William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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(eat, drink, etc.), as plba BUt&aya (AY.) drink (of) the soma; mkdhvB:^
PSyaya (BY.) cause to drink the sweet dnutght; — with verbs meaning
impart (of the thing Imparted) etc., as d&dftta no amftaaya (BY.) bestow
upon us immortality; — with verbs meaning er^'oy, be satisfied or filled


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298—] IV. Dbcleksion. 100

with: aS) m&tsy Andhasah (RV) do thou etyot/ the Juice] ^yasya
purayanti (S.) they JUI toith butter] — with verbs meaning perceive, note,
care for, regard with feeling of various kinds: as, v&siffhasya stuvatd
indro a^rot (RV.) Indra listened to Vasiahtha who woe praising hint]
y&thS m&ma sm&rftt (AY.) that he may think of me] tasya oukopa
(MBh.) he toas angry at him.

o. A genitive of more doubtful character, with verbs meaning rule or
have authority: as, tv&m i^iij^e v&sunam (RV.) thou art lord of good
things] ydthS li&m e^aih virf^&ni (AY.) t?uft I may rule over diem]
kathajh m^yul^ prabhavati veda^astravidfim (M.) how has death
power over those who know the Vedas and treatises f

d. A genitive, instead of an ablative, is sometimes found nsed with a
verb of receiving of any kind (hearing included), and with one of fearing:
thus, yo rSjfifiJ^ pratig^lu^ftti lubdhasya (M.) whoever accepts a gift
from a greedy king] qx^xi me (MBh.) learn from me] bibhimas tava
(MBh.) we are afraid of thee.

298. A genitive in its usual possessive sense is often found as predi-
cate, and not seldom wiih the copula omitted: thu?, y&thi 'so m&ma
k6vala^ (AY.) that thou may est he wholly mine] sarv&h saihpattayas
taaya saihtuftaiii yasya mftnasam (H.) all good fortunes are his who
has a contented mind] — as objective predicate, bhartu^ putraih vija-
nanti (M.) they recognise a son as the husband's.

299. a. The prepositional constructions of the genitive (1130) are for
the most part with such prepositions as are really noun-cases and have the
government of such : thus, agre, arthe, kf te» and the like ; also with
other prepositional words which, in the general looseness of use of the
genitive, have become assimilated to these. A few more real prepositions
take the genitive: either usually, like up&ii above, or occasionally, like
adh&s, ant&r, kti.

b. A genitive is occasionally used in the older language with an
adverb, either of place or of time : thus, y&tra kva ea kumkfetr&aya
(9B.) in whatever part of KuruksTietra ] y&tra tu bhtlmer j^eta (MS.)
on wh<U spot of earth he may he bom] idanim AhnsJ^ (R^O (^^ this
time of the day] y&sya ratry&h prftt&h (MS.) on the mom of what
night] dvify saiiivatsaraaya (K.) twice a year. Such expression as the
last occur also later.

300. a. The genitive is very little used adverbially; a few genitives
of time occur in the older language: as, aktoB by night, vastos by day;
and there are found later such cases as kasya eit kSlasya (9) after a
certain time] tata^ kalasya mahatal^L prayay&u (R.) then after a long
time he went forth.

b. A genitive, originally of possession, passing over into one of general
concernment, comes in the later language (the construction is unknown
earlier) to be used absolutely, with an agreeing participle, or quite rarely

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101 Uses op the Locative. [—^802

