William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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masc. and fem. forms in ias and uas are found sparingly in the Yeda.

o* The instr. of all genders adds bhis to the stem.

d« The dat-abL of all genders adds bhyas (in Y., almost never bhias)
to the stem.

e. The gen. of all genders is made alike in Inlm and fUlftm (of
which the ft is not seldom, in the Yeda, to be resolved into aam). Stems
with accented final in the later language may, and in the earlier always
do, throw forward the accent upon the ending.

f. The loc. of all genders adds sn (as ^u: 180) to the stem-final.

g* The accent is in accordance with the general rules already
laid down, and there are no irregularities calling for special notice.

339. Examples of declension. As models of i-stems

may be taken ^3^ agni m. ^re; 71% giti f. ffait\ efll^

vftri n. tvater.



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119



DBOLBNSION II., i- AND a-8TBM8.



[-



A.



D.



Ab.G.



Singoltr:

agnis

agnfm

agnlnA

agn^sre

agn^

agn&i&
V. ^

Agne
Dual:
N.A.V. gift

agni
l.D.Ab. ^tfiJUim

agnibhyftm

agnybs
Plural:

agn&yas

agnin

agnibhlB

agnibhyas

agnin^

agnl^n



G.L.



N.V.



A.



D.Ab.



L.



g4ti8
gitim
gityft

gitaye^ gityii
g&tea, g&tyfta
g&t&u, g&tyfim
g&te

giti

g&tdbhyftm

g&tyoB

gitayas

g&tiB

g&UbhiB
gitibhyas
giUnftm
gitifti



viri

5nf{

v^brii^as
vtoy vire

varibhyftm

vlbibhis

v&ribhyas

varlj^ftm



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840-]



V. Nouns and Adjeotives.



120



840. In order to mark more plainly the absence in Yedic language of
some of the forms which are common later, all the forms of Yedic occnirence
are added below, and in the order of their firequency.

a. Singular. Nom. agnfs etc., as above.

b. Ace.: masc. agnim, yayfam, urm{]^am(?); fern, and neut. as
above.

0. Instr.: masc. agn{nft» rayya and tirmia; fern, ddtti, uti&,
matya, Buvj^kti, dhasfnft; neut. wanting.

d. Pat.: masc. agn&ye; fem. tuj&ye, uti, turyfii; neut ^i^oaye.

e. Gen.-abl. : masc. agnes, kvytM, axika; fem. idites, hety& and
bhtimifis; neut. bhtbes.

f. Loc: masc. agnftu, agni, fij&yi(?); f^m- agatftu, udit&y dh4-
nasfttasri (?), v6di, bhtbnyftm; neut aprata, Bapt&ra^mftu. .

g. Voc: as above (neut wanting).

h. Dual. Nom.-aco.-voc : masc. h&n; fem. yavati; neut QUOi»
m&hi, h&ri]gl(?).

i. Instr.-dat.-abl.: as above.

j. Oen.-loc: masc. h&rios; fem. yuvatybs and Jfimids; neut wanting.

k. Plural. Nom.: maso. agn&yas; fem. mat&yas, bhAmis ;' neut.
94oi, bhiiri, bhtbini.

1. Acous.: masc. agnln; fem. kijitis, ^uoayasC?).
m* Insir., dat.-abl., and loc. : as above.

n. Gen.: masc. fem. kavinam, fiju^aam etc. (neut wanting).

841. As models of u-stems may be taken ^f? 9&tru m.
^ dhenii f. cow] "^ m&dhu n. honey.

Singular:



enemy]



N.



A.



Ab. G.



L.



V.



Q&trus

9&trum

9&tru]^

Q&trave

qktroB

5rtt

9&trftu
9&tro



dhenii


m&dhu


dhenum


m&dliu


U^


i!^


dhenva


m&dhnnH


^^=^.1^


q^


dhen&ve, dh«nvfti m4dhune


dhends, dhenv&i


m&dhunas



dhenS&, dheuT&n m&dhuni
dh6no midliu, m&dho



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121



DlBOLBNSION II., i- AND U-STEMS.



