William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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in van, as ipaQCftddaghva *nnam bhavati (MS.) he does not come
short of food\ — in anu, as sthiri oin namayi^^avah (BY.) bowing
even firm things.

272. Examples of an accusative with an ordinary noun or adjective
tf e only occasional : such words as AnuTTata faithful tOj pr&tirupa
corresponding to, abhidhf^nu daring to cope withj praty&fio opposite
to, may he regarded as taking an accusative in virtue of the preposition they
contain; also ^TinTca, as dnukS d&vi v&runam (MS.) the gods are inferior
to Varuna. BY. has t&m ant&rvati^ pregnant with him\ and AY. has
m&h kamena through loving me.

278. The direct construction of cases with prepositions is compara-
tiyely restricted in Sanslcrit (1123 ff.). With the accusative are oftenest
found prati, opposite to, in reference to, etc. •, also anu after, in tJie course
of; antar or antarS between; rarely ati across; abhi against, to; and
others (1129). Case-forms which have assumed a prepositional value are
also often used with tiie accusative : as antarei^y uttarei^, dakfiiyena,
avare^a, Ordhvam, ^.

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274—] Declension. 92

274. The accusative is Yery often found also as object of veibs which
in the related languages are not transitive.

a. It stands especially as the goal of motion, with verbs of going,
bringing, sending, and the like: thus, vidarbhan agaxnan (MBh.) they
toerd to Vidarhha\ divaih yayuh (MBh.) they went to heaven; vanagul-
man dh&vantah (MBh.) running to tooods and btuhes; ap6 dfvam ud
vahanti (AV.) they carry up waters to the sky; devan yaje (AV.) J
make offering to the gods.

b. With verbs meaning go, this is an extremely common construction;
and the use of such a verb with an abstract noun makes peculiar phrases
of becoming: thus, samatftm eti Tie goes to equality (i. e. becomes eqttal)]
8a gaoohed badhyat&m mama (MBh.) Ae shaU become liable to be slain
by me\ sa paiioatvam agatah (H.) he was resolved into the Jive elements
(underwent dissolution^ died).

o. Verbs of speaking follow the same rule: thus, tarn abravit he
said to him-j pr&kro^ad uoeair n&ifadham (BCBh.) «Ae cried out loudly
to the Nishadhan] jr&s tvo Vaca (AV.) who spoke to thee.

d. The assumption of an accusative object is exceptionally easy in
Sanskrit, and such an object is often taken by a verb or phrase which is
strictly of intransitive character: thus, sihasft pra 'sy anyan (RV.) in
might thou excellesi (lit. art ahead) others ^ devt, vai br&hma s&m
avadanta (MS.) the gods were discussing (lit. were t€dking together)
brahman; ant&r va{ ma yajiiad yanti (MS.) surely they are cutting
me off (lit. are going between) from the offering; taih 8&ih babhnva
(9B.) he had intercourse with her.

275. Examples of the cognate accusative, or accusative of implied
object, are not infrequent: thus, t&pas tapySmahe (AV.) we do penance;
tk hSi 'tam edhatum edbaih oakrire (9B.) they prospered with thai
prosperity; ufitvft BukhavSsam (R.) abiding happily.

276. The accusative is often used in more adverbial constructions.

a. Occasionally, to denote measure of space: thus, yojana^ataih
gantum (MBh.) to go a hundred leagues; ^aiJL uoohrito yojan&ni (MBh.)
six leagues high.

b. Much more often, to denote measure or duration of time: thus, 84
saihvatsar&m urdhv6 ti^fhat (AV.) he stood a year upright; tisrd
ratrir dikfit&h syftt (TS.) let him be consecrated three nights; gatrv&
trin ahorfttrftn (MBh.) having traveled three complete days.

c. Sometimes, to denote the point of space, or, oftener, of time: thus,
jim asya df^aih disyul^ syat (QB.) whatever region his enemy may
be in; t6n&i 'taih ratriiSi saha " jag&ma (9B.) he arrived that night
with him; imfiiii rajanuh vyuij^tiuii (MBh.) this current night.

d. Very often, to denote manner or acoompanying circumstance.
Thus, the neuter accusative of innumerable adjectives, simple or compound

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93 Uses op the Accusative. [—-279

(1111), is used adverbially, while certain kinds of compounds are thus
used to such an extent that the Hindu grammarianfl have made of them a
speeial adverbial class (1818).

