William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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T& with a union-consonant y (268) interposed before vowel endings,
and is regularly inflected as such, with normal endings and mono-
syllabic accent. Thus: ras, rayam, rftyi» rftyd, r&y&s, rSyf; rayftu,
r&bhyam, rfty68; rayas, rfty&s, xftbhfs, rftbhy&s, rftyam, rfisu. But
in the Veda the accus. pi. is either rSy&a or rayas; for accus. sing,
and pi. are also used the briefer forms ram (BY. once: i^yam does
not occur in V.) and ras (SV., once); and the gen.-sing. is sometimes
anomalously accented rayas.

e. The stem g6 m. or f. bull or cow is much more irregular. In
the strong cases, except accus. sing., it is strengthened to gftu, form-
ing (like nftii) gftiis, gavftu, gavas. In accus. sing, and pi. it has
(like rft{) the brief forms gam and gds. The abl.-gen. sing, is gds
(as if from gu). The rest is regularly made from go, with the normal
endings, but with accent always remaining irregularly upon the stem:
thus, g&vft, g&ve, g&vi, g4vos, g4vfim; g6bliyftm, gobhis, g6bhya8,
gd^tu In the Veda, another form of the gen. pi. is g6nftm; the nom.
etc. du. is (as in all other such cases) also gavft; and gtmt gds, and
gts are not infrequently to be pronounced as dissyllables. As ace.
pi. is found a few times gftvas

d. The stem dy6 f. (but in V. usually m.) skt/^ day is yet more
anomalous, having beside it a simpler stem dyu, which becomes div
before a vowel-ending. The native grammarians treat the two as



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131 Declension in., Diphthongal Stems. [—362

independent words, but it is more conyenient to put them together.
The stem dy6 is infleeted precisely like g6, as aboye described. The
complete declension is as follows (with forms not actually met with
io use bracketed):

Singular. Daal. Plural.



[dfvaa] dyivsu ^;j^ ^^ ^^^^

dy&bhis [dydbtaia]
[dyibhysm dydbhyam] j ^^^^^ dy6bhy«i]

G. div&B dy6s r .. r , , ^ [divSm dy&vtoi]



N. dyfttiB 1

A. dfvam dyam
L div4 [dy&vft]
D. diT6 dy&ve
Ab. div&8 dy68



dtvf dy&vi



[div6B dy&voB] ^^ j^,^^^

•• The dat. sing, dy&ve is not found in the early language. Both
dfvaa and div&s occur as aecus. pi. in T. As nom. etc. dn., dyavft is,
as usual, the regular Yedic form : once occurs dy&vi (du.), as if a neuter
form; and dyftuB is found once used as ablatiye. The cases dy&us, dy&m
and dyan (once) are read In Y. sometimes as dissyllables; and the first
as accented yocative then becomes dySiia (i. e. di&us: see 314 b).

f. Adjective compounds having a diphthongal stem as final member
are not numerous, and tend to shorten the diphthong to a vowel. Thus,
from nau we have bhinnanu; from go, several words like dgu, sapt&gu*
saga, bahug^ (f. -g6 TB.); and, correspondingly, rfti seems to he reduced
to xi in bfh&draye and ^dli&drayaa (RV.). In derivation, go maintains
its full form in gotra, ag6t&, -gava (f. -gavi), etc.; as first member of
a compound, it is variously treated: thus, g&va9ir, gkvi^\i (but gaa9ir,
gaifti K.), etc.; goa9V& or go'^va, g6fjika, g6opa9a9 etc. In certain
compounds, also, dyu or dyo takes an anomalous form: thus, dyfiiirdfi
(E.), dyanrlokA (9B.), dyausaiiiQita (AY.). In rev&nt (unless this is
for rasrivant) rfti becomes re. BY. has AdhrigSvaa from &dhrigu (of
questionable import); and AY. has ghftastavas, apparently accus. pi. of
gh^ptaatu or -sto.

B. Derivative stems in S, I, tl.

362. To this division belong all the S and I-stems which

have not been specified above as belonging to the other or

root-word division; and also, in the later language, most

of the I and tl-stems of the other division, by transfer to

a more predominant mode of inflection. Thus:

1. a. The great mass of derivative feminine S-stems, substantive
and adjective.

b. The inflection of these stems has maintained itself vrith little change
through the whole history of the language, being almost precisely the same
in the Yedas as later.

