William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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language; noVedic text o£fers one, and in the Brahmanas and Sutras
have been noted only -hmiti (AB. vii. 2. 3), -vjnti (PB. xvi. 2. 7 et aL),
-bhftfiji (KB. xxvii. 7), -bhfnti (QB. viii. 1. 3i), and -yufiji (LQS. u. 1. 8);
while in the later language is found here and there a case, like
-9runti (Bagh.), -piiAfi (Qi^.) ; it may be questioned whether they are
not later analogical formations.

880. The endings are throughout those given above (810)
as the '^normal".

a. By the general law as to finals (150), the s of the nom. sing,
masc. and fem. is always lost; and irregularities of treatment of the
final of the stem in this case are not infrequent

b. The gen. and abl. sing, are never distinguished in form from
one another — nor are, by ending, the nom. and accus. pi.: but these
sometimes differ in stem-form, or in accent, or in both.

881. Change in the place of the accent is limited to monosyllabic
stems and the participles in &nt (accented on the final). For details,
see below, under divisions A and E.

a. But a few of the compounds of the root afio or ao show an irregular
shift of accent in the oldest language: see below, 410.

882. a. For convenience and clearness of presentation,
it will be well to separate from the general mass of conson-
antal stems certain special classes which show kindred pe-
culiarities of inflection, and may be best described together.

B. Derivative stems in as, is, us;

G. Derivative stems in an (an, man, van);

D. Derivative stems in in (in, min, vin);

E. Derivative stems in ant (ant, mant, vant);

F. Perfect active participles in vSfLs;

G. Comparatives in ySfts or yas.

b. There remain, then, to constitute division A, espe-
cially radical stems, or those identical in form with roots,

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

143 Declension V., Conbokaittal Boot-stems. [—383

together with a oompaiatively small number of others which
are inflected like these.

They will be tnken ap in the order thus indicated.

A. Boot-Btems, and those inflected like them.

883. The stems of this division may be classified as

I. a. Boot-stems, having in them no demonstrable element added
to a root: thos, ^ verse, gfx sang, p&d foot, dig direcHon, mih (V.)

b. Soch stems, however, are not always precisely identical In form
with the root: thus, vto from Vvac* sr^ from V8|J» mtif from Vmim»
vrig from y^vragoC?), df ftom yvtui »hine\ — from roots in final x <^™o
stems In ir and nr: thns, g{r» ft-gir» stir; Jdr, tur» dhdr, ptir» mur»
Bt6r» sphur; and psdr from ^pear.

o. With these may he ranked the stems with rednplioated root, as
oikit, yav^yudh, vinivan, sasy&d.

d. Words of this division in nncompounded nse are tolerably frequent
in the older language: thns, in RV. are found more than a hundred of them;
in AY., about sixty; but in the classical Sanskrit the power of using any
root at will in this way is lost, and the examples are comparatively few.
In all periods, however, the adjective use as final of a compound is very
common (see below, 401).

e. As to the infinitiye use of various oases of the root-noun, see 971.

II. f. Stems made by the addition of t to a final short vowel of
a root.

g. No proper root-stem ends in a short vowel, although there are (354)
examples of transfer of such to short-vowel-deolensions ; but i or u or |^
adds a t to make a declinable form: thus, -j{t» -Qrut, -kft. Roots in f,
however, as has just been seen (b), also make stems in ir or ur.

h. A9 regards the firequency and nse of these words, the same is true
as was stated above respecting root-stems. The Yeda offers examples of
nearly thirty such formations, a few of them (mft* rit, stiit, hrdt» vft,
and dy^t if this is taken from djra) in independent use. Of roots in f,
t is added by ky, dhy, dhvy, bhf , vft sy , spy, h^r, and hvy. The roots
ga (or gam) and han also make -g&t and -h&t by addition of the t to
an abbreviated form in a (thus, adhvag&t» dyug&t, dvigat» navag&t,
and saihh&t).