[842—



DaU:






N.A.V.


9&trQ


dhenA


m&dliuiii


I.D.Ab.


9&trabliyftm


dhenubhyftm


m&dhubhyftm


G. L.




dlienv68


m&dhunoB


Plural:






N. V.


5r3Rn

9&trava8


dhen&vas


m&dhUni


A.




dhentb


midhnni


L


9&trubhiB


dhenubhiB


m&dhubhis


D. Ab.


9&trabhya8


dhenubhyas
dhenun&m


m&dhubhyas


G.




m&dhilnSm


L.


9&tru9u


dhenufu


m&dhufu



842. The forms of Vedic occurrence are given here for the u-stems
in the same manner as for the i-items above.

a« Singular. Nora.: masc. and fern, aa above; neat, urd, urtl.

b. Accus.: masc. ketum, &bhiruam, 8uoetunam(?); fem. dhenum.

o. Instr.: masc. ketiinft, pa^va and kr&tuft; fem. idhenuft and
panv^ fi^uyi; neut midhimftt m&dhv&«

d. Dat.: masc. ket&ve, ^f^ve; fem. 9&rave, l^vSi; neat. p&9ve(?),
ur&ve, m&dhune.

e. Abl.-gen.: masc. manyos, pitv&8» oftnu^as; fem. 8{ndh089 I^vBb;
neut. m&dhvaB and m&dhoaB, m&dhos, m&dhunas.

f. Loc. : masc. pfbrftu, stin&vi; fem. sfndhftUy r^jv&m; neat
B^ftUy sanavi, sano, sanuni.

g. Voc. : as above.

h. Dual. Nom.-acc.-voc: masc. and fem. as above; neat. urvl»
iinvaih

!• Instr.-dat.-abl. : as above.

j. Gen.-loc. : as above (bat voe or uoe).

k. Plural. Nom.: masc. fbhAvas, m&dhuas and m&dhvas; fem.
dheniTas, ^atakratvas; neut. purdi^, puru, purti.



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842—] V. Nouns and Adjbotivbs. 122

1. AocQB. : mMc. ftAn, paqv&a; fern, {fos, m&dhvas.
m. Instr., dat-abl.| and loc: as abOTO; also gen. (but witb the reso-
Intion tinaam in part).

848. Irregular declension. There are no irregular n-stems,
and only a very few i-stems.

a« 8&khi m. friend has for the five strong cases a peculiarly
strengthened base (yriddhied), namely s&khiy, which in the nonu
sing, is reduced to a&khft (without ending), and in the other oases
takes the normal endings. The instr. and dat sing, have the normal
endings simply, without inserted n or gui^; the abl-gen. sing, adds
us; and the loc. sing, adds ftu: the rest is like agn£ Thus:

Sing. B&khft, 8&khfiyam, 8&khyft»' s^khye, s^kkhyus, sAkhySn,
sAkhe; Da. 8&khftyftu» s&khlbhy&m, B&khyos; PI. s&khl^as, a&khln,
etc. etc.

b. The Veda has usually aiikliftyft do., and often resolTos the y to 1,
in B^ikhifi, B&khias, etc. The compounds are usually declined like the
simple word, unless (1816 b) sakha be substituted.

o. There is a corresponding fern., sakbl (declined like devi: 864);
but the forms of sakhi are also sometimes found used with feminine value.

d. F&ti m. is declined regularly in composition, and when it has
the meaning lord, master; when uncompounded and when meaning
husband, it is inflected like s&khi in the instr., dat, abl.-gen., and
loc. sing., forming p&ty&» p&tye^ p&tyos, p&fyftn. There are occasional
instances of confusion of the two classes of forms.