an adjectlTe. Form sach cases as the /oIloTring — pa9yato bakamurkha-
sya nakul&ir bhakfitaijL sut&h (H.) of the foolish heron, while he
looked on, the young were eaten hy the ichneumons, or gate 'rdharStra^
Xathah kathayato mama (KSS.) half my night was passed in telling
stories, or kartavyasya karmai^fiJ^ k^ipram akriyamftqiasya kftlalj^
pibati tadrasam (H.) of a work needing to be done but left undone time
quickly drinks up its essence — come into currency, by increasing indepen-
dence of the genitiTo, such other cases as: divaih jag&ma muniufiih
pa^yatSxh tadft (R.) Tie went then to heaven, the ascetics looking on; evaih
Idlapatas tasya devadutas tadft 'bhyetya vftkyam &ha (MBh.) as he
thus lamented, a divine messenger coming addressed him \ iti vftdina ev&
*8ya dhennr ftvav]^ van&t (Ragh.) while he thus spoke, the cow came from
the forest. The genitive always indicates a living actor, and the participle is
usually one of seeing or hearing or uttering, especially the former. The con-
struction is said by the Hindu grammarians to convey an implication of disregard
or despite; and such is often to be recognized in it, though not prevailingly.

301. Uses of the Locative, a. The locative is properly the
ftrt-case, the case expressing sitaation or location; but its sphere of
use has been somewhat extended, so as to touch and overlap the
boundaries of other cases, for which it seems to be a substitute.

b. Unimportant variations of the sense of in are those of amid
or among, on, and at Of course, also, situation in time as well as
place is indicated by the case ; and it is applied to yet less physical
relations, to sphere of action and feeling and knowledge, to state of
things, to accompanying circumstance; and out of this last grows the
frequent use of the locative as the case absolute.

0. Moreover, by a pregnant construction, the locative is used
to denote the place of rest or cessation of action or motion {into or
on to instead of in or on; German in with accusative instead of dative:
compare English there for thither).

302. a. The locative of situation in space hardly needs illustration.
An example or two are: yd deva divi Bth& (AY.) which of you gods
are in heaven; na deve^n na yak^e^u tftd^k (MBh.) not among gods
or Yakshas is such a one ; p&rvatasya pr^fhd (RV.) on the ridge of the
mountain; vid&the santu dev^ (R^O inay the gods be at the assembly;
daQame pade (MBh.) at the tenth step.

b. The locative of time indicates the point of time at which anything
takes place: thus, asy^ nfiso vyiiffftu (RV.) at the shining forth of
this dawn; etasminn eva kftle (MBh.) at jmt that time; dv&da9e varfe
(MBh.) in the twelfth year. That the accusative is occasionally used in
this sense, instead of the locative, was pointed out above (276 o).

e. The person with whom, instead of the place at which, one is or
remains is put in the locative: thus, tiffbanty asmin paQ&va^ (MS.)
animals abide with him; gurftu vasan (M.) living at a teacJier's; and,
pregnantly, tftvat tvayi bbavifyfiml (MBh.) so long will I cleave to thee.

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803— J IV. Declension. 102

803. The locatiye of sphere or condition or circumstarce is of very
freqnent use: thus, m&de &him {ndro Jaghftna (RV.) in fury Indra ilefh
the dragon \ mitr&sya sumatftu syfima (RV.) may we he in the fa:cor
of Mitra\ te vaoane ratam (MBh.) delighted in ihy toorde,

a. This construction is, on the one hand, generalized into an expres-
sion for in the matter or ea$e of, or toith reference to, reepectingy and
takes in the later language a very wide range, touching upon genitlye and
dative constructions : thus, h "miih bhaja grame d^ve^u g69U (AV.) he
generous to him m retainere, in horses, in cattle \ tkm It Bakhitvd imalie'
CRY.) him toe heg for friendships upfiyo ^yaih may& d^t^ ftnayana
tava (MBh.) this means was devised hy me for (with reference to) bringing
thee hither ; aatitve kftra^aih striyftl^ (H.) the cause of (in the case of)
a woman's chastity, na ^akto ^havan nivftrai^e (MBh.) ?ie was not
capable of preventing,