III. L Mono^llabic (Itlso a few apparently reduplicated) stems
not certainly connectible with any verbal root in the language, but-
having the aspect of root-stems, as containing no traceable suffix

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883—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 144

thus, tvko skin, p&th roiid, hf d hetirt, kp and var water, dvar door,
as mouth, kakubh and kakud swnmit

j. Thirty or forty such words are found in the older language, and
some of them continue in later nse, while others have been transferred to
other modes of declension or have become extinct.

k. Stems more or less clearly derivative, but made with suffixes
of rare or even isolated occurrence. Thus:

1. derivatives (V.) from prepositions with the snfflx vat: arvSv&t,
av&t» udv&t, niv&t» parav&t, prav&t, saihv&t; — 2. derivatives (V.)
in tftt (perhaps abbreviated f^om t&ti), in a few isolated forms: thus,
upar&tftty dev&tftt, vjk&tat, saty&t&t, sarv&tftt; — 3. other deriva-
tives in t preceded by various vowels : thus, da9&t, veh&t, vah&t, srav&t,
saQo&t, vagh&t; n&pftt; ta<jit, divit, yofft, rohft, sarft, harft;
marut; y&k^, Q41q^; and the numerals for 30, 40, 50, tri&^&t eto.
(475); — 4. stems in ad: thus, dfif&dy dhfs&d, bhasdd, van&d,
^ar&dy aam^d ; — 5. stems in j preceded by various vowels : thus, t^p^p^,
dhrf^f* Bandj, bhii^fU; U9(j, va^» bhur(], nii^(?); &8yj; — 6. a
few stems ending in a sibilant apparently formative: thus, Jfias, -dSs,
bhaSy maSy bhlf ; — 7. a remnant of unclassiflable cases, such as vi^t&p,
vip&9, k&p^^th, Qurudh, ifidh, p^kQudh, ragh&t(<^)> sar&gh, visruh,

384. Gender. The root-stems are regularly feminine as nomen
actionis, and masculine as nomen agentis (which is probably only a
substantive use of their adjective value: below, 400). But the femi-
nine noun, without changing its gender, is often also used concretely:
e. g., dnih f. (|/drtili he inimiceU) means harming, enmity, and also
harmer, hater, enemy — thus bordering on the masculine value. And
some of the feminines have a completely concrete meaning. Through
the whole division, the masculines are much less numerous than the
feminines, and the neuters rarest of all.

a. The independent neuter stems are hfd (alio -h&rd), dkm, var,
8var» mas ^esh, as mouth, bhas, dos (with which may be mentioned
the indeclinables qkxn and yos); also the apparent derivatives yiikft,

385. Strong and weak stem-forms. The distinction
of these two classes of forms is usually made either by
the presence 01 absence of a nasal, or by a difference in
the quantity of the stem-vowel, as long 01 short; less often,
by other methods.

386. A nasal appears in the strong cases of the following words:
1. Compounds having as final member the root ao or afio: see below,

407 ff.; and RY. has once uruvy&ficam from root vyao; — 2. The

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

145 ' DECii]p!NSiON v., Consonantal Stems. [—689

stem yDJ, BometimeSy in the older language: thni, nom, sing. yiiiL (foi
yunk), ac^as. ydiyam, do. yufUft (but also ytijam and yiijft); —
3. The stem -d^, as final of a compound in the older language ; but only
in the nom. sing, masc, and not always: thus, anyftdf^ Idf^, kid^
tftd^ etfidrn, ead^ and pratiBadfzL: but also idfk, tad^k, svardfk,
etc.; — 4. For path and pxuiiB, which substitute more extended stems,
and for dant, see below, 894 — 6.

387. The vowel a is lengthened in strong cases as follows:

1. Of the roots vao, 8ao» sap* nabh, ^as, in a few Instances (V.),
at the end of compounds; — 2. Of the roots vah and Bah, but irregularly;
see below, 408 — 5; — 3. Of ap toater (see 898); also in its compound
rityap; — 4. Of pad foot: in the compounds of this word, in the later
language, the same lengthening is made in the middle cases also; and in
RY. and AY. the nom. sing. neut. is both -pat and -p&t, while RY. has
once -p&de, and p&dbhis and pfttsu occur in the Brahmanas; — 5. Of
nas nose (? nasft nom. du, fern., RY., once); — 6. Sporadic cases (Y.)
are: yiy (?), voc sing.; path&s and -rftpas, aceus. pL; v&niv&iias,
nom. pi. The strengthened forms bh%j and vBi are constant, through all
classes of cases.