•• For pati as final member of a possessiye compound is regularly
and usually substituted patni in the fern.: thus, Jivapatni having a living
httsband] dftaapatnl having a barbarian for master •

f. J&ni f. tvife has the gen. sing. J&nyas in the Yeda.

g. Ar{ eager, greedy, hostile has in the Veda ary&8 in pi. nom. and
accus., masc. and fem. Its accus. sing, is arfm or Kejksn.,

h. Vi bird has in Ry. the nom. v^ (beside via). In the plural it
accents vibhis, vibhyas, but vinam.

i. The stems hkk^i eye, &8thi bone, d&dhi curds, and s&kthi thigh,
are defectiye, their forms exchanging with and complementing forms from
stems in &n (aki^&n etc.): see the stems in an, below (481).

J. The stem path! road is used to make up part of the inflection of
p&nthan: see below, 488.

k. EIr69tu m. jackal lacks the strong oases, for which the correspond-
ing forms of kroi^t^ ^^^ substituted.

Adjectives.

844. Original adjective stems in i are few; those in u are much
more numerous (many derivatiye verb-stems forming a participial



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1 23 Declension II.| i- and u-stems. [-—846

adjective in n). Their infleetion is like that of nouns, and has been
included in the rules given above. In those weak cases, however —
namely, the dat, abl.-gen., and loc. sing., and the gen.-Ioc. dual —
in which neuter nouns differ from masculines in the later language
by an inserted n (we have seen above that this difference does not
exist in the Veda), the neuter adjective is allowed to take either
form. The stem is the same for masculine and neuter, and generally
(and allowably always) for feminine also.

a. There are a few Inatances of a feminine noun In I standing (some-
times with changed aoeent) beside a masculine in i: thns, krfmi m., krimi
f.; s^Ukhi (843 a) m., sakhl f.; dundubhf m., dondublu f.; dhdni
m., dbtml f. ; ^akuni m., ^akunl or -ni f. In the later lang^iage, espe-
cially, there is a very frequent interchange of i and i as finals of the same
stem. No adjectire in i makes a regular feminine in L

b* With stems in u the case is quite different. While the feminine
may, and in part does, end in u, like the masculine and neuter, a spe-
cial feminine-stem is often made by lengthening the u to n, or also by
adding I; and for some stems a feminine is formed into two of these three
ways, or even in all the three: thus, kftra, -dipali, ^nndhyli, oari^i^tl,
vaoasyti; -ai^vi, wtv% gurvi, pOrvI (with prolongation of n before r:
compare 245 b), bahvi, prabhvl» raghvl, sftdhvi, svftdvi; — prthd
and p^hviy vibhft and vibhvi, mfdu ard m^dvi, laghn and laghvi,
V&8U and v&svi; babhrd and babhrti, bibhatsii and bibhatsft, bhirti
and bhirQ; — tanu and tanft and tanvi, phalgu and phalgti and
phalgvi, m&dhu and madhft and midhvi. There are also some femi-
nine noun-stems in u standing (usually with changed accent) beside mas-
culines in u: thus, ^ru m., agrA f.; k&dru m., kadrft f.; guggulu
m., goggultl f. ; Jatu m., jatft f. ; pf dfiku m., p^iiftkli f.

845. Boots ending in i or u (or f: 376 b) regularly add a t when
used as root-words or as root-finals of compounds; and hence there
are no adjectives of the root-class in this declension.

a. Tet, in the Yeda, a few words ending in a short radical n are
declined as if this were sufflxal: thus, Asm^adhru, auffu; and the AY.
has pftanfijf (once). Roots in ft sometimes also shorten u to u: thus,
prabhti, vibhu, etc. (354); go (361 e) becomes ga in composition; and
re perhaps becomes ri (861 e); while roots in ft sometimes apparentiy
weaken ft to i (in -dhi from ydhft etc.: 1156).