e. Special cases are occasionally met with: thus, brahmao^ryam
uvSsa (9^.) he kept a term of studentship \ phal&m paoy&nte (MS.) they
ripen their fruit] gaih divyadhvam (MS., S.) gamble for a cow,

277. The accusative is, of course, freely used with other cases to limit
the same verb, as the sense requires. And whenever it is usable with a
verb In two dilTerent constructions, the verb may take two accusatives, one
in each construction: and such combinations are quite frequent in Sanskrit.
Thus, with verbs of appealing, asking, having recourse: as, apo y&oftmi
bhe^aj&m (RV.) I ask the waters for medicine; tvSjn ahaih satyam
ioohami (R.) I desire truth from thee-, tv&ih vayaih ^araaaih gatfth
(MBh.) we have resorted to thee for succor; — with verbs of bringing,
sending, following, imparting, saying: as, gurutvaih naram nayanti (H.)
^ey bring a man to respectability; sita eft 'nvetu mam vanam (R.)
and let Stta accompany me to the forest; Bup^Qasam ma Va 8|!janty
&8tam (RV.) they let me go home well adorned; tftm idam abravit (MBh.)
this he said to Tier ; — and in other less common cases : as, vfkf&ih pakv&iti
ptaAlaih dhuTinhl (RV.) s?uike ripe fruit from the tree; taiii vi^&m
eva *dliok (AV.) poison he milked from her; jitvft rSjyaih nalam
(MBh.) htwing won the kingdom from Nala; dmu^nitaih panlm gah (RV.)
ye robbed the Pani of the kine; dra^fum ioohSvah putraih pa^cimadar-
9aziam (R.) we wish to see our son for the last time,

a. A causative form of a transitive verb regularly admits two accu-
sative objects: thus, devaft UQatdh payayS havih (RV.) make the eager
gods drink the oblation ; 69adhir evk ph&lam grahayati (MS.) he makes
the plants bear fruit; va^o dftpayet karftn (M.) he should cause the
merchants to pay taxes. But such a causative sometimes takes an instru-
mental instead of a second accusative: see 282 b.

278. Uses of the Instrumental. The instrumental is orig-
inally the trVM-case : it denotes adjacency, accompaniment, association
— passing over into the expression of means and instrument by the
same transfer of meaning which appears in the English prepositions
i€ith and by,

a. Nearly all the uses of the case are readily deducible from this
fundamental meaning, and show nothing anomalous or difficult.

279. The instrumental is often used to signify accompaniment: thus,
agnfr dev^bhir a g^mat (RV.) may Agni come hither along with the
gdds ; marddbln rudr&m huvema (RV.) we would call Rudra with the
Maruis; dvapare^ sahftyena kva ySsyasi (MBh.) whither wilt thou
go, with Dvdpara for companion f kathayan nai^adhena (MBh.) talking
with the Nishadhan. But the relation of simple accompaniment is more
often helped to plainer expression by prepositions (saha etc.: 284).

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S80— ] IV. Declension. 94

S80. The instrumental of means or inBtmment or agent is yet more
freqaent: thus, bhadr&ih Un^ebhi^ ^p^tiyftma (RV.) may uv h4mr
with our ears tohat is propitiom; qastrei^A nidhanam (MBh.) death by
the sword\ keoit padbhyfiih hatfi gcjfti^ (MBh.) «ome were slain by the
elephants with their feet\ pfthak pft^ibhySdi darbhatam^aikftur
naTanitenft *nguythopa3caniqfthikftbhyftm ak^i^i ijya (AGS.) anoiai-
ing their eyes with fresh btUter, by help of the bunches of darbha-^oM,
with the thumb and ring-finger^ using the two hands successively. And
this passes easily over into the expression of occasion or reason (for which
the ablative is more Arequent): thus, kfpayi. through pity; tena satyena
in virtue of that truth.