9*



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362—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 132

2. o. The great mass of derivative feminine I-stema.

d. This class is withoat exception in the later langnage. In the earlier,
it soiTers the exception pointed out above (366 b): that feminines made
with change of accent follow this mode of declension only when the accent
is not on the I: thus, t&vii}!, p&nmijLl, p&llkiUy rbhii^

e. The I-stems of this division in general are regarded as made hy
contraction of an earlier ending in yft. Their inflection has become in the
later language somewhat mixed with that of the other dlYision, and so far
diiferent from the Yedic inflection : see below, 363 g.

f. Very few derivative stems in i are recognized by the grammarians
as declined like the root-division; the Yedic words of that class are, if
retained in use, transferred to this mode of inflection.

g. A yery small number of masculine i-stems (half-a-dozen) are in the
Veda declined as of the derivative division: they are a few rare proper
names, matali etc.; and ras^ and sirl (only one case each).

3. h. The u-stems are few in number, and are transfers from the
other division, assimilated in inflection to the great class of derivative
i-stems (except that they retain the ending s of the nom. sing.).

363. Endings. The points of distinction between this and the other
division are as follows:

a. In nom. sing, the usual a-ending is wanting: except in the Tl-stems
and a very few I-stems — namely, lak^ml, tari, tantri, tandri — which
have preserved the ending of the other division.

b. The accus. sing, and pi. add simply m and a respectively.

o. The dat., abl.-gen., and loc. sing, take always the fuller endings
al, fiSy fim; and these are separated from the final of the fi-stems by an
interposed y. In Brahmana etc., 3.1 is generally substituted for fis (307 h).

d. Before the endings & of instr. sing, and OB of gen.-loc dn., the final
of ft-stems Is treated as if changed to 6; but in the Yeda, the instr. end-
ing ft very often (in nearly half the occurrences) blends with the final to ft.
The yft of i-stems is in a few Yedic examples contracted to i, and even
to i. A loc. sing, in 1 occurs a few times.

e. In all the weakest cases above mentioned, the accent of an 1- or
Q-stem having acute final is thrown forward npon the ending. In the
remaining case of the same class, the gen. pi., a n is always interposed
between stem and ending, and the accent remains upon the former (in RY.,
however, it is usually thrown forward upon the ending, as in i and u-stems).

f. In V06. sing., final ft becomes e; final 1 and u are shortened.

g. In nom.-acc.-voc. dn. and nom. pi. appears in 1 (and u)-stems a
marked difference between the earlier and later language, the latter borrow-
ing the forms of the other division. The du. ending au is unknown in
BY., and very rare in AY.; the Yedic ending is i (a corresponding dual
of ii-stems does not occur). The regnlar later pi. ending aa has only a



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133



Declension III., Dekivative a-, I-, and u-stbms. [—364



doubtfnl example or two in BY., and a Tery small number in AY.; the
case there (and it is one of very frequent occurrence) adds 8 simply; and
though yas-forms occur in the Brahmanas, along with is-forms, both are
used rather indifferently as nom. and accus. (as, indeed, they sometimes
interchange also in the epics). Of fi-stems, the du. nom. etc. ends in e,
both earlier and later; in pi., of course, B-forms are indistinguishable from
aB-forms. The RY. has a few examples of ftaaa for fiB.

h. The remaining cases call for no remark.

364. Examples of declension. As models of the
inflection of derivative stems ending in long vowels, we
may take VFU sinft f. army; ^RJT kanyS f. girl] ^cft devi
f. goddess; ^ vadhd f. woman.



N.



Ab. G.



N. A.Y.



I. D. Ab.



G. L.



Singular:
B6n&


kanyli


devi

devim

devya

devyftf

devyas

devyam

ddvi

devyftii

devibhyftm

devy6B


vadht&B


B^nftm


kanyam


vadhdm


Benayd
Btoftyai


kanyaya


vadhva


kanyayfti


vadhvftf


B^nayaB


kanyay&B


vadhvas


B6nayam

Bene
Dual:

s^nfibhySm
senayoB


kanyayftm
k&nye

kany^
kanyllbhyam


vadhvam
v&dhu

vadhvftu

vadhtibhy&m

vadhvoB


kanyayoB



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864—]



V. Nouns and Adjectives.



134



N. V.



A.



D.Ab.



G.



L.