846* Compound adjectives having nouns of this declension as
final member are inflected in general like original adjectives of the
same endings.

a« But in sueh compounds a final i or u is sometimes lengthened to
form a feminine stem: thus, Bn^ro^I, svayoni or -ni, -gfttraya^fl or
-ti; vftmora or -ru, dtirhai^tl or -i^n, varatanu, mftt^bandha; and
RY. has i^QVI from qf^u.



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847—] V. NotJNS AND Adjbotivbs. 124

Declension III.
stems in long vowels: ^ S, ^ I, 3^ tl.

847. The steins ending in long vowels fall into two
well-marked classes or divisions: A. monosyllabic stems —
mostly bare roots — and their compounds, with a compar-
atively small number of others inflected like them; B. de-
rivative feminine stems in aSTT & and ^ I, with a small num-
ber in 3" tl which in the later language have come to be
inflected like them. The latter division* is by far the larger
and more important, since most feminine adjectives, and
considerable classes of feminine nouns, ending in ^ S or
^ I, belong to it.

A. Boot-words, and those inflected like them.

848. The inflection of these stems is by the normal
endings throughout, or in the manner of consonant-stems
(with W{ am, not R m, in the accus. sing.); peculiarities
like those of the other vowel-declensions are wanting. The
simple words are, as nouns, with few exceptions feminine;
as adjectives (rarely], and in adjective compounds, they are
alike in masculine and feminine forms. They may, for con-
venience of description, be divided into the following sub-
classes:

1. Boot-words, or monosyllables having the aspect of snch. Those
in ft are so rare that it is hardly possible to make up a whole scheme
of forms in actual use; those in I and n are more numerous, but still
very few.

2. Compounds having such words, or other roots with long final
vowels, as last member.

3. Polysyllabic words, of various origin and character, including
in the Veda many which later are transferred to other declensions.

4. As an appendix to this class we may most conveniently
describe the half-dozen stems, mostly of regular inflection, ending in
diphthongs.



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125



DbGLBNBIOM III., ft-, Iv AND U-STEM6.



[—861



849. Monosyllabic Btems. Before the endings beginning with
TOwe]9, final i is changed to iy and U to nv; while final & is dropped
altogether, except in the strong cases, and in the ace. pi., which is
like the nominatiye (according to the grammarians, ft is lost here also :
no instances of the occarrence of such a form appear to be quotable).
Stems in i and u are in the later language allowed to take optionally
the fuller endings fti* ft8» ftm in the singular (dat., abl.-gen., loc.); but
no such forms are ever met with in the Veda (except bhiyfti [P], RV.,
once). Before ftm of gen. pL, n may or may not be inserted; in the
Veda it is regularly inserted, with a single exception (dhiyam, once).
The vocative is like the nominative in the singular as well as the
other numbers ; but instances of its occurrence in uncompounded stems
are not found in the Veda, and must be extremely rare everywhere.
The earlier Vedic dual ending is ft instead of ftu.

350. To the i- and &-stoms the rules for monosyllabic accent
apply : the accent is thrown forward upon the endings in all the weak
cases except the accus. pi., which is like the nom. But the ft-stoms
appear (the instances are extremely few) to keep the accent upon the
stom throughout.

351, Examples of declension. As models of mon-
osyllabic inflection we may take sTT j4 f. progeny \ ift dhi f.
thought\ and H bhd f. earth.

a« The flrit of theie is rather arbitrarily extended from the four oases
which actually occur; of the loc. sing, and gen.-loo. du., no Vedic examples
from ft-stems are found.



N.



D.



Ab.G.



Slngolar:

sn^

Jam
ja

fir



dhTR


bhtlB


dh£yam


bhuvam


imi


^ ^


dhiyi


bhuva


1^$, ^


!?.^


dhiyd, dhiy&f


bhuv6, bhuv&f


dhiy&8, dhiyas


bhuv&8,bhuva8


dhiyf, dhiyam


bbuvf, bhuvim


dhia


5^

bhds



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861—]



V. Nouns and Adjeotiybs.



126



N.A.V.