281. Of special applications, the following may he noticed:

a. Accordance, equality, likeness, and the like: thus, Bam&ih Jy6tih
stbye^a (AV.) a brightness equal with the sun\ yes&m ahaih na
pftdarajasft tulyah (MBh.) to the dust of whose feet I am not equal

b. Price (by which obtained): thus, da9&bhi^ kri]^ti dhenubhih
(RV.) A« buys with ten kine-y gavftih ^atasaliasre]^ diyatSih 9abal&
mama (R.) let fabala be given me for a hundred thousand cows \ sa te
'ktj^abfdayaih d&t& rSJft 'Qvah^dayena v&i (MBh.) tl^e king wiU give
thee the secret science of dice in return for that of horses,

o. Medium, and hence also space or distance or road, traversed: thus,
udnt n& navam anayanta (RV.) they brought [him] as it were a ship
by water] 6 'h& yfttaiii pathibhir devayanfii^ (R^O cf^^f^e hither by
god-traveled paths \ jagmur vihSyasft (MBb.) they went off through
the air.

d. Time passed through, or by the lapse of which anything is brought
about: thus, vidarbhftn yatum ioeh&my ek&hn& (MBh.) / wish to go
to Vidarbha in the course of one day; te oa kSlena mahatft yftuvanam
pratipedire (R.) and they in a long time attained adolescence; tatra
kfilena jSyante mftnavfi dirghajivinah (M.) there in time are bom
men long-lived. This use of the instrumental borders upon that of ttie
locative and ablative.

e. The part of the body on (or by) which anything is borne Is usually
expressed by the instrumentol: as, kukkara]|^ skandbeno 'hyate (H.)
a dog is carried on the shottlder; and this construction is extended to such
cases as tulayft k^am (H.) put on (i. e. so as to be carried by) a balance,

f. Not infrequent are such phrases as bahunfi kim pral&pena (R.)
what is the use of (i. e. is gained by) much talking? ko nu me JIvitenA
'rtha^ (MBh.) what object is life to me? nirujas tu kim ftuyidh&Hi
(H.) but what has a well man to do with medicines?

g. An instrumental of accompaniment is occasionally used almost or
quite with the value of an instrumental absolute: thus, na tvayft *tra
mays Vasthitena kft 'pi eint& k&ryft (Pafic.) with me at hand, thou
needst feel no anxiety whatever on this point.

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95 Uses of thb Instrumental. [— S86

288. a. The construetion of * paisive Terb (or p*rticiple) with an
InstEomenUl of the agent is common from the earlieft period, and becomes
decidedly more so later, the passive participle vith instrumental taking to
no smal extent the place of an active verb with its snbject. Thus, yam^na
datt&]^ (BY.) given by Tama; fifihhir i^yah (BY.) to h§ praiisd by
$ageM; vyftdhena J&Iaih vlstln^am (H.) by the hunUr a net [wae] spread;
tae ohratTft Jaradgaveno 'ktam (H.) Jaradgava, hearing this, said;
may ft gantavyam (H.) I shaU go. A predicate to the instmmental subject
of such a construction is, of coarse, also in the instmmental : thus, adhunft
tavft 'nuoaraoa mayft sarvathft bhavitavyam (H.) henceforth IshaU
ahoays be thy companion; avahitftir bhavitavyaih bhavadbhil^ (Yikr.)
you must be attentive,

b. A causative verb sometimes takes an instrumental instead of an
accusative as second object: thus, tftih ^vabhi^ khftdayed rijft (M.)
ihe king should have her devoured by dogs; ta v&rtu^enft *grfthayat
(MS.) he caused Varuna to seise them,

283. Many instrumental constructions are such as call in translation
for other prepositions than with or by; yet the true instrumental relation is
usually to be traced, especially if the etymological sense of the words be
caxefully considered.

a. More anomalously, however, the instrumental is used interchangeably
with the ablative with words signifying separation: thus, vatsiir vlyutft^
(RY.) separated from their cakes; ma 'h&m fttm&nft vi rftdhifi (AY.)
let me not be severed from the breath of Ufe; sa tayft vyayuJsrata
(MBh.) he was parted f^om her ; pftpm&nfti Vii 'naih vi punanti (MS.)
tkey cleanse him from evil (compare English parted with). The same
meaning may be given to the case even when accompanied by aaha with:
thus, bliartrft Baha viyoga^ (MBh.) separation from her husband,

284. The prepositions taking the instrumental (1127) are those sig-
nifying with and the like : thus, oaha, with the adverbial words containing
sa as an element, as Bftkam, Bfirdham, saratham; — and, in general,
A word oompounded with sa, sam, saha takes an instrumental as its regular
and natural complement. But also the preposition vinft without takes
sometlmee the instrumental (cf. 288 a).