Plural:
senfts








kanylUi


devyaa
devlB


vadhvkB




+-ym^


vadhliB


B^nftbhiB


kanyllbhiB


devibhiB


vadhtibhlB


B^n&bhyaB


kanyabhyaB


devibhyaa


vadht&bhyaa


B^n&nSm


•v.

kanyanSm


"^cjlHW^


vadhtbiftm


B^nftBU


kany&su


devi^u


vadhtifu


I the Veda vadhd is a stem belonging to the other dirision (like



tantl, above, 856).

865. Examples of Yedic forms are:

a. ft-stems: instr. sing, manlfft (this simpler form is especially com-
mon ftom stems in tft and ift); nom. pi. va^tsas (about twenty examples);
accns. pL araiiigamasaB (a case or two). Half the bhyaa-cases are to
be read as bhiaa; the Sm of gen. pi. is a few times to be resolved into
aam; and the & and Sm of nom. accns. sing, are, very rarely, to be
treated in the same manner.

b. l-stems: instr. sing. 9&mi, Q&mi; loc. gfturi; nom. etc. dn. devt;
nom. pL deviB; gen. pi. bahvmim. The final of the stem is to be read
as a vowel (not y) frequently, but not in the majority of instances: thus,
devi^ devi&i» devi&n, r6da8io8.

0. The sporadic instances of transfer between this division and the
preceding have been already sufficiently noticed.

d. Of the regular substitution made in the Brahmana language (807 li»
886 g, 868 o) of the dat sing, ending &i for the gen.-abl. ending &B, in
all classes of words admitting the latter ending, a few examples may be givea
here: abhibbutyfii rQpam (AB.) a sign of overpowering', triftubhaQ
oa Jagatyfti oa (AB.) of the metres tri§tubh and j'agati ; vfico dfiivySi
oa m&QU^&i oa (AA.) of speech, both divine and human; Btriy&i paya^
(AB.) woman's milk; dhenvftl vi etkd r6tah (TB.) that, forsooth, is the
seed of the cow ; Jiti^fty&i tvaoa^ (^B.) of dead skin ; jy&yaBi yl^ySyfti
(AB.) superior to the yfijyft; aayfii divo <Bm&d antarikfftt (9QS.)yy*ofn
this heaven, from this atmosphere. The same substitution is made once in
the AY.: thus, BT&pantv asySi Jli&t&yuh let her relatives sleep.



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135 Declension, III. Dbeivativb ft-, if, and a-STEMS. [— ses

866. The noun stri f. woman (probably contracted from satrl gene-
ratrix)j follows a mixed declension : thns, stri, strisram or stxim* striy^
striyfif, Btriyas, Btriyam, strf; strlyftu, Btribhyam, Btriy6B; striyas,
Btrfyas or BtrlB, Btribhla, Btribhy&8» BtriigLim, Btri^ii (bnt the accns-
atires Btrim and Btris are not fonnd in the older language, and the toc.
Btri is not quotable). The accentuation is that of a root- word; the forms
(conspicuously the nom. sing.) are those of the other or deriratiye diTision.



AdjeoUveB.

867. a. The occurrence of original adjectiyes in long final vowels,
and of compoandfl haying as final member a stem of the first diyislon,
has been snffioiently treated aboye, so far as masoaline and feminine
forms are concerned. To form a neuter stem in composition, the rale
of the later language is that the final long yowel be shortened; and
the stem so made is to be inflected like an adjective in i or u (889,
841. 844).

b. Such neuter forms axe very rare, and In the older language almost
unknown. Of neuters from I-stems have been noted in the Yeda only
hari^riyam, aco. sing, (a masc. form), and BOftdbfaB, gen. sing, (same
as masc and fem.); from fl-stems, only a few examples, and from stem-
forms which might be masc. and fem. also: .thus, vibhu, subhu, etc. (nom.-
ace. sing.: compare 854); BUpuft and mayobhava, instr. sing.; and
mayobbu, ace. pi. (compare piirii: 842 k); ftom ft-stems occur only half-
a-dozen examples of a nom. sing, in ftB, like the masc. and fem. form.

o. Compounds having nouns of the second division as final
member are common only from derivatives in ft; and these shorten
the final to a in both masculine and neuter: thus, from a not and
pr^jft progeny come the masc. and neut. stem apraja, fem. aprajft
cMldlus. Such compounds with nouns in i and u are said to be in-
flected in masc. and fem. like the simple words (only with in and un
in ace. pi. masc); but' the examples given by the grammarians are
fictitious.

d. Stems with shortened final are occasionally met with: thus, eka-
patniy ftttalakf mi ; and such adverbs (neut. sing, aocus.) as upabhftimiy
abhyqjjayini. The stem stri is directed to be shortened to stri for all
genders.