I.D.Ab.



G.L.



N.



A.



D.Ab.



G.



Dual:

tr


fil5t


^


jau


dhiyftu


bhav&u


jibhyfim
J6b''


dhibhyam
dhiy6B


bhUbhy&n
bhuv68


Plaral:






Ob


dhfyas


3^.

bhuvaB


jibhiB


dhfyaB
dhibhls


bh&vsB
bhubhlfl


jabhyas


dhlbhy&8


bhabby&8


Jan&m, J^


dhiy^, dhin^


1 bhuvim, bbtlnlbd


Jdsu


dhifu


2S

bhufd



862. Monosyllabic stems in composition. Whenthenouns
above described occur as final member of a compound, or when any
root in ft or I or u is found in a like position, the inflection of an
ft-stem is as above. Bat i- and n-stems follow a divided usage: the
final vowel before a vowel-ending is either converted into a short
vowel and semivowel (iy or uv, as above) or into a semivowel simply
(y or v). The accent is nowhere thrown forward upon the endings;
and therefore, when i and a become y and v, the resulting syllable
is circumflex (88<^). Thus:

Masc. and fem. Singular:



N. V.


.dhis


-bh^B


A.


-dhfyam


•dhykm


-bhiivam -bhvkm


I.


-dhfyft


-dhyll


-bhuvft -bhvi


D.


-dhiye


-dhy^


-bhuve -bhv^


Ab. G.


-dhiyas


-dhyka


-bhuvaB -bhviM


L.


-dhiyl


-dhyi


-bhuvi -bhvi



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127 Dbolbnsion m.) s-, i-, andA-stbhs. [ — 854

Dual:

N. A. Y. -dhiyfta -dhyaii -bhuvftu -bhvftd
L D. Ab. -dhibhyftm -bhtlbhyftm

0. L. -dhfyoB -dhyds -bhuvos -bhv68

Planl:

N. A. T. -dhfyas -dhyks -bhuvas -bhvlu

1. <Lbibhis -bhtibhia
D. Ab. -dhlbhyas -bhAbhyas

r^yfim r-bhuvftm ^ ^

\-dhintoi •^»**^»"* l-bhtbam "'"^*"

L. -dhX^u -bhft^u

a. As to the admiMibility of the fuller endings fti, fis, and ftm in the
singular (feminine), grammatical authorities are somewhat at Tarianoe; bnt
they are nerer found in the Veda, and haye been omitted from the above
scheme as probably onreal.

b* If two consonants precede the final I or u, the dissyllabic forms,
with iy and nv, are regnlarly written; after one consonant, the usage is
Tarying. The grammarians prescribe iy and uv when the monosyllabic stem
has more the character of a nonn, and y and v when it is more purely a
▼erbal root with participial yalne. No snch distinction, howeyer, is to be seen
in the Yeda — where, moreover, the difference of the two forms is only
graphic, since the yft- and vft-forms and the rest are always to be read as
dissyllabic: Ift or Ift and oft or aft, and so on.

o. As to neater stems for such adjectiyes, see 367.

363. A few farther Yedic irregularities or pecaliarities may be briefly
noticed.

a. Of the ft-stems, the forms in fts, &m, ft (da.) are sometimes to
be read as dissyllables, aaa, aam, aa. The dative of the stem used as
infinitive is ft{ (as if a + e): thus, prakhy&f* pratimftf, parftdft{.

b. Irregular transfer of the accent to the ending in compounds is seen
in a case or two: thus, avadyabhiyi (RV.), ftdhii (AV.).