286. Ubob of the Dative. The dative is the case of the
indireet object — or that toward or in the direction of or in order
to or for which anything i& or is done (either intransitively or to a
direct object).

a. In more physical connections, the uses of the dative approach those
of the accusative (the more proper ^o-case), and the two are sometimes
interchangeable; bat the general value of the dative as the toward- or for-
case is almost everywhere distinctly to be traced.

286. Thus, the dative is used with —

a. Words signifying give^ share out^ assign, and the like : thus, y6 nk
dAdftti sAkhye (RY.) who gives not to a friend; y&cchS 'smfii 9&rma
(RY.) bestow upon him protection.

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286—] IV. Declension. 96

b. Words BigDifying shoWy announce, declare, atid the like: thus
dhanur dar^aya r&mftya (R.) ehow the bow to Hdtno] fivir ebhyo
abhavat suryah (RV.) the aun was manifested to them] ftapnxi^sj&L
bhimSya pratyavedayan (MBh.) they announced Rituparna to Bh%ma\
tebbyah pratijfiftya (MBh.) having promised to them,

o. Words signifying give attention, have a regard or feeling, aspire,
and the like: thus, nive^fiya mano dadhuh (MBh.) they set their minds
upon encamping \ mftte 'va putr6bhyo m^iJL^ (A^V.) he gracious as a
mother to her sons ; kim asm&bhyaih liaise (R V.) why art thou angry
at usf kamSya spfhayaty &tm& (Spr.) the soul longs for love.

d. Words signifying please, suit, conduce, and the like : thus, yadyad
rocate viprebhyah (M.) whatever is pleasing to Brahmans', tad
anantygya kalpate (KU.) that tnakes for immortality.

e. Words signifying inclination, obeisance, and the like: thus, m&byam
namantam pradi^a^ c&tasrah (RV.) let the four quarters bow themselves
to me-, devebbyo namask^ya (MBh.) having paid homage to the gods.

f. Words signifying hurling or casting: as y6na du<jLa9e ^syaai (AY.)
with which thou hurlest at the impious.

g. In some of these constructions the genitive and locative are also
used: see below.

287. In its more distinctive sense, as signifying for, for the bene^
of with reference to, and the like, the dative is used freely, and in a
great variety of constructions. And this use passes over into that of the
dative of end or purpose, which is extremely common. Thus, {foiii kp^-
T&na ^sanaya (AY.) making an arrow for hurling ; gyhTjami te s&u-
bhagatvaya h&stam (RY.) I take thy hand in order to happiness; rfi^^raya
m&hyaih badhyataih sap&tnebhysJ^ parftbhuve (AY.) be it bound
on in order to royalty for me, in order to destruction for my enemies.

a. Such a dative is much used predicatively (and oftenest with the
copula omitted), in the sense of makes for, tends toward; also is intended
for, and so must; or is liable to, and so can. Thus, apade90 morkhfi^fiih
prakop&ya na Qftntaye (H.) good counsel [tends] to the exasperation,
not the conciliation, of fools; sa oa tasyfth saxhtOBftya n& 'bhavat (H.)
and he was not to her satisfaction; sugopa asi n& d&bhSya (RY.) thou
art a good herdsman, not one for cheating (1. e. not to be cheiUed).

b. These uses of the dative are in the older language especially illus-
trated by the dative infinitives, for which see 982.

288. The dative is not used with prepositions (1124).

289. Uses of the Ablative. The ablative is the yrom-case
in the various senses of that preposition ; it is used to express removal,
separation, distinction, issue, and the like.

290. The ablative is used where expulsion, removal, distinction, re-
lease, defense, and other kindred relations are expressed : thus, t^ sedhantl
path6 vfkam (AY.) they drive away the wolf from the path; mS pr4

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97 Uses op the Ablative. [—292

gftma path&|i (R^O »way toe not go away from the path \ 6tl va ei|&
y^ flamnkh tlt (MS.) he verily goes away from the face of the sacrifice ;
ftr6 asm&d astu heti^ (^'^O for from w he your missile \ p&t&ih no
• vfkat (EV.) sane us from the wolf; &8tabhnad djim avasr&aal^ (RV.)
he kept (Ut made firm) the sky from falling.

