William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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thou protectesi; but upa tv& 'gna 6 'masi (RV.) unto thee, Agni^ we

d. A word, or more than one word, qualifying a vocative — usually
an adjective or appositive noun, but sometimes a dependent noun in the
genitive (very rarely in any other case) — constitutes, so far as accent is

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109 Accent. [—316

concerned, a xmlty with the voeative: thus (til the examples tiom RV.)i
at the beginning of a pftda, with first syllable of the combination accented,
{odra brftta]|;i O brother Indra! ri^jan soma O king Soma! yivi^fha
duta moat youthftU messengerl h6tar yavi^fba snkrato most youthful
skiUed offerer! Arjo nap&t sahasvan mighty son of strength! — in the
interior of a pSda, without accent, edrnftsa indra girvai^]^ the somas,
O song-loving Indra! tav a^vinS bhadrahaatft supfij^I ye^ O A^ins
of propitious and beautiful hands! a rSjfin& maha ptasya gopft hither,
ye two kingly guardians of great order!

e. On the other hand, two or more independent or codrdinate vocatives
at the beginning of a pftda are regularly and usually both accented : thus,
pitar mata^ O father! O mother! &gna indra v&rui^ mitra d^vfth
Agni! Indra! Varuna! Mitra! gods! 94tamate Qitakrato thou of
a hundred aids! of a hundred arts! v&siftlia 9ukra dldiva^ p^vaka
besty bright, shining , cleansing one! tirjo napftd bh&draQOoe son of
strength, propitiously bright one! But the texts offer occasional irregular
excoptions both to this and to the preceding rule.

f. For brevity, the vocative dual and plural will be given in the par-
adigms below along with the nominative, without taking the trouble to
specify in each instance that, if the latter be accented elsewhere than on
the first syllable, the accent of the vocative is different.

316. As regards the other cases, rules for change of accent in
declenBion have to do only with monosyllables and with stems of
more than one syllable which are accented on the final ; for, if a stem
be accented on the penult, or any other syllable further back — as
is sixpant, vari, bh&gavant, snm&nas, sah&sravfija — the accent
remalDB upon that syllable through the whole inflection (except in the
vocatiTe, as explained in the preceding paragraph).

a. The only exceptions are a few numeral stems: see 483.

316. Stems accented on the final (including monosyllables) are
subject to variation of accent in declension chiefly in virtue of the
fact that some of the endings have, while others have not, or have
in less degree, a tendency themselves to take the accent. Thus:

a. The endings of the nominative and accusative singular and dual
and of the nominative plural (that is to say, of the strong cases: 311) have
no tendency to take the accent away from the stem, and are therefore only
accented when a final vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending are
blended together into a single vowel or diphthong. Thus, from datt4 come
dattftu (= datti + &u) and dattds (= dattd + ae) ; hut from nadi come
nadyftu (=nadl-hftu) and nadyae (=nadl-|-a8l.

b. All the other endings sometimes take the accent; hot those beginning
with a vowel (i. e. of the weakest cases: 311) do so more readily than
those beginning with a consonant (1. e. of the middle cases: 311). Thuf,
from n&iiB come n&va and naubhis; from mah&nt, however, come
mahati but mahidbhis.

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817—] IV. Deglbhsiom. 110

The generml rales of accent^ then, m§j be thm stated:

817. In the declension of monosyllabic stems, the accent falls
upon the ending in all the weak cases (widiout distinction of middle
and weakest): thns, nftvt, nftubhyim^ nftv&i, nSa^u; v«ei, Tflgblifay
v&cam» vSkf^

a. Bat some monosylUhle stems retain the accent throughout: thus,
gobhiSy g&vam^ go^u. For such cases, see below, 850, 801 o» d, 872,
890, 427. And la the ace. pi. the stem is even oftener accented than
the ending, some words also admitting either aceent nation.

818. Of polysyllabic stems ending in consonants, only a few shift
the accent to the ending, and that in the weakest (not the middle]
cases. Sach are:

a. Present participles in &ixt or &t: thus, from tod&nt, tudati and
tudat68 and tndatam; hnt tud&dbhy&qx and tud&tsu,

b. A few adjectives haying the form of snoh participles, as mahata,

o. Stems of which the accented final loses Its syllabic chaia^.ter by
syncopation of ths vowel: thns, majjiii, murdhnd, dflmtifai (flrom misU^
eto.: 4S8).

d. Other sporadic cases will be noticed under the different declensions.

e. Case-forms nsed adverbially sometimes show a changed accent:
see 11 10 if.