. b. On the other hand, the expression hy the locative of a condition of
things in which anything takes place, or of a conditioning or accompanying
circumstance, passes oyer into a well-marked ahsolute construction, which is
known even in the earliest stage of the language, but becomes more frequent
later. Transitional examples are: h&ve tvfi atbra ddite h&ve ma-
dhjr&ihdine div&h (RY.) / call to thee at the arisen sun (whm the sun
has risen), I call at midtime of the day; aparftdhe kfte *pi oa na me
kopfiJ^ (BiBh.) and even in case of an offence committed, there is fta
anger on my part

o. The normal condition of the absolute construction is with a parti-
ciple accompanying the noun: thus, stir^^ barhffi samidhftn^ agnftd
(RY.) when the barhis is strewn and the fire kindled; kftle ^ubhe prftpte
(MBb.) a propitious time having arrived; avaaannfiyfiiii rfttrftv astftoala-
eu^Talambini eandramasi (H.) the night having drawn to a dose,
and the moon rt sting on the summit of the western mountain,

d. But the noun may be wanting, or may be replaced by an adverbial
substitute (as evam* tathft» iti): thus, wan^ati when it rains; EfOryel
aatamite after sunset; ftditya^ya df^yamine (S.) while there is seen
[some part] of the sun; ity ardliokte (9) with these words ha^ uttered;
asmAbhih samaamJfi&Ate (MBh.) it being fuUy assented to by us; e^ram
ukte kalina (MBh.) it being thus spoken by Kali; tathA *nmirtiate (H.)
it being thus accomplished. So likewise the participie may be waatiBg (a
copula aati or the like having to be supplied) : thus, dtire bJiaye (he cause
of fear being remote; while, on the other hand, the participle tati etc. i»
someMmea redandantly added to the other participle: thua, taftM iBgttB aati
it being thus deste,

e. The locative is frequently used adverbially or prepoeitionally (1110):
thus, -arthe or -kfte in the matter of for the sake of; agr« in front
of; ^. wOlkoiui; aamipe near,

804. The pregnant construction by which the locative comes to ex-
press the goal or object of motion or action or feeling exercised is not

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103 Uses of thb Looatiyb. [—807

aneonunon from the earllett time. It it by no means to be skarply diittn-
gnishad from the ordinary eonstruotion; the two pais into one another, with
a doubtful territory between. It ooeiire:

a. Eepeeially with verbs, • as of arriving, sending, placing, communi-
cating, bestowing, and many others, in sitaatlons where an aconsatiTe or
a dative (or a genitive, S87 a) might be looked for, and exchangeable with
them: thus, B& {d dev^fu gaoehati (RV.) thaiy trufy, goes to (to he among)
the god8\ imiih no yf^fUkiiI..a]n^9a dliahi (RY.) eei this offering of
ours among the immortals; y& fei^c4nti r&aam dfadhl^u (AY.) who
pour in the juice into the plants (ot^^Jhe juiee that is in the pkmts); in&
prayacohe ''9Tare dhanam (H.) do not offer wealth to a lordy papftta
medinyfim (MBh.) he feU to (so as to he upon) the earth] akandhe
Iqptvft (B,) putting on the shoulder; saih^ratya pQrvain asmfisa (MBh.)
having he/ore promised us,

b* Often also with nonns and adjectives in similar constructions (the
instances not always easy to separate from those of the locative meaning
with reference to: above, 808a): thns, dayft sarvabhtltefu compassion
toward aU creatures; anurfigaih nSiyadlie (MBh.) affection for the
Nishadhon; ri^A samyag vftta^ sadft tvayi (MBh.) the king has always
hehaved properly toward thee.

805. The prepositions construed with the locative (1126) sUnd to it
only in the relation of adverbial elements strengthening and directing Its

806. Declensional forms are made by the addition of
endings to the stem, or base of inflection.

a. The stem itself, howcYer, in many words and classes
of words, is liable to yariation, especially assuming a stronger
form in some cases and a weaker in others.

b. And between stem and ending are sometimes inserted
connecting elements (or what, in the recorded condition of
the language, haYe the aspect of being such].

o. Respecting aU these pointo, the details of treatment, as exhibited
by each class of words or by single words, will be given in the following
chapters. Here, however, it is desirable also to present a brief general view
cf them.