868. It is convenient to give a complete paradigm,
for all genders, of an adjective-stem in ^ a. We take for
the purpose W^ pftp& evil, of which the feminine is usu-
ally made in 3B|T ft in the later language, but in ^ I in the
older.



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368—]



V. Nouns and Adjectives.



136



N.



Ab.



G.



N.A.V.



I. D. Ab.



G. L.



N.



D. Ab.



Singular:






m. n.


f.


f.


MIMM^ MIMH^


mm


qFft


pftp&8 pftp&m


papa


pftpi


^\^^


mqFT^


qmlq^


pftptoi


pftpam


papim


qf^


qron


qrcm


p&pena


pftp&yft


papya


wm


qm^


m^


papSya


pftpSyfti


papyal


MmiH^


MiMIUm^


MIUII^^


pftpat


p&payfts


papyas


MIMW


MIMItim^


MIU4IH^


pap&sya


papayfts


papyas


MIMIUIH^




pftp6


p&payam


papyam


^[^


m^


qift


papa


pape


pSpi


Dual:






^[^ wi


^f^


W^


pftpftu pfip6


pap6


papyau


MIMI^IH


MIMI^UIH^


mimIuiih^


papabhyam


p&pabhyam


papibhyam


MIMUlH^


mimuIh^


Miujm^


pftp&yoB


pftp&yos


pBpy6s


Plural:






M|t|m MiMlPi


mqm


MlUJfl


•s


-s


-V


papas p&pani


papas


papyks


MIMH MIMiPl


qiqiH


qrftH


^^ ^


•^^


^•v


pftpan papani


papas


papis


^^^


qiqiPfH


mimKhH^


p&p&fs


papabhis


paplbhis


MIM^^H


MIMI^UH^


MIMI^UH^


-^






papebhyas


papabhyas


papibhyas



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137 Declension IV., f -stems. [—371

pftpinftm pftpanftm pftpinftm

L. qf^ MIMI^ MIMIn

pftp^fu pftpasu p&pifu

Declension IV.

stems in ^ r (or ^ET^ ar] .

869. This declension is a comparatiyely limited one,
being almost entirely composed of deriyative nouns formed
wiUi the suffix cT tr (or rT^ tar), which makes masculine
nomina agentis (used also participially), and a few nouns of
relationship.

a. But it includes also a few nouns of relationship not made
with that suffix: namely devf m., Bv&a^ and n&n&nd^ f.; and, besides
these, nf m., stf (in Y.) m., usf (in Y.) f., aavyaftlMT ^-> ^^^ the
feminine numerals tisf and catasi^ (for which, see 482 e» g). The
feminines in tp are only m&t^» duhit^, and yit^.

b. The inflection of these §tems is quite closely analogous with
that of stems in i and u (second declension); its peculiarity, as
compared with them, consists mainly in the treatment of the stem
itself, which has a double form, fuller in the strong cases, briefer in
the weak ones.

870. Forms ofthe Stem. In the weak cases (excepting the
loc. sing.) the stem-final is f, which in the weakest cases, or before
a vowel-ending, is changed regularly to r (129). But as regards the
strong cases, the stems of this declension fall into two classes: in
one of them — which is very much the larger, containing all the
nomina agentis, and also the nouns of relationship n&ptf and Bv&sr,
and the irregular words st^ and savyai^tlMr — the x Is yriddhied, or
becomes ar; in the other, containing most of the nouns of relationship,
with nf and usf , the x Is gunated, or changed to ar. In both classes,
the loc. sing, has ar as stem-final.

371. Endings. These are in general the normal, but with the
oUowing exceptions:

a. The nom. sing. (masc. and fern.) ends always in a (for original ars
or firs). The toc. sing, ends in ar.

' b. The aeons, sing, adds am to the (strengthened) stem; the accns.
pL has (like i- and u-stems) n as maso. ending and b as fern, ending, with
the X lengthened before them.