819. Of polysyllabic stems ending in accented short vowels
the final of the stem retains the accent if it retains its syllabic
identity: thus, datt^na and dattaya from datt&; agnlnft and agn&ye
from agnf; and also datt^bhyas, agnlbhie, and so on. Otherwise,
the accent is on the ending: and that, whether the final and the end-
ing are combined into one, as in dattftfs, dben&a, agnin, dhends,
and so on: or whether the final is changed into a semivowel before
the ending: thus, dhenva, pitri, j&my6s, bfihy68, etc.

a. But &m of the gen. pi. from stems in { and it and f may, and In
the older language always does, take the accent, though separated by n from
the stem : thus, agnln&i, dhentinim, pitfi^&n. In BY., even derivative
i-stems show usually the same shift: thus, bfl^vin&n. Of stems in 4,
only numerals (488 a) follow this rule: thus, saptfinam, da9fin6B.

820. Boot-words in i and ii as final members of compounds retain the
accent throughout, not shifting it to any of the endings. And In the older
language there are polysyllabic words in long final vowels which follow in
this respect as in others the analogy of the root-declension (below, 855 ff.).
Apart from these, the treatment of stems in derivative long vowels is, as
regards accent, the same as of those in short vowels — save that the ton 3
is not thrown forward upon the ending In gen. plural.

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Ill Olassifioation. [—390



Ml. a. Ths aeeoardaaoe ia iaflection of anbitantive
and adjective stems is so complete that the two cannot be
separated in treatment &om one another.

K Thej msf he ofawriied, fox conTenience of desoiip-
iion, as follows:

L Stems in q a;
n. Stems in ^ i and 3 u;

in. Stems in 35IT &, ^ I, and 3* tl: namelj, A. radical-
Btems (and a few others inflected like them); B. derivative stems ;
IV. Stems in SB y (or ^ ar);
y. Stems in consonants.

o. There is nothing absolute in this classiflcation and arrangement;
It is merely believed to be open to as few objections as any other. No
general agreement has been reached among scholars as to the number and
Older of Sanakrit declensions. The stems in a are here treated iirst beeause
4>t the great predominance of the class.

328. The division-line between substantive and adjective, always
an nncertain one in early Indo-Enropean langnage, is even more
wavering in Sanskrit than elsewhere There are, however, in all the
declensions as divided above — unless we except the stems in x <>'
ar — words which are distinctly adjectives; and, in general, they
are inflected precisely like noun-stems of the same final: only, among
consonant-stems, there are certain sub-classes of adjective stems with
peculiarities of inflection to which there is among nouns nothing cor-
responding. But there are also two considerable classes of adjeotive-
eompounds, requiring special notice: namely —

829. Compound ac^ectives having as final member a bare verbal
root, with the value of a present participle (383 a ff.) : thus, sn-dt^ well-
looking; pra-budh fareknowing ; a-dn^ not hating; veda-vid Feda-
knowing; v^tra-hin Vitra-sktying; upastha-s&d sitting in the lap.
Every root is liable to be used in this way, and such compounds are
not infrequent in all ages of the language: see chapter on Compounds,
below (1289).

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323—] V. Nouns AND Adjectives. 112

a. This class is essentially only a special class of compound adjectiyeSy
since in the earliest Yeda the simple as well as the compounded root was
sometimes used adjectively. Bat the compoanded root was from the beginning
much more often so used, and the later the more exclusiTely, so that
practically the class is a separate and important one.

324. Compound adjectives having a noun as final member, but
obtaining an adjective sense secondarily, by having the idea of
possession added, and being inflected as adjectives in the three gen-
ders (1298 ff.)- Thus, prajftk&m& desire of progeny, whence the ad*
jective prajtkfima, meaning desirous (i. e. having desire) of progeny \
sabh&rya (sa+bhftryft) having one's wife along \ and so on.

a. In a few cases, also, the final noun is syntactically object of the
preceding member (1309-10): thus, atim&tra immoderate (ati m&tram
beyond meitsure")'^ y&vay&ddve^as driving away enemies,

325. Hence, under each declension, we have to notice how a
root or a noun-stem of that declension is inflected when final member
of an adjective compound.

a. As to accent, it needs only to be remarked here that a root-
word ending a compound has the accent, but (320) loses the pecu-
liarity of monosyllabic accentuation, and does not throw the tone
forward upon the ending (except alio in certain old forms: 410).

Declension I.
stems (masculine and neuter] in SEf a.

326. a. This declension contains the majority of all the
declined stems of the language.

b. Its endings deviate more widely than any others
from the normal.