807. Endings: Singnlar. a. In the nominstiye, the usual
masc. and fem. ending is s — which, however, is wanting in derivative
a and I-stems; it is also euphonieally lost (160) by consonant-stems.
Neuters in general have no ending, but show in this case the bare
stem; a-stems alone acjd m (as in the accus. masc.). Among the
pronouns, am is a frequent masc. and fem. nom. ending (i^d is found
even in du. and pi.]; and neuters show a form in d.

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807—] IV. Declension. 104

b. In the ace usa tire, m or am is the masc. and fern, ending
— am being added after a consonant and ^ , and after i and u in the
radical division, and m elsewhere after vowels. The neater accusative
is like the nominative.

o. The instrumental ending for all genders alike is ft. With
final i- and u-vowels, the ft is variously combinedi and in the older
language it is sometimes lost by contraction with them. Stems in a
make the case end in ana (sometimes enft in V.), and those in ft make
it end in ayft; but instances occur, in the early language, of immediate
addition of ft to both a and ft.

d. The dative ending is in general e; and with it likewise the
modes of combination of i and u final are various (and disappearance
by contraction not unknown in the oldest language). The a-stems
are quite irregular in this case, making it end in ftya — excepted is
the pronominal element -sma, which combines (apparently) with e to
-smfti. In the personal pronouns is found bhyam (or hyam).

e* A fuller ending fti (like gen.-abl. fts and loc. ftm: see below)
belongs to feminine stems only. It is taken (with interposed y) by
the great class of those in derivative ft; also by those in derivative i,
and (as reckoned in the later language) in derivative a. And later
it is allowed to be taken by feminine stems in radical I and u, and
even by those in i and u: these last have it in the earliest language
in only exceptional instances. For the substitution of fti for abl.-gen.
fts, see below, h.

f. The ablative has a special ending, d (or t), only in a-stems,
masc. and neut, the a being lengthened before it (except in the per-
sonal pronouns of 1st and 2d person, which have the same ending
at in the pi, and even, in the old language, in the dual). Everywhere
else, the ablative is identical with the genitive.

g* The genitive of a-stems (and of one pronominal u-stem,
amu) adds sya. Elsewhere, the usual abl.-gen. ending is as; but its
irregularities of treatment in combination with a stem-final are con-
siderable. With i and u, it is either directly added (only in the old
language), added with interposed n, or fused to as and os respect-
ively. With f (or ar) it yields ur (or us: 169b).

h. The fuller fts is taken by feminine stems precisely as fti is
taken in the dative: see above. But in the language of the £rah-
manas and Sutras, the dative-ending fti is regularly and commonly used
instead of fts, both of ablative and of genitive. See 365 d.

i. The locative ending is i in consonant- and f- and a-stems
(fusing with a to e in the latter). The i- and u-stems (unless the
final vowel is saved by an interposed n) make the case end in ftu;
but the Veda has some relics or traces of the older forms (ay-i [?]
and av-i) out of which this appears to have sprung. Vedic locatives

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105 Case-endings. [—309

firom i-stems end also in & and i. The pronominal element -sma
makes the locative -smin. Stems in an in the older language often
lose the i, and use the bare stem as locative.

j. The ending fim is the locative correspondent to dat. ai and
abl.-gen. fis, and is taken under the same circumstances: see above.

k. The vocative (unless by accent: 814) is distinguished from
the nominative only in the singular, and not quite always there. In
a-stems, it is the unaltered stem, and eo also in most consonant-stems ;
but neuters in an and in may drop the n; and the oldest language
has sometimes a vocative in a from stems in nt and ta. Stems in x
change this to ar. In masc. and fem. i- and u-stems, the case ends
respectiyely in e and o; in neuters, in the same or in i and u. Stems
in & change & to e; derivative i and u are shortened; radical stems
in long vowels use the nominative form.