888. Other modes of di£ferentiation, by elision of a or contraction
of. the syUable containing it, appear in a few stems:

1. In -han: see below, 402; — 2. In kfam (Y.), along with pro-
longation of a: thus, k^^ft du., k^imas pL ; kijama instr. sing., kf&mi
loc. sing., kfmds abL sing.; —3. In dvar, contracted (Y.) to dur in weak
cases (but with some confusion of the two classes) ; — 4. In svkr, which
becomes, in RY., sur in weak cases; later it is indeclinable.

889. The endings are as stated above (8Q0).

a. Bespecting their combination with the final of the stem, as
well as the treatment of the latter when it occurs at the end of the
word, the rules of euphonic combination (chap. IIL) are to be con-
sulted; they require much more constant and various application here
than anywhere else in declension.

b. Attention may be called to a few exceptional cases of combination
(Y.): mftdbhls and m&dbhy&s from mas month; the wholly anomalous
pa^bhis (RY. and VS.: AY. has always padbhfs) tiom p&d; and Bar&f
and Bar&4^1^SB corresponding to a nom. pi. sardghas (instead of sar&has:
222). D&n is apparently for d&m, by 148 a.

o. According to the grammarians, neuter stems, unless they end in a
nasal or a semivowel, take in nom.-aco.-YOO. pi. a strengthening nasal before
the final consonant But no such cases from neuter noun-stems appear erer
to have been met with in use; and as regards adjectiye stems ending in a
root, see abore, 879 b.

Whitney, Grammar. 3. ed. 10

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


V. Nouns and Apjeotives.


3<K>. Monosyllabic steins have the regular accent of such, throw*
ing the tone forward upon the endings in the weak cases.

a. Bat the accusative plural has its normal accentuation as a
weak case, upon the ending, in only a minority (hardly more than a
third) of the stems: namely in dat&8» path48» pad&s, nid&a, ap&8»
XL^ks, J£iSs&B, pxuhe&B, mfi8&8» mah&s; and sometimes in vfic&Sy
sruo&s, hrut&s, 8ridli&8» k^ap&s, vip&s, dur&s, i^^ dvi^&B, drob^s
(beside vaeas etc.).

b. Exceptional instanoos, In trhioh a weak case has the tone on the
stem, oocoi as follows: B&dfi, ii&dbhya8» tinft (also tani) and t&ne,
badhe (infln.), t&xjs «nd r^^u, v&&bu» sv&ni, vfpaa, k^&mi* etbft
and Bt![raa (bat bvx^\ 4Alia8» and v&nas and bfhaa (in v&na«p4ti,
bfhaap&ti). On the other hand, a strong case is accented on the ending
in mah&8, nom. pi., and kfia&m (AY.: perhaps a false roiading). And
prefa, instr. sing., is accented as If pr^^ were a simple stem. Instead of
pra-{f • Vimjpdhi^ is of donbtfol character* For the sometimes anomalous
accentuation of stems in ao or aSlo, see 410.

801. Examples of inflexion. As an example of
normal monosyllabic inflection, we may take the stem
m^ ySo f . voice (from y^^ vao, with constant prolongation] ;
of inflection with strong and weak: Btem, cy^:p&d m. foot;
of polysyllabic inflection, ^T^H manit m. toind or ioind-god\
of a monosyllabic root-stem in composition, f^^^rT trivft
three-fold^ in the neuter. Thus:

N. Y.


Ab. G.
















































Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Deolension v., Consonantal Stems.



N.A.V. srrtt

I. D. Ab. c(|JU|IM





D. Ab.

vftc&B, ricas









marutfia tiivftl

marudbhyim trivfdbhyim















By way of illostration of the leading methods of treatment of
a stem-final, at the end of the word and in combination with case-
endings, characteristic case-forms of a few more stems are here added.

a. Stems in J: yuj-class (219 a» 142), bhifdj physician: bhijf&k,
bhifikiam, bhif^gbhis, bhifikfu; — mrJ-class (219