327. Endings: Singular, a. The nom. maso. has the normal
ending s.

b. The aco. (masc. and neut.) adds m (not am); and this form has
the offlce also of nom. neuter.

o. The instr. changes a to ena uniformly in the later language; and
eyen in the oldest Yedic this is the predominant ending (in RV., eight
ninths of all cases). Its final is in Yedic verse frequently made long (enft).
But the normal ending ft — thus, yajfl^ suMva, mahitva (for yajfidna
etc.) — is also not rare in the Veda.

d. The dat. has ftya (as if by adding aya to a), alike in all ages
of the language.

e. The abl. has t (or doubtless d: it is impossible from the evi-
dence of the Sanskrit to tell which is the original form of the ending),

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113 Dbolbksion L, aHBTEKS. [— Sfie

before which a is made long: this ending is found in no other noun-
deelension, and elsewhere only in the personal pronovns (of all nnmbers).

f. The gen. has sya added to the final a; and this ending is also
limited to a-stems (with the single exception of the pronoun amd^ya:
601). Its final a is in only three oases made long in the Yeda; and its
y is vocaUzed (aaia) almost as rarely.

g« The loo. ends in e (as if by combining the normal ending i with
the final of the stem), without exception.

ll. The Toe. is the bare stem.

828. Dual. a. The dual endings in general ate the normal ones.

b. The nom., ace., and toc. masc. end in the later language always in
&n. In the Yeda, howeyer, the usual ending is simple & (in BY., in
•eren eighths of the occurrences). The same cases in the neut end in e,
which appears to be the result of fusion of the stem-final with the normal
ending L

0. The instr., dat., and abl. have bhyfim (in only one or two Yedio
instances resolved into bhifim), with the stem-final lengthened to & before it.

d. The gen. and loc. have a y inserted after the stem-final before 08
(or as if the a had been changed to e). In one or two (doubtful) Yedic
instances (as also in the pronominal forms eno8 and yOB), 08 is substituted
for the final a.

d29. Plural, a. The nom. masc. has in the later language the
normal ending as combined with the final a to fts. But in the Yeda the
ending fisaa instead is frequent (one third of the occnrrenoes in BY., but
only one twenty-fifth in the peculiar parts of AY.).

b. The ace. masc. ends in &n (for earlier SnB, of which abundant
traces are left in the Yeda, and, under the disguise of apparent euphonic
combination, even in the later language: see above, 208 if.).

o« The nom. and ace. neut. have in the later language always the
ending fini (like the aa-stems: see 421; or else with n, as in the gen.
p)., before normal 1). But in the Yeda this ending alternates with simple
ft (which in BY. is to ftni as three to two, in point of frequency; in AY.,
as three to four).

d. The instr. ends Uter always in ftia; but in the Yeda is found
abundantly the more normal form ebhiB (in BY., nearly as firequent as ftis;
in AY., only one fifth as frequent).

e. The dat. and abl. have bhyas as ending, with e instead of the
final a before it (as in the Yedic instr. ebhis, the loc. pi., the gen. loc.
du. [?], and the instr. sing.). The resolution into ebhiaa is not infrequent
in the Yeda.

f. The gen. ends in Snfim, the final a being lengthened and having
n inserted before the normal ending. The ft of the ending is not seldom
(in less than half the instances) to be read as two syllables, aam: opinions
tre divided as to whether the resolution is historical or metrical only. A

Whitney, Qrammar. 3. ed. 8

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V. Nouns and Adjectives.


Tory small nam1)er (half-a-dozen) of examples of simple Sm as ending
instead of ftnSm occur in BY.

g. The loo. ends in e^u — that is to say, vith the normal ending,
before which the stem-flnal is changed to e (with consequent change of s
to 9: 180).

h. Of accent, in this declension, nothing reqnires to be said; the
syllable accented in the stem retains its own accent thronghont

880. Examples of declension. As examples of the

inflection of a-etems may be taken ofjFT kSma m. love\

^cT devA m. ffod] MI^U Ssyd n. mouth.



















































d^va ^



N. A. Y

. 5fIT^












G. L.








N. Y.






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Declension I., a-STEMS.

































