil^tn,v. 0(in.2). lend,

— leifje, (I) lend.
Icmen, v. N. learn.
Ut^U adj. last.
Scute, m. pi. (100.2).

people.
£{d>t, n. fM, sitt. light.
Itcft, adj. dear.
licben. v. JV: (286.1). love.

— Itcbt, loves, —lifbtt,
love ye !

fifeb, n. sbed, ^fcer. song.
riefleii,». 0(1.4). lie.
Hnf, o^/. left.
(ob<n, V. N. praise.
fiuft,/. sfifte. air.



madJKR^ v. JVI make. —

ma&^it, made.
VtSMftn, n. »n$, *n.

maiden, girl.



man, pron. (185). one.
SDlantt, m. ^nt9, s&nner.



mein, poss. adj. (159.S).
my. — mtintm, mcinctt,
meitter, meittcd, ccues of
mein.

metnen, v. H. mean.

Wtenid^, m. «f^en, «f(^en.



fDteffcr, n. ft$, st. knife.
fSfUtaW, n. filed, ^tte. me«

tal.
midftfrom id)» me.
Wim,f. mUk.
mir,/roin id^. to me.
mU,prcp. with.
mo(S}t<n,from mdgcn*
mogen^v. N. irreg. (251).

may.
fOtonavdf, m, s^iti, st^en,

monarch.
SRonat, m. «t8, ste.

month.
morgen, adv. to-mor*

ro"w.
fSftiiflcv, m. sx9, sx. mil*

ler.
muffen, v. K irreg. (251).

must.
fOlutUT, /. sflttet.

ther.



na<l>, prep, after.
9tadTbav, m. sx€, stn.

neighbor.
Station',/, siten. nation.
9^cffe, m. sfen, sfen. ne-

phcvr.
neu, ac^. nenr.
neulld), atfv. recently.
ni(^t, adv. not.
n{d)td, pron. (188).

nothing.
nfe, adv. never.
niebrtg, ae^. low.
nocf), o^v. yet.
nod), co9^'. HOT (after tot»

bcr).
nur, a<fv. only.
nUifiid^, adj. nsefuL



Cd>d, m. t^tn, sfen. ox*

pber, cor^. or.

oft, adv. often. — fo oft,

as often as.
Onfcl, m. *I8, si. vncle.
On, m. *tely «te. place.



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YOOABULABY TO THS EXERCISES.



per*

%ttS9n',f. *neii. person.
ilctnU, m. Peter.— Ves

tti, Peter's (107).
mttt, n. *Ui, sbe. horse.
^jlaflcr, n. sr«, st. pavQ-

ment.
Plludtn,v. y. pliftck. —

|>flucft^ {>lack8.
^oI(^ m. sltn, slen. Pol*.
Vof^#/- <ten. post, post-

office.

Prussian.

%ult, n. sM, «te. desk.

ttbtn, V. N. (248). talk.
rthXid^, (zc^. honest.
rcc^t, a€(j. right.
rtiii), adj, rich,
rcif, od)'. ripe.

9tocf, m. sled; :s5(fe. coat
9tom, n. «md. Rome.
9tofc^/. sfen. rose.
rpt^, a<2J. (5 in compari-

«0n). red.
SHul^ittf m. «ine9. fame,

credit.
runb, <idj, round.

faatn, V. K say.
iiAtfrom fcf^ctt, sanr.
®anct, adj. Saint.
fangcti, /rom finscn.
fatctt^/romff^en.
fc^abctt, V. iV. (scathe)

injure.
fc^amctt, V. N. reft, be

ashanaed.
fc^attig, a(;(;. shady
fd)autfn^v. K look.
f4^icf(n^ V. iV. send. —

fc^lrft«, sent
fdl»Iec^t, adj. bad.

bill.

ft^ott, arZv. already.

S^bn, adj. beautif oL

Sd^ttibtn, V. 0(1112).
write.— fd^reibt, writes.
—idfttibt, (I) write ;
write!

^d^tt^,m. s^tB, s^t. shoe.

^c^tilcr, m. sx9, fX. scho-
lar.

fdtmad^, acy. (& in cam-
pariaow), weak.



fdS^Wflr), a<(/. (& in <x>m-

parison). (surart)

black.
fc^toimmen, v. 0(L2).

a-«rim.
f(d)d^ num. six.
fegttctt, V. N. bless. —

f(0itct^ bless ye !
Stl9tn,v. O(ILl). see.—

fe^<, (I) see.
U^x, adv. very.
Uin, p08s. adj. his, its.