308. Dual. a. The dual has — except so far as the vocative
is sometimes distinguished from nominative and accusative by a dif-
ference of accent: 314 — only three case-forms: one for nom., accus.,
and voc.; one for instr., dat., and abl.; and one for gen. and ioc.

b. But the pronouns of 1st and 2d person in the older language
distinguish five dnal cases : see 492 b.

o. The masc. and fem. ending for nom.-a ecus. -voc. is in the
later language usually &a; but instead of this the Veda has pre-
vailingly ft. Stems in a make the case end in e. Stems in i and u,
masc. and fem., lengthen those vowels; and derivative i in the Veda
remains regularly unchanged, though later it adds ftu. The neuter
ending is only i; with final a this combines to e.

d. The universal ending for the instr.-dat.-abl. is bhyftm,
before which final a is made long. In the Veda, it is often to be
read as two syllables, bhiam.

e. The universal ending of gen. -Ioc. is os; before this, a and
^ alike become e (ai).

309. Plural, a. In the nominative, the genecal masculine
and feminine ending is as. The old language, however, . often makes
the case in ftsas instead of Ss from a-stems, and in a few examples
also from ft-stems. From derivative i-stems, is instead of yas is the
regular and usual Vedic form. Pronominal a-stems make the masc.
nom. in e.

b. The neuter ending (which is accusative also) is in general 1;
and before this the final of a stem is apt to be strengthened, by
prolongation of a vowel, or by insertion of a nasal, or by both. But
in the Veda the hence resulting forms in &ni» ini, uni are frequently
abbreviated by loss of the ni, and sometimes by further shortening
of the preceding vowel.

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0. The aocusatiTe eading is also as in eonsonant-stems and
in the nidioal division of I- and fL-stems (and in the eld langiutge
even elsewhere). Stems in short rowels lengthen those vowels and
add in the mascoUne n (for ns, of which ataadant traces remain),
and in the feminiae s. In the neater, this case is like the ooimnative.

d. In the instrumental, the oase-ending is everywhere bhis
except in a-stems, where in the later language the case always ends
in fiis, but in the eariier either in ftis or the more reg^ilar ablUa
(abbis in the two personal pronouns; and the prononunalntem a [601]
makes ebbis only).

e. The dative aad ablative have in the plural the same form,
with the ending bbyas (in Veda often bblas), before which only a
is altered, beoombig e. But the two personal pronouns distinguish
the two cases, having for the ablative the singular ending (as above
pointed out), and for the dative the peculiar bbyam (almost never in
Veda bbiaan), which they extend also into the singular.

f. Of the genitive, the universal ending is fim; which (except
optionally after radical f and % and in a few scattering Yedic in-
stances) takes after final vowels an inserted consonant, s in the pro-
nominal declension, n elsewhere; before n, a short vowel is length-
ened; before s, a becomes e. In ^e Veda, it is frequently to be
pronounced in two syllables, as a-am

g. The locative ending is su, without any exceptioaSi and the
only chaise before it is that of a to e.

b. The vocative, as in the dual, differs from tiie nominative
only by its aooent.

810. The normal scheme of endings, as recognized by

the native giammaiians (and conveniently to be assumed as

the basis of special descriptions), is this:




m.f: n.

m.f. n.

iiLf. n.


B —

an I

as i


am —

an i

as i





















a. It is taken in bulk by the consonantal stems and by the rad-
ical division of i- and d-stems; by other vowel-stems, with more or
less considerable variations and modifieations. The endings which
have almost or quite unbroken range, through stems of all classes,
are bbyam and os of the dual, and bbis, bbyas, Am, and su of the

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107 Strong ahd Weak Stem. [—312