354* But compoands of the class above described are not in-
frequently transferred to other modes of inflection: the ft shortened
to a for a masculine (and neuter) stem, or declined like a stem of
the deriyatiye ft-class (below, 364) as feminine; the i and a short-
ened to 1 and n, and inflected as of the second declension.

a. Thos, compound stems in -ga, -Ja, -da, -stha, -bhu, and others, are
found even in the Yeda, and become frequent later (being made from all, or
nearly all, the roots in ft) ; and sporadic cases from yet others occur: for example,
^^pan, vayodhftis and ratnadh^bhis, dhanasftiB (all RY.); and,
ttom I and H compounds, ve^aK^riB (TS.), ihrayas (RY.), ga^a^ribhis
(BY.), karma^fa (gB.) and ftanibliyas (RY.) and senftnfbhyaa (YS.)
and grftmai^bhis (TB.), aupioiift (AY.), 9itibhrAve (TS.).

b. Still more numerous are the feminines in ft which have lost their



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364-—] V. Nouns and Adjeotivbs. 128

root-declension: examples are praji (of which the farther compounds in
part have root-forms), avftdha, qr&ddhi^ pratimi» and others.

o. Then, in the later language, a few femlnines in I are made from
the stems in a shortened from ft: thus, gopi, gofj^hiy pannagi, pafiki^if
blmjagi, bhi]Jaiiigi» surftpi.

356. Polysyllabic Stems. Stems of this division (A) of more
than one syllable are very rare indeed in the later language, and by
no means common in the earlier. The Rig- Veda, however, presents
a not inconsiderable body of them ; and as the class nearly dies oat
later, by the disuse of its stems or their transfer to other modes of
declension, it may be best described on a Vedic basis.

a. Of stem sin ft, mascuUnes, half-a-dozen occor in the Ted a: p&ntiift,
SDL&nthS, and fbliiik§^ are otherwise viewed by the later gramnar: see
below, 433-4; uQ&nS (nom. pr.) has the anomalous nom. sivg. u^&nft
(and loc. as well as dat. U9&ne) ; mahi ffreat is found only in aocus. sing,
and abundantly in composition ; atft frams has only atfisu not derivable
from ita.

b. Of stems in i, over seventy are found in the Yeda, nearly all
femlnines, and all accented on the final. Half of the femlnines are formed
from masculines with change of accent: thus, kalyfti^ (m. kalyai^),
puruff (m. piiruija); others show no change of accent: thus, yamf (m.
yamd); others still have no corresponding mascalines : thus, nadl, lakfml*
sQmi. The masculines are about ten in number: for example, rathl,
pr&vi, atari, ahl, apathl.

o. Of stems in ti, the number Is smaller: these, too, are nearly all
femlnines, and all accented on the final. The majority of them are the
feminine adjectives in ft to masculines in ii or u (above, 344 b) : thus,
carai^ytli, carii}]^ti, Jighatsii, nxadliii. A few are nouns In ft, with
change of accent: thus, agrft (&gra), pfd&ktt (pfdSku), 9va9rtt (9V&-
^nra); or without change, as n^rttt. And a few have no corresponding
masculines: thus, tanft, vadbu, oamtt. The masculines are only two or
three: namely, prfi^, kfluulfi^tt, mak94(?); and their forms are of the
utmost rarity.

366. The mode of declension of these words may be illustrated
by the following examples: rathi m. charioteer; nadi f. stream; tand
f. bodf/,

a. No one of the selected examples occurs in all the forms; forms for
which no example at all is quotable are put in brackets. No loo. sing. fh>m
any i-stem occurs, to determine what the form would be. The stem nadl
is selected as example partly in order to emphasize the difference between
the earlier language and the later in regard to the words of this diviiion :
nadi is later the model of derivative Inflection.



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129



DeCLEMSIOM m., BaDICAL a-, I-, AND U-STEMS. [ — 868



Singular:








N.


rathifl


nadis


tantUi


A.




nadfaxn


tandam


I.


rathfft


nadis,


tanuft


D.


rathle


nadfe


tande


Ab. G.


rathlas


nadias


tanuas


L.






tanui


V.


r4tlii(?)


n&di


t&nu


Dual:








N. A. V.


rathfft


nad{ft


tanuft


L D. Ab.