— feitic# fciitem, fclmti,

caM% of Uin*
Uin, V. 0. (239.2). be.
Uini^,pos8. adj. (159.5).

his, its.
felber, pron. adj. (155.5).

self.
f!c^, rejl pron. (155.3).

himself etc.
Ht, pron. (151). they,

them, she.— ^I«, you.
Htl^Ufrom fe^cit (268.1).
finb,/>*omfcin, v. are.
f!it0(tt, V. 0(L1). sin§;.

— flngt, sings.
ff^en, V. 0(L4). sit.—

fl^t, sits.
fo^ a4v. so. — fo oft, as

often as.
\ohaVb, conj. as soon as.
fogleid), adv. immedi-
ately.
®o^n,m. «ne$; s5^ne. son.
^olbatf m. sten, eten. sol-
dier,
foam, V. N. irreg. (251).

shaU.
^omiiwr, m. tti, »x. sunk-



^onttt,f. snen. sun.

ipanifd), adj. Spanish.

fpat, adj. late.

ZpieM\,m. sli, st mirror.

ZpUlj^eun, n. s^i, «9e.
playtMngs.

^ptadic,f. s^en. (speech)
language.

ff>rad)ctt, from fptt^t^,
spohe.

fprtdt€n,v. 0(L8). speak.
— ipvid^t, speaks. —
fpvadftn, (they) spoke.

^tabt,f. sdbte. city.

9talfU m. Ai9, «&]^(e. steel.

flarf, adj. (& in compari-
son), strong.

fMftn, V. O. (267). stand.
— flc^t, stands.



®tor<^, m. «4f3, sdi^

stork.
®tubc«/. *Ben. room.
Stubcnt', m. »tea, stej^

student.
fhtbireit, v. K study.—

fhibtrtf studied.
^tulS^I, m. »Ied, sfi^Ie.

(stool) chair.
ftaiitn,v.N. rest— fUMrti

rests.
fttf, adj. street.

tabelti, V. IT. blame.
Za9, m. *%ti, sQe. day*
%a^<fytf f. sf^en. pocket
X^ncr^ m. 9x9, sx, platei
Xl^al, n. sled, sAIer. dale,

valley.
Z!fyat,f. sten. deed.
Xl^or, n. ixt9, ste. (door)

gate.
i:^or, m. sten, sten. fooL
t|iun,t;. O. (267). do, put

— t^ut, puts.
SInte,/. »ten. ink.
Zii^,m. *\^i, 4^e. table.
Zoc^ter,/. sd^tet. daugh*

ter.
tragctt, V. 0(1X2). carry;

bear, wear. — tragi

(268.2), carries, wears.
trdf^e, adj. lazy.
Zud^, n. f^t$, f<it. cloth.
Zu$enh,f. sben. virtne.

ikhtv, prep, over, above.

Utbtvid^u^, m. sff9, «^.
overshoe.

uhtvieif'tn, v. JT, trans-
late.

um,prep. around, about ;
by (B&. lai).

un^, conj. and.

Ungar, m. snt/ sxn. Hun-
Syrian.

Unglucf, n. siA, misfor-
tune.

Ilnioerfltat,/. stes. uni-
versity.

unreif, a4f, unripe.

nnifpron. (151). us.

unfer, pon. adj. (159).



uttfris^poM. adj. (159.5).
our.

prep, under.



Ooter, m. *xA, »fttct. 0a«
ther.



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245



Oatcrlaftbf n, •bed, *U.
one*s conntry.

txrfolgen^v. Nl persecnte.

iHVQtlttn, V, 0(1,8). re-
ward. — oergcltet, re-
ward ye!

MrgcfTcn^i;. 0(1X1). for-
{(et*

i^rtauftn, v. Nl selL

t>crlang(tt^ v. y. require.

9tviprtdftn,v, 0(1 8). pro-
mise.

ifevitt^tn,v. 0. (267). nn-
deiatmrnA*

vklfpron. (192). mach,
many. ,

otcr^ num, fi>ur.

(<towl) bird.

OoIf,9t.«fe8,«&I!et.(lbllc)
people.

ooacnocti, V. i\^ finish.

oon^j>r6p. of, from.

«om = oott bent (65).

i»ov,prep, before, out-
side (£!x. 2.6).

wtUitn,v. 0(11.1). read
to.— oorltcfl (S68.1).

waf^kn, V. N". choose. —
wa^U, chooses.