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871—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 138

o. The &bl.-gen. sing, changes ^ to ur (or tui: 169 b).

d. The gen. pi. (as in i and u-stems) inserts n before Sm, and
lengthens the stem-flnal before it. Bnt the f of nf may also remain short.

e. The above are the rules of the later language. The older presents
certain deyiations from them. Thus:

f. The ending in nom.-acc.-Yoc dn. is (as unirersally in the Yeda)
regularly ft instead of ftu (only ten ftu-forms in BY.).

g. The i of loc. sing, is lengthened to I in a few words : thus, kartftrL
h. In the gen. pi., the RV. has once sv&srftm, without inserted n;

and naram instead of n^i^im is frequent.

i. Other irregulaiities of nf are the sing. dat. n&re, gen. n&ras, and
loc. n4rl. The Yeda writes always n^am in gen. pi., but its ^ is in a
minority of cases metrically long.

J. The stem xuf t da/wn has the yoc. sing, o^ar, the gen. sing, nsr&s;
and the accus. pi. also tuir&s, and loc sing, usram (which is metrically
trisyllabic: tus^^tm), as if in analogy with I and u-stems. Once occurs
yxBxi in loc. sing., but it is to be read as if the regular trisyllabic form,
u^&ri (for the exchange of s and 9, see 181 a).

k. From stf come only taras (apparently) and st^bhis.

L In the gen.-loc. du., the r is almost always to be read as a sepa-
rate syllable, f, before the ending 08: thus, pitf6B, etc. On the contrary,
n&nftndari Is once to be read n&nftndri.

m. For neuter forms, see below, 875.

872. Accent. The accentuation follows closely the rules for
i- and u-stems: if on the final of the stem, it continues, as acute, on
the corresponding syllable throughout, except in the gen. pi, where
it may be (and in the Veda always is) thrown forward upon the
ending; where, in the weakest cases, r becomes r, the ending has the
accent. The two monosyllabic stems, nf and st^, do not show the
monosyllabic accent: thus (besides the forms already gtven aboye),
nfbhiSy ntfu.

878. Examples of declension. As models of this
mode of inflection, we may take firom the first class (with
5rrf ftr in the strong forms) the stems ^IrT dStf m. giver
and ^ofH sv&sr f. sister \ from the second class (with fST^ ar
in the strong forms), the stem f^cT pit* m. father.
Singular :
N.



dfttt




ftar

pitt
pit&ram


<IHI|H,
d&taram


Bv&saram



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139



Declension IY., ^-stbhs.



[—373



L


^T^


T^m


f^T^TT




dfttri


BT&srft


pitra


D.


^


^


ft%




dfttr6


BvAsre


pitr6


Ab.G.


dfttur


8V&8Ur


Hi
pitur


L.


<wfi-


H«f(


ftrTft




dfttdri


Bv&sari


pitirl


V.


ditar


8v&8ar


ftrTT
pftar


Dual:






N. A. V.


i^iaifl


^sraitf


fcFTfr




dfttirftu


BV&B&rftU


pitAr&u


I. D. Ab.


dft^bhyam


Bvis^bhyam


pit^bhyaix


G. L.


dfttroB


BT&sroB


pitr6B


Plural:




pitAras


N. V.


d&tiLras


Bv&B&raB


A.


dfttfn


BV&BfB


^


I.


dfttfbhis


Bv&BfbhiB


pittbhlB


D.Ab.


dfttq^bhyaa


BvaBfbhyaB


pit^bhyaa


G.


<lf|UIIH^
dfttfi^m


Bv&BfigLfim


pitf^^


L.


^5

dftttfu


8V&B|^a


Pmhh

pitffu



a. The feminine stem qTrT mStf, mother^ is inflected pre-
cisely like f^ pitf y excepting that its accusative plural is
qHR^mSt^B.



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378—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 140

b. The peculiar Yedlc forms have been suffloieutly instanced above;
the only ones of other than sporadic occorrence being the nom. etc. da.
datara, Bv&Bftrfi, pit&rft, and the gen. pi. of wp, naram.

o. The nom. pi. forms pitaras and mfttaras etc. are found used also
as accus. In the epics.

374. The stem kroft^ m. jackal (lit'ly howler) substitutes in the
middle cases the corresponding fornus of krdftu (343 k).