[rathfbhyftm]


nadlbhyaxn


[tandbhyftm]


G. L.


[rathfos]


nadfoB


taniaoB


Plural:








N. A.


rathias


nadfas


tanuas


I.


[rathibhls]


nadXbhis


tanAbhia


D. Ab.


[rathibhyas]


nadlbhyas


tandbhyas


G.


rathlnSm


nadfnftTn


tantbifim


L.


[rathifu]


nadlfu


tanAiju



b. The casei — nadfam, tandam, etc. — are written above accord-
ing to their true phonetic form, almost invariably belonging to them in
the Yeda; in the written text, of course, the stem-flnal is made a semi-
vowel, and the resulting syllable is circumflexed: thus, nadykm, tan-
vam, etc. ; only, as usual, after two consonants the resolved forms iy and
uv are written Instead; and also where the combination yv would other-
wise result: thus, oakrfyft, [agruvftij and mitrftyuvaa. The RV. really
reads Btarykm etc. twice, and tanvlu etc. four times; and such con-
tractions are more often made in the AY. The ending ft of the nom.-acc.-voc.
du. is the equivalent of the later ftu. The nom. sing, in a from i-stems
is found in the older language about sixty times, firom over thirty stems.

867. Irregularities of form, properly so called, are very few in this
division: oamft as loc. sing, (instead of oamvi) occurs a few times; and
there is another doubtful case or two of the same kind; the final tl is re-
garded as pragfhya or uncombinable (138); tandi is lengthened to tanvt
in a passage or two; -ydvas is once or twice abbreviated to -ylis.

868. The process of transfer to the other form of i- and Q-declension
(below, 802 ff.), which has nearly extinguished this category of words in
the later language, has its beginnings in the Yeda; but in BY. they are
excessively scanty: namely, dutiam, loc. sing., once, and 9va9ruim, do.,
once, and dravitnuli, instr. sing., with two or three other doubtful cases.
In the Atharvan, we find the ace. sing, kuhtim, tanlim, vadhlim; the
instr. sing, palftlia and one or two others; the dat. sing. vadlivft{, 9va-
9ru&£, agruvfti; the abl.-gen. sing, punarbhuvfta, p^dftkuas, 9va9rua8;
and the loc. sing, tanuftm (with anomalous accent). Accusatives plural in
18 and U8 are nowhere met with.

Whitney, Orammar. 3. ed. 9



Digitized by VjOOQ iC



869—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 130

869. Adjecdve compounds from these words are very few; those which
occur are declined like the simple stems : thus, hfraQyaT&QlB and sah&s-
rastariBy itaptatanns and B&rvatantiSy all nom. sing, masculine.

Steins ending in diphthongs.

860. There are certain monosyllabic stems ending in diphthongs,
which are too few and too diverse in inflection to make a declension
of, and which may be most appropriately disposed of here, in con-
nection with the stems in i and tl, with which they have most affinity.
They are:

a. stems in ftu: nftu and glftii;

b. stems in &i: toi;

o. stems in o: g6 and dy6 (or dyu, div).

861. a. The stem nftu f. ship is entirely regular, taking the
normal endings throughout, and following the rules for monosyllabic
accentuation (817) — except that the accus. pi. is said (it does not
appear to occur in accented texts) to be like the nom. Thus: nfius,
navam, nftva, nav6, n&v&s, nftvi ; nav&u, nftubhyam, n&vds; n&vaa,
navaSy nfiubhfs, nftubhyds, nftvam, nftufu. The stem gl&ii m. baU
is apparently inflected in the same way; but few of its forms have
been met with in use. .

b. The stem rftl i. (or m.) wealth might be better described as



Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 15 of 59)