VBa^v^tit,/* 9ttn» truth.

SBalb, m. «be$, «AIbeT. for-
est, wood.

adv, -vrl&e A 1



wonbcnt, V. iVI -wander.
mar^/romfeitt^v. uras.
t»aren,from fcin^ v. -were,
toanti, adj. (& {n com-

parwon). -virann.
toa*^j>ron. -wKat.
wa< fiir^ pron, -wliat

sort of.
SBaffcr^ n. sx9, *x. urater.
mcbcr, con;, neither.
fB^ib,n. fUi, fiUx, (wife)

woman.
mcic^, €u^. (-weak) soft.
mei^en, v. N", consecrate.
mil, conj. because.
SBcttt^m. fnt9, sne. -virine.
»tift, adj. urise.
nxijl, <idj. DTliite.
»tifl,from wiffett, know,

knowa
VHiU c^' (wide) far.
tocl(^,pron. who,-wlfcicli.
wtnn, conj. wben, if.
mer^ pron. who.
tD«rb(n, V. 0. (277). b^

come.
flBcrff n. sM, *lt, -work.
wit, conj. as, like,
toicbcr, adv. again; in

return.
wfc'bergeben, v. 0(111).

^ive back. — toieb^rgos

bcttf gave back,
wic'bcriolcit, V. JVI fetch

back.



tt>iebcr|^o'I(tt,t;.i\^ repeat,
r0iXi,from mollcm
SBinter^ m. *xi, *t. -w1a«

ter.
wir^pron. (151)* -we.
toiffcn, v. iV. iirreg. (260).

know. — weiflf know,

knows.
vao, adv. where ? where.
tool^in^ «k2v. whither.
tooQen^v. iVI irre^. (251).

-will, -wish.
9Borf, n. sted; *k or *hxitt*

-word.
miinfdJKRf v. If. -wisk.
SBurm, m. stneS, »&nner.

-worm*



}erbre(^, «. 0(13).

break in pieces.
Siege,/. »eti. goat
SimtiKr, n. «Td, st. room.
lu, prep, to; at (Ex.

13.5).— )tt bo^ctt, to be

had (343.III1).
luiti^^tn, adj. contented.
in%ltidi,adi). at the same

time, at once.
%wc = |tt bcr (65).
iurucfSomiticn, v. O. (267) .

come back.
Ittfamttten, adv. together.
lt»ti, num. t-wo.
}»6If, num. t-welTe*



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INDEX.



•f pronunciation of, 8.

kt pronunciation of, 15.

ablative, dative in senae of, ft28*LS.

VbXavt, 400^

accent, 55«

accessary clause^ see dependent.

accusative case, general office of, 50.4,
826; with transitive verbs, SS7.1;
with intransitive, 827.2; doable
accus., with verbs, 227.3; accus.
with x>repositions, 888, 875-6; with
adjectives, 889; accus. of measure
and time, 830.1,2; accus. absolute,
or of accompanying circumstance,
830.3.

active voice of verb, 833.3L

address, use of pronouns in, 153.

adjective, usual adjunct of noun, 110 ;
when declined, 114-7 ; rules of adj.
declension, 118-28 ; origin of double
declension of adj., 188; adj. as
noun, 120 ; as adverb, 180, 363.1,2 ;
adj. with etnaif wai, nld^M/ 120.5;
comparison of adj., 188-42 ; modi-
fving adjuncts of adj., 148-6 ; their
place, 147 :— agreement of adj., 68,
800; genitive dependent on adj.,
817; dative da, 883; accusative
do., 880:— primitive adj., 418; de-
rivative, 414-0: — compound adj.,
428-4.

adjective clause, 487, 444, 110.1c.

adjective phrase, compound, 487.2a,
147.2, 358.

adverb, office of, 861 ; usual adjunct
of adjective, 144; of verb, 817 ; of
noun, 110.2, 860.3; of preposition,
860*1 ; complement of preposition,
870 ; place of adv., 870 ; classifica-
tion of adverbs, 868; derivation,
863-7 ; ordinal adv., 807.3 ; com-
parison, 868; adjective as adv.,
liSO, 863.1,2 ; comparison of adjec-
tives by adv., 141.

adverbial clause, 438, 444, 144J3.

adverbial predicate, adjective as,
116.16, 816J%.

Ke, aee ft.