291* The ablative is used where procedure or issue from something
as from a source or starting-point is signified: thns, Qukra kfiffi^ad aja-
nif^a (RV.) the bright one has been bom from the hlack one-, lobhftt kro-
dha^ pTahhKvaU (MBh.) passion arises firom greed; vat&t te pr&gi&in
avidam (AV.) I have toon thy life-breath from the toind; y6 pracyft dl^o
abhidasanty aamibi (AY.) who attack us from the eastern quarter \ tae
ehmtyfi Bakhlgaiyfit (MBh.) having heard that from the troop of friends-,
▼Syor antarik^ftd abhft^ata (MBh.) the wind spoke from the sky,

a. Hence also, procedure as from a cause or occasion is signified by
the ablative : this is especially frequent in the later language, and in tech-
nical phraseology is a standing construction; it borders on instrumental
constructions. Thus, v^raaya ^ufn^ftd dadftra (RV.) from (by reason
^f) ^ ftiry of the thunderbolt he burst asunder; yasya da^t^bhay&t
sarve dharmam anurudhyanti (MBh.) from fear of whose rod all are
constant to duty; ak&rami^ritatv&d ekftraaya (Tribh.) because e con-
tains an element of a.

b. Very rarely, an ablative has the sense of after: thus, agaoohann
ahor&trSt tirtham (MBh.) they went to the shrine after a whole day;
takftrftt aakfire takftrei^ (AFr.) after %, before b, is inserted t

292. One or two special applications of the ablative construction are
to be noticed:

a. The ablative with words implying fear (terrified recoil from): thus,
t&syft j&tayfth s&rvam abibhet (AV.) everything was afraid of her at
her birth; y&smftd r6janta kfifft&yfiJ^ (RV.) at whom mortals tremble;
yxupakd bhiya (RV.) through fear of you; yasmftn no 'dvijate loka^
(BhO.) of whom the world is not afraid.

b. The ablative of comparison (distinction from): thus, pr& ririee
div& fndra]^ p^^thivyal^ (RV.) Indra is greater than the heaven and the
earth. With a comparative, or other word used in a kindred way, the abla-
tive is the regular and almost constant construction: thus, 8V&d6h svadi-
yah (RV.) sweeter than the sweet; kiih tasmftd du^khataram (liBh.)
what is more painful than that ? ko mitrftd anysJ^ (H.) who else than a
friend; gft aiqp^thS mat (AB.) tJiou hast chosen the kine rather than me;
ajfkebhyo granthlnah ^re^thfi granthibhyo dhfirii^o varS^ (M.)
possessors of texts are better than ignorant men; rememberers are better
tlum possessors; t&d any&tra tv&n ni dadhmasi (AV.) we set this
down elsewhere {away) from thee; plirvft vi^vasmftd bhuvanftt (RV.)
tarlier than all beings.

0. Occasionally, a probably possessiye genitive is used with the com-
parative; or an instrumental (as in a comparison of equality): thus,
Whitney, Grammar. 3. ed. 7

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Sra— ] IV. Deolension. 98

nft 'tti dhanyfttaro mama (R.) ihere is no one mor§ fortunate tktm I
(i. 6. my superior in fortune)-, putFaih mama prfiijiair garlyasam
(MBii.) a son dearer than my lifs,

d. Ooeaiionftlly, an ablative is used instead of a partitire genitiTe:
thus, mithon&d ekaih Ja^ftna (R.) he slew one out of the pair;
tebhya ekam (KSS.) one of them,

208. The ablatiye is used with a yarlety of prepositions and words
sharing a prepositional character (1128); hat all these hare rather an ad-
verbial valae, as strengthening or defining the yVofn-relation, than any
proper goToming force. We m«y notice here:

a« In the Veda, &dhi and p&ri are mnch used as directing and strength-
ening adjuncts with the ablative: as, Jftt6 him&vatas p&ri (AV.) bom
from the Himalaya (forth)', aamudrid &dhi Jajfiife (AY.) thou art
bom from the ocean ; o4rantaiii p&ri tasthd^a^ (.^^) moving forth
from that which stands fast.