Examples of the pecalUr Vedio forms are:

a. Sing.: Instr. rav&theiift» yajfii (such genitive forms as i^asift
are purely sporadic).

b. Dn.: nom. etc. masc. devt; gen.-Ioc. pastyds (stem pastyk).

o. PI.: nom.-voc. masc. dev&MiB; neut. yugi; instr. dev6bhi8; gen.
oardth&m, devinaam*

331. AmoDg nonns, there are do irregularities in this declension.
For irregular nuiberal bases in a (or an}, see 483-4. For the irreg-
ularities of pronominal stems in a, which are more or less fully
shared also by a few adjectives of pronominal kindred, see the chapter
on PronoanSx(495ff)-


882. Original adjectives in a are an exceedingly large class, the
great majority of all adjectives. There is, however, no such thing as
a feminine stent in a; for the feminine, the a is changed to & — or
often, though faf less often, to i; and its declension is then like that
of eena or devi (864). An example of the complete declension of an
adjective a-stem in the three genders will be given below (368).

a. Whether a masc.-neut. stem in a shall form its feminine In & or
in i is a qnsstlon to he determined in great part only by actnal usage, and
not hy grammatical role. Certain important classes of words, however, can
be pointed out which take the less common ending I for the fdmioine: thus,
1. the (very numerous) secondary derivatives in a with v^ddhi of tho first
syllable (1204): e. g. fimitri -tri, m&ia^a -9I, p&vamfiii& -nl, p&nr-
i^amftai -si; 2. primary derivatives in ana with accent on the radical syllable
(1160): e. g. o6dana -ni, aaiiigr&bai^a -1^1, subb&gaihkira^a -ni;
3. primary derivatives in a, with strengthening of the radical syllable,
having a quasi-pirticipial meaning; e. g. div&kari -ri^ avakr&mi -ml,


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382-—] V. Nouns AND ADJBonvBS. lift

rathavfili& -hi (but there are many ezceptlong); 4. secondaiy derivatives
in maya (1225) and tana (1246 e): e. g. ayasm&ya -yi; adyatana
-nl; 5. most ordinal numerals (487 h): e. g. paficamd -mf, navada^^
-91, tri]&9attain& -mi. Not a few words make the feminine in either ft
or !: e. g. k^valft or -H, ugra or -ri, pftpft or -pi« rfima or -mi; but
ordinarily only one of these is accepted as regular.

333. There are no verbal roots ending in a. But a is sometimes
substituted for the final ft of a root (and, rarely, for final aa), and it
is then inflected Hke an ordinary adjective in a (see below, 364).

384. a. A noun ending in a, when occurring as final member of
an adjective compound, is inflected like an original adjective in a,
making its feminine likewise in ft or 1 (867J.

b. For the most part, an adjective compound having a noun in a as
final member makes its feminine in ft. But there are numerous exceptions,
certain nouns taking, usually or always, 1 instead. Some of the commonest
of these are as follows: ak^a eye (e. g. loMtSkfi, dvyaki^i, gaTikfl)*
pan^a leaf (e. g. tUapan^, saptapari^i; but ekapan^ft), mukha face
(e. g. kffi^amukhl, dormukhi; but trlmukhft etc.), anga limb^ body
(e. g. anavadsrftngi, sarvfifigi; but oatnraSgft etc.), k^^a hair (e. g.
suke^iy muktake^i or -Qft, etc.), kan^a ear (e. g. mahftkan^I; but
gokari^ etc.), udara heUy (e. g. lambodari), mula root (e. g. pa&-
camull; but oftener ^atdmCLlft etc.). The very great majority of such
nouns (as the examples indicate) signify parts of the body.

0. On the other hand, a feminine noun ending in derivative ft
shortens its final to a to form a masculine and neuter base: see 867 o.

d. In frequent case?, nouns of consonant ending are, as finals of com-
pounds, transferred to the a-declension by an added suffix a (1209 a) or
ka (1222).

Declension II.

St^ns (of all genders) in ^ i and 3 u.

885. The stems in ^ i and 3 u are inflected in so close

accordance with one another that they cannot be divided

into two separate declensions. They are of all the three

genders, and tolerably numerous — those in ^ i more

numerous than those in 3 u, especially in the feminine

(there are more neuters in 3 u than in ^ 1).

a. The endings of this declension also differ frequently and
widely from the normal, and the irregularities in the older language
are numerous.

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117 DbOLBKSION II., i- AND U-STEMS. [— S86

836. Endings: Singular, a* The nom. mate, and fern, adds to the
stem the normal ending B. The nom. and ace. neat, is the bare stem,
wltiiont ending. In the Teda, the final u of a few nenters is lengthened
(248 b): thus, tirti, purA.

b. The ace. masc. and fern, adds m to the stem. Yedio forms in iam
and uckm, and, with n, inam and unam, are exoessiyely rare, and douhtfal.