SUtt, U€ ftu«



air pronunciation of, 10.1.

aU, 103.

alter, nrefized to superlatives, 148J3.

alphabet, German, 1-8 ; its origin, ] |

written character, 4, pp. 231-^^, OAe

of capitals, 5.
att, in sense of * as if,* 838.2&,<;, 4836 ;

do. in substantive clause, A3Bg;

omission of aU after fo and adverb

or adjective, 488.Sd,0.
anber, 104.
apnositive adjective, 110.16, 116J3,4;

ao. noun, 111.2.
arrangement of the sentence, rules for,

480-30 ; summary of rules, 440-44 ;

additional remarks, rhetorical ar«

rangement, 445-6.
articles, declension, 63-4; combina-
tion with prepositions, 65; rules

for use, 66 ; place, 67.
Aryan languages, see Indo-European,
assertive sentence, 487.
attributive adjective, 110.1a, 115.
au, pronunciation of, 80*
ftu, pronunciation of, 21.2.
auxiliaries, of tense, 830-41 ; of mood,

see modal auxiliaries 3 causative

auxiliary, 848.2 ; omission of auxi-

liuy of tense, 480.3.
a^i pronunciation and use of, 10.8.

B, pronunciation of, 88 ; English cor-
respondent of, 450.
Its, derivation and use of, 807.2^
UiU, 1006.



c, pronunciation and use of, 84.

capitals, use of, 5 ; in pronouns of ad-
dress. 158.3-^.

cardinal numerals, 107-801 ; their de-
rivatives. 202-8.

cases of declension, their uses, 50,
818-80 : and see accusative, dative,
genitive, nominative.

causative auxiliary, 848.2; causative
derivative verbs, 404. LI.

Celtic languages, relationship of, 450«



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QTDBX.



247



df, pronimciation of, 48; Bngliah cor-
respondents off 460.

d, pronunciation and use of, 80^ 44.

classeSf under first declension, how
determined, 69; first class, 75-80;
second, 81-6; third, 87-90.

cognate accusative, 227.2a.

coUective noun, agreement of verb
with, 828.2.

comparative degree, 184 ff; deden-
sion of, 140.1.

comparison, of adjectives, 183-48;
degrees and endings, 184-5 ; modi-
fication of vowel, 186; irregular
and defective comparison^ 189; de-
clension, 140 : — ox participles, 855 ;
of adverbs, 868.

composition or combination of words,
418-85.

compound adjective phrase, 437.3a,
147.2, 858.

compound forms of verb, 838-48.

compound verbsj with prefixes, 833.4,
296-311; with other elements,
812-3.

compound words, 418; their fre-
quency in Grerman, 419; ortho-
graphy, 419&,c; pronunciation of
linskis and initials in, 53; accent,
55.2-4; rules of formation of com-
pound verbs, 420; nouns, 421-8;
adjectives, 483-4; particles, 425,
365.

conditional clauses, inversion in, 433,
443.5.

conditional tenses, formation of,
840.2c ; their use, 334-6.

conditional urc of subjunctive, 338.

conjugation, defined, 831 ; rules re-
specting, 832-313; conjugations,
distinction and origin of, 846 ; New
conjugation, 247-60 ; Old conjuga-
tion, 861-73 ; mixed conjugation,
878.

conjunctions, 388; their classification,
383 ; general connectives, 384 ; ad-
verbial conjunctions, 385; subordi-
nating conjunctions, 886.

consonants, pronunciation of, 83-54.

copula, 816.1a, 426.26 ; omission of,
in dependent clause, 439.3.

correspondences between English and
German words and letters, 4 52-61,

countries ai^d places, declension of
names of, 103.



b, pronunciation of, 85; English cor-
respondent, of , 458.1.
ta, added to relative pronoun, 188.2.



ba or box, in combination with preposi-
tions, as substitute for pronoun of
third person, 154.2,3: for demon-
strative, 166.4; for relative, 180.

dative case, general use of, 59.3, 881 ;
dat. with verbs, 888; in ablative
sense, 888.L3; of possession, with
loeiten, etc., 888.IL1<2; with im-
personal phrases of condition,
888 JL1&, 898.4; of interest or con-
cern, 888. nL ; possessive dat. ,
888*IIIa,&; dative with adjectives,
883 ; with prepositions^ 884, 874,
876 ; with nouns, 88 5.1 ; m exdama-
tions, 885.2:— use or omission of e
in dat. of nouns, 71.1&, 88; old
dat. sing. fem. in n, 95.

day of the month, expression of,
816.55.