b. Also piiri (and piiris), in the sense of forward from, and hence
before\ as, puri J&rasa^ (RV.) before old age: and hence also, with
words of protection and the like, from: as 9a9amftn&];i purt nidAh
(BV.) securing from iU-wiU,

o. Also i, in the sbubq ot hither fi'om, all the way from: as, imtliad
kau 9U97ata (AY.) let it dry completely up from the root-, t&smAd a
nady6 n^a stha (AY.) since thai time ye are called rivers. Bat usn-
ally, and especially in the later langaage, the measarement of Interval
implied in a is reversed in direction, and the construction means all the
way to, until: as yatl giribhya i samudrtt (BY.) going from the
mountains to the ocean; a 'syA yi^fi^yo 'dfoalj^ (YS.) until the end of
this sacrifice; fi fO^La^&t (M.) tiU the sixteenth year; fi prad&nftt (Q.)
until her marriage,

2M« Ufres of the Genitive, a. The proper value of the
genitive is adjectival; it belongs to and qualifies a noun, deeignatiiig
something relating to the latter la a manner which the nature of the
case, or the oonnectioD, defines mme nearly. Other genitive con-
stractions, with a^eetive or verb or preposition, appear to arise out
of this, by a more or less distinctly traceable connection.

b. The use of the genitive has become much extended, espe-
cially in the later language, by attribution of a noun-character to the
adjective, and by pregnant verbal construction, so that it often bears
the aspect of being a substitute for other oases —as dative, instru-
mental, ablative, locative.

296. The genitive in its normal adjective constraction with a noon
or pronoun is dassiflable into the usual varieties: as, genitive of posseasion
or appurtenance, including the complement of implied relation — this is,
as elsewhere, the commonest of all; the so-called partitive genitive; the
subjective and objective genitives; and so on. Genitives of apposition or

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99 Uses of the Qbkitiye. [^287

•qoiTtlence {eUy of Rome\ and of chtracterlstlo [man of honor)^ do not
ocear, and hardly that of mateilal (house of wood). Examplea are: {ndra-
BJRv^ira^ Indra'i thunderbolt', pitft putrBs^m father of eons; putra^
piti4 eon of the father-, pitati kftmaf^ putraaya the father's love of the
9on] ke na^L tchich of im; Qataih dfialnim a hundred female slaves,

a. The expression of possession etc on the part of prononns is made
almost entirely by the genitiye case, and not hy a derived possessiye ad-
JectiTe (610).

b. Exceptional eases like nagarai^a mtega^ M# road to the eUy
(cf. U dmnm de J^aris), yaayA liaiii dilta ipaita^ (liBh.) as mmsenger
to whom I am wanted^ are occasionally met with.

886. The genitive is dependent on an adjective:

a. A so-called particiTe genltire with a saperlatire, or another woid
of similar sabetanttTsl valae : thus, ^refthaih vlrft^ftm best of heroes ;
▼fr4dliflih wlrykvatt (AY.) of plants the mighty (miyhtissi) one.

b. Very often, hy a transfer of the possessive genitive firom noon to
a4jeetive, the adjective being treated as if it had noun-value: thus, tasya
M^ma^ or aanrOpa^ or smdfi^SLfy resembling him (i. e. his like); taaya
pxiyft dear to him (his dear one) ; tasyft Viditam unknown to him (his
unknown thmg); hiTya9 oaryai^Inim (BY.) to be sacrifioed to hy mortals
(their o^eet of saorijiee) ; ipaito naranftrTigftm (BfBh.) desired of mm
and women (their object of desire); yasjra kaaya praaiita^ (H.) of
whomsoever bom (his son)\ hantavyo 'ami na te (MBh.) I am not to
be slain of thee; kim artbinlbh vaftoayitavyam aati (H.) why should
(here be a deceiving of suppliants f

o. In part, by a constmction similar to that of verbs which take a
genitive object: thus, abhijfkfi rijadharm&gilm (R.) understanding the
duties of a king,

287. The genitive as object of a verb is:

a. A possessive genitive of the recipient, by pregnant constroction,
witk verbs signifying give, in^part, eommunieate, and the like : thus, varftn
Pradiyft 'aya (MBh.) having bestowed gifte upon him (made them his by
bestowal)] rfljfio niveditam (H.) it was made known to the king (made
his by knowledge)', yad a&yaaya pratijftftya punar anyasya diyate
(M.) that after being promised to one she is gwen to tmather. This con-
itnictlon, by which the genitive becomes snbstltate for a dative or locative,
abounds in the later language, and is extended sometimes to problematic
and dlMcult cases.

b« A (in most cases, probably) partitive genitive, as a less complete
or less absolate object than an aocasative : thus, with verbs meaning partake

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 12 of 59)