376. Neuter forms. The grammarians prescribe a complete
neuter declension also for bases in tf, precisely accordant with that
of vari or m&dhu (above, 339, 341). Thus, for example:





Sing.


Da.


Plur.


N. A.


dh&tf


dhfitp?!


dhfit^i


I.


dhatfnft


dhftt^bhyAin


dhfttfbhiB


G.


dhatfnas


dh&tfijLOS


dh&tfi^am


V.


dhatr, dhatar


dhatp^


dhatfni.



a. The weakest cases, however (as of i- and u-s terns used ad-
ject! vely: 344), are allowed also to be formed like the corresponding
masculine cases: thus, dhfitra etc.

b. No such neater forms chance to occur in the Veda, but they begin
to appear in the Brahmanas, under influence of the oommon tendency
(compare Germ. Metier, Heiterin; Fr. menteur, menteuse') to give this
nomen agentis a more adjective character making it correspond in gender
with the noun which it (oppositively) qaalifles. Thus, we have in
TB. bhartf and Janayitf, qualifying antdrik^am; and bhartp^ and
Janayitr^i, qualifying nik^atrani; as, in M., graMtfni, qualifying
indriyani.

o. When a feminine noun is to be qualified in like manner, the asual
feminine derivative in i is employed: thas, in TB., bhartryas and bhar-
tryau, janayitryas and janayitryaii, qualifying apas and ahorfttre;
and such instances are not uncommon.

d. The RY. shows the same' tendency very curiously once in the accus.
pi. mat^n, instead of mStfs, in apposition with masculine nouns (BY.
I. 35.2).

6. Other neuter forms in RY. are sth&tur gen. sing., dhm&t&ri loc.
sing.; and for the nom. sing., instead of -tf, a few more or less doubtfal
cases, athatar, sth&tur, dhart^ri.

AdjeotiLves.

376. a. There are no original adjectives of this declension: for
the quasi-adjectival character of the nouns composing it, see above
(375b]. The feminine stem is made by the suffix I: thus, dfttrI,dh&trL

b. Boots ending in x (like those in i and u : 345) add a t to make
a declinable stem, when occurring as final member of a compound:



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



141 Declension V., Consonant-stems. [ — 379

thus, karmalq^ (V^)> vajrabhft (i/bhr), baUhft (ylir)* From Bome
r-roots, also, are made stems in ir and ur: see below, 383 a, b.

o. Nouns in ^ as finals of adjective compounds are inflected in
the same manner as when simple, in the masculine and feminine; in
the neuter, they would doubtless have the peculiar neuter endings in
nom.-acc.-voc. of all numbers.

d. But TS. has once tv&tpitSras, nom. pi., having thee for father.

Declension V.

stems ending in Consonajits.
377. All stems ending in consonants may properly be
classed together, as forming a single comprehensive declen-
sion: since, though some of them exhibit peculiarities of
inflection, these have to do almost exclusively with the stem
itself, and not with the declensional endings.

878. In this declension, masculines and feminines of
the same final are inflected alike; and neuters are peculiar
(as usually in the other declensions) only in the nom.-acc.-
voc. of all numbers.

a. The majority of consonantal stems, however, are not
inflected in the feminine, but form a special feminine deriv-
ative stem in ^ i (never in ^ S), by adding that ending to
the weak form of the masculine.

b. Exceptions are in general the stems of divisions A and B —
namely, the radical stems etc., and those in as and is and us. For
special oases, see below.

879. Variations, as between stronger and weaker forms,
are very general among consonantal stems: either of two
degrees (strong and weak), or of three (strong, middle, and
weakest): see above, 811.

a. The peculiar neuter forms, according to the usual
rule (811 b), are made in the plural from the strong stem, in
singular and dual from the weak — or, when the gradation
is threefold, in singular from the middle stem, in dual from
the weakest.



Digitized by VjOOQ iC



y



879—] V. Nouns and Adjbotivbs. 142

b. Ab in the case of stems ending in short vowels (fisylLni,
viri^i, m&dhOni, dftl^^i^ etc.)i a nasal sometimes appears in the
special neater plural cases which is found nowhere else in inflection.
Thus, from the stems in as» is, us, the nom.-acc.-yoc. pi. in -Bfiai,
-I&9i, -i&A^i are very conunon at every period. According to the
grammarians, the radical stems etc. (division A) are treated in the
same way; but examples of such neuters are of extreme rarity in the



Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 16 of 59)