declension, defined, 57 ; rules of decL,
58-808 ; decl. of articles, 63 ; of
nouns, 68-108; of adjectives, 118-
88, 140; of pronouns, 1 51-95 1 of
numerals, 198-808; uses of the
forms of decL, 809-30.

defective declension of nouns, 100;
defective theme in declension, 98.

definite article, 8ee articles; use in
generalizing sense, 66.1,2; in sense
of possessive, 66.3, 161.

demonstratives, 163-71; use of, in
sense of personal or possessive pro-
nouns, 171.

denominative verbs, 405.

dependent clauses, 426.2d!, 435, 444 ;
their arrangement, 434-9, 444 ;
their introduction in a period, 439^ ;
omission of auxiliary or copula in,
439.a

Ut, as definite article, 63 ; as demon-
strative adjective or pronoun, 164,
1,2, 166; as relative, 177-8.

Uxtv, 164.

derivation of words, 393-417.

^ero; 16&.

determinative pronouns, 167-71; use
of, instead of personal or possessive
pronouns, 171.

bted, 163,165-6.

digraphs, vowel, 18-82 ; consonant,
43-51.

dimidiative numerals, 207.1.

diphthongs, pronunciation of, 16-88.

doubled vowels, 7.1, 53 ; modified
vowels not doubled, 14.2 ; doubled
consonants, 7.2, 58 J2, 53.

bfirfen, 851, 858.

t, pronunciation of. 9.
ei, pronunciation oz, 19.2.



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248



INDEX.



cln, as indefinite artiole, 68 ; as indef.

pronoan, 195.1 ; as numeral, 198.
etnig, 189.

tmp*, derivation and nse of, 807.8.
emphaeis or impressiveness, inversion

for, ASlg, 443.2.
endings of inflection and of derivation,

ori^n and relation of, 893-5.
English language, relation of German

to, 447-52; correspondences be-
tween English and German words

and letters, 452-61.
ents, derivation and use of, 807.3.
ets, derivation and use of, 807.4.
ti, special uses and constructions of.

154.4; omission of, as impersonal

subject, 293.
ftli^, 189.
ttma%, 188; form of adjective with,

129m5.
tlv>tl6i, 189.

eu, pronunciation of, 21.1.
<Sw., 162.
exclamation, construction of, 391,

432.1c, A39Aa.
expletive personal pronoun in dative,

156.
eV/ pronunciation and use of, 19.3.



f, pronunciation of, 26 ; English cor-
respondents of, 459.3.
factitive predicate, noun as, 816.1&,

227.26,36,c; adjective, 116.1c, 816.

2e.
feminine, see gender : classification of

fem, nouns in declension, 69.2, 70;

fem. noun invariable in singular,

71.1a; exceptions, 95.
first declension, of nouns, 69, 74-90 ;

its first class, 75-80; second, 81-6;

third, 87-90:— of adjectives, 118-

28.
foreign ronns, declf'n.sion of, 86, 92.

ICj^f, 97.3, 101 ; gei der, 61.5.
foreign words, pronun j'ation of, 54 ;

of XI, it, c, t, (^ in, 13, 18, 24, 37,

43.3 ; accent, 55.5.
fractional numerals, 207.2.
fiit in »a« fur, 175, 177.
future perfect tense, how formed,

240.26 ; its use, 328.
future tense, how formed, 240.2a ; its

use, 328 ; present in sense of future,

324.4.



8, pronunciation ol 27, 48 ; English

correspondents or, 460.
$t», derivation and nse o£, 807.5 ; oae



as prefix of particn>le, 248.8; its
origin as such, 248.3c.

B«0eff««» 271.3.

gender, 60 ; general rules for, in nouna,
61 ; in adjectives etc., 62; of com^^
pound nouns, 421.1 ; gender of per«
sonal pronoun, 154.1.

genitive case, general office of, 50.2,
215; gen. with nouns, 216; its
place, 216.6; with adjectives, 217;
with prepositions, 218, 373; with
verbs, 219, 220.2-4; substitution of
dative with »on for, 216.4; adverbial
gen., 220.1 ; predicate gen., 220.2;
gen. with interjections, 220.5 : —
lorm of gen. determines declension
of a noun, 69.1, 70 ; use of ed or •
in, 83 ; of en or n, 98 ; old gen. sing,
of f eminines, in n, 95 ; omission of
sign of genitive, 101.5 ; gen. of sec-
ond adjective declension used instead
of first, 121.3.