811. Variation of Stem. a. By far the most im-
portant matter under this head is the distinction made in
large classes of words (chiefly those ending in consonants)
between strong and weak stem-forms — a distinction stand-
ing in evident connection with the phenomena of accent.
In the nom« and accns. sing, and du. and the nom. pi.
[the five cases whose endings are never accented: 816 a),
the stem often has a stronger or fuller form than in the
rest: thus, for example (424), ;[13R^ri^Sn-ani, ^T$n%v8jta-
ilti, JMHH nysn-as, against JT^T rftjll-R and JTslPW rfija-
bhis; or (460 b) CF^ItPT^mahSnt-am and (447) lEI^TI^ addnt-
am against if^rfT mahat-S and H^r\\ adat-ft. These five,
therefore, are called the cases with strong stem, or, briefly,
the strong oases; and the rest are oaUed the cases with
weak stem, or the weak cases. And the weak cases,
again, are in some classes of words to be distinguished into
cases of weakest stem, or weakest cases, and cases of
middle stem, or middle cases: the former having endings
b^;inning with a vowel (instr., dat., abl.-gen., and loc. sing. ;
gen.-loc. du.; ace. and gen. pi.); the latter, with a consonant
(instr.-dat.-abl. du.; instr., dat.-ab]., and loc. pi.).

b. The class of strong cases, as above defined, belongs
only to masculine and feminine stems. In neuter inflection,
the <mly strong cases are the nom. -ace. pi.; while, in those
stems that make a distinction of weakest and middle form,
the nom.-acc. du. belongs to the weakest class, and the nom.-
acc. sing, to Uie middle: thus, for example, compare (408)
MrllfU pratydilc-i, nom.-acc. pi. neut., and UrU^H praty-
fu&o^as, nom. pi. masc. ; Mrfl4) pratlc-t, noaL.-aec. du. neut.,
and ^Ifft^ pratie-60, gen.-loc. du.; !ff5f^ pratyAk, nom.-
acc. sing, neut., and TftrlPTH praty&g-bhis, instr. pi.

812. Ot^er TariatlonB ooneern cMefly the final Towel of a stem, and
may be mainly left to be pointed out in detail below. Of consequence

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312—] IV. Declension. 108

enough to mention here is only the gu^a-strengthenlog of a final 1 or u,
Tvhich in the later language is always made before aa of nom. pi. and e
of dat sing, in masc. and fem. ; In the Veda, it does not always take place ;
nor is it forbidden in dat. sing. neut. also; and it is seen sometimei in
loc. sing. Final ^ has gai^a-strengthening in loo. sing.

313. Insertions between Stem and Ending. After vowel-stems,
an added n often makes its appearance before an ending. The appendage
is of least questionable origin in nom.-acc. pL neut., where the interchange
in the old language of the forms of a- and i-stems with those of an- and
ill-stems is pretty complete; and the u-stems follow their analogy. Else-
where, It is most widely and firmly established in the gen. pi., where in
the great mass of cases, and from the earliest period, the ending is virtu-
ally nfim after a vowel. In the i- and u-stems of the later language, the
Instr. sing, of maso. and neat, is separated by its presence from the fem.,
and it is in the other weakest cases made a usual distinction of neuter forms
from masculine ; but the aspect of the matter in the Yeda is very different :
there the appearance of the n is everywhere sporadic; the neuter shows no
special inclination to take it, and it is not excluded even from the femi-
nine. In the ending ena from a-stems (later invariable, earlier predomi-
nating) its presence appears to have worked the most considerable trans-
formation of original shape.

a. The place of n before gen. pi. am is taken by 8 in pronominal
a- and ft-stems.

b. The y after ft before the endings &i, fts, and &m is most probably
an iDsertion, such as is made elsewhere (258).

Accent in Declension.

314. a. Ab a rule without exception, the vocative, if accented
at all, is accented on the first syllable.

b. And in the Yeda (the case U a rare one), whenever a syllable written
as one is to be pronounced as two by restoration of a semivowel to vowel
form, the first element only has the vocative accent, and the syllable as
written is circumflex (83-4): thus, dyftUB (i. e. diftus) when dissyllabic,
but dy&iks when monosyllabic; jylUte when for jiftke.

o. But the vocative is accented only when it stands at the be-
ginning of a sentence — or, in verse, at the beginning also of a
metrical division or pftda; elsewhere it is accentless or enclitic: thus,
&gne y&iii yaJfL&ih paribhdr &8i (RV.) O Agni! whatwer offering

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 13 of 59)