O. The instr. fern, in the later language takes the normal ending &
simply, while the masc. and neat insert n before it, making inft and un&.
Bat in the Yeda, forms in yft and vft (or i& and aft) are not infrequent
in masc. and neat, also; while ixi& is found, very rarely, as a fem. ending.
MoreoTer, fem. yft is often (in two thirds of the occurrenoes) contracted to
i; and this is even sometimes shortened to L An adTerbial instr. in uylt
from half-a-dozen stems in n occurs.

d. The dat. masc. and fem. ganates the final of the stem before the
ending e, making aye and ave. These are the preyaiUng endings in the
Yeda likewise; but the more normal ye and ve (or ue) also occar; and
the fem. has in this case, as in the instr., sometimes the form I for ie.
In the later language, the neuter is required in this, as in all the other
weakest cases, to insert n before the normal ending: but in the Yeda such
forms are only sporadic; and the neut dat. has also the forms aye» ve,
ave, like the other genders.

e. The abl. and gen. masc. and fem. haye regularly, both earlier and
later, the ending • wi^ guuated vowel before it: thas, es, OB; and in the
Yeda, the neut. forms the eases in the same way ; although anas, required
later, is also not infrequent (inaa does not occur). Bat the normal forms
yas (or ias) and vas (or oaa) are also frequent in both masc. and neater.
As masc. ending, unaB occurs twice in RY. The anomalous didy6t (so TS. ;
in the corresponding passages, vidy6t YS., didyftut K., didiv&s MS.)
Is of doubtful character.

f. The loc. masc. and fem. has for regular ending in the later lan-
guage ftu, replacing both finals, i and a. And this is in the Yeda also the
most frequent ending; but, beside it, the i-stems form (about half as often
in BY.) their loc. in ft: thus, agna; and this is found once eyen in the
neuter. The BY. has a number of examples of masc. and neut locatives
in avl (the normal ending and the u gunated before it) from u-stems;
and certain doubtful traces of a corresponding ayi from i-stems. Half-a-
dozen locatiyes in i (regarded by the Yedic grammarians as pragf>hya or
uncombinable : 188 d) are made from i-stems. The later language makes
the neuter locatiyes in ini and nni; but the former never occurs in the
oldest texts, and the latter only very rarely.

g. The later grammar allows the dat., abl.-gen., and loc. fem. to be
formed at will with the fuller fem. terminations of long-vowel stems, namely
fti» ftB (for which, in Brahmana etc., ai is substitated: 807 h), Sm. Such

r forms are quite rare in the oldest language even from i-stems (less than
40 occurrences altogether in BY.; three times as many in AY.); and from
u-stems they are almost unknown (five in BY. and AY.).

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38e— ] V. NouKS AND Adjectives. l ] 8

h. The Toc. (pinates U&e final of the stem, in masc. and fem., alike
in the earlier and in the later language. In the neut., it is later allowed
to he either of the same form or the unaltered stem; and this was prohahly
the usage in the older time also; not instances enough are quotahle to
determine the question (AY. has u once, and VS. o once).

337. Dual. a. The later and earlier language agree in making, the
nom.-acc.-Yoc. masc. and fem. hy lengthening the final of the stem. The
same cases in the neuter (according to the rule giren above) end later in'
inl and oni} hut these endings are nearly unknown in the Yeda (as, indeed,
the cases are of only rare occurrence): AY. has inl twice (RY. perhaps
once); YS. has uni once; RY. has ui from one u-stem, and I, once short-
ened to i, from one or two i-stems.

b. The unyarying ending of instr.-dat.-ahl., in all genders, is bhytai
added to the unchanged Etem.

C. The gen.-loa of all ages add os to the stem in masc. and fem.;
in neut, the later language Interposes, as elsewhere in the weakest eases,
a n ; probably in the earlier Yedic the form would he like that of the other
genders; but the only occurrence noted is one unos in AY.

338* Plural, a* The nom.-voc. masc. and fem. adds the normal end-
ing as to the gunated stem-final, making ayas and avas. The exceptions
in the Yeda are very few: one word (ari) has ias in both gender?, and a
few feminines have Is (like i-stems); a very few u-stems have oaa. The
neut. nom.-acc. ends later in ini and fLni (like &ni &om a: 329 o); but the
Yeda has I and i (about equally frequent) much oftener than Ini; and ^
and (more usually) n, more than half as often as flni.

b* The accus. masc. ends in In and On, for older ins and iUiB, of
which plain traces remain in the Yeda in nearly half the instances of ooour-
rence, and even not infrequently in the later language, in the guise of
phonetic combination (208 ft.). The accus. fem. ends In is and us. But both

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 14 of 59)