Grermanic or Teutonic group of lan-
guages, 449-50; its divisions, 451;
progression of mutes in, 453-60.

German language, relation of, to Eng-

. lish, 447-61 ; history of, 462-9.

Gothic language, relationship of, 451.4

Greek language, relationship of, 450.

Grimm *s law of progression of mutes,
458.

^, pronunciation of, 28 ; used to de-
note a long vowel, 7.1 ; English cor-
respondents of, 460.

^aUn, conjugation of, 239.1,4<x; use as
auxiliary, 240-1; origin of use,
240.4.

Hebrew etc., not related with Ger-
manic languages, 450.76.

^ier, compound^ with prepositions, in
sense of demonstrative, 166.4.

High-German subdivision of Germanic
group of languages, 451.2; its his-
tory, 463-9.

hour of the day, ezpression of, 211.8.

hypothetical period, construction of,
832.1,2.

{, pronunciation of, 10.

if, pronunciation of, 18.

S^ro, 162.

imperative mood, 285.4, 287 JS ; filled
up, from subjunctive present, 248.1 ;
use, 337 ; substitutes for, 888.

imperative sentence, see optative.

imperfect tense, see preterit.

impersonal verb, 288.26, 291-5 ; rela-
tion to passive, 294; omission ol
imp. subject, 298,



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INDEX.



IxnpressiTenesB or emphasis, inversioxi
for, 431^, 443.2.

indeclinable words, 56.3^ 860.

indefinite article, see articles.

indefinite pronouns and nmnerals,
184-95.

indefinite subjects of verbs. 154.4,
166.8; agreement of verb i^Eter,
154.4d, 322.3.

Indian (East) languages, relationship
of, 450.

indicative mood, 285.2; uses of its
tenses, 823-8 ; use of indicative in-
stead of subjunctive, 880<;, 882.5c,
333.5.

indirect statement, subjunctive of,
333.

Indo-European family of languages,
449-50.

infinitive, verbal noun, 235.5, 839 ;
ending, 237.1a; ju as sign of, 243.2,
341; perfect inf.^ 240.1<2 ; use of
inf. for participle m perfect and plu-
perfect, 240.1c, ^5 1.4a; in£ as
noun, 340: — ^inf. as subject of a
verb, 342; as obiect, 348; subject-
accusative of in£, 843.1.5a; active
inf. in sense of passive, 343.1.5c,(2,
IIL1& ; more special cases, 343.L6 ;
inf. of purpose or design, 343.III.1 ;
inf. dependent on adjective, 344 ; on
noun, 345 ; on preposition, 846 ; in
absolute construction, 347; inf.
clauses, 848 ; with preposition,
846.2 ; place of inf., 348.2, 819.26 ;
— two infin., place of transposed
verb with, 439.2, 444.86.

inseparable prefixes, 297.2, 807 ; con-
jugation of verb with, 302-6; de-
nominative veibs formed with, 405.

in.i.

interjections, 56.4, 887-9; interjec-
tional use of other parts of speech,
890; interjectional or exclamatory
coi^stmction, 891 ; construction of
cases with interj., 392.

internal change as means of inflection
and derivation, 400.

interrogative pronouns, 172-6; their
use as relatives, 176.1 ; as indefinites,
176.2.

interrogative sentence, 427 ; order of,
432.1, 443.3, 439.46.

intransitive verb, 233.1, 227.1a,6 ;
construction of accusative with,
227*.'3, 288.1 ; impersonal passive
from, 279.2; reflexive from, 288.2.

inverted order of sentence, 431-3, 441,
448; inversion after adverbial
clause, ISS.S/'; after appositive ad-



jective phrase, 431(1; in ex* Jama*

tory clause, 432.1c.
irregular dealension of nouns, 96-100 ;

irr. comparison of adjectives, 139;

irr. conjugation of verbs, 249-60.
irregular verbs, list of, pp. 234-40.
Italic languages, relationship of, 450*
iterative numerals, 206.



i, pronunciation of, 29.
ia, 860a.
\ei>, ithtt, 190.
iebermann, 187.
Ithmth, \tt)XDthtXf 190.
it^m, 190.
iemonb, 186.
ien, iener, 168, 165-6.



I, pronunciation of, 80 ; English cor-
respondents of, 460.
rein, 195.a
!5nnen, 251, 254.



I, pronunciation of, 81.

Latin language, relationship of, 450. *

letters, German, see alphabet.

Low-German subdivision of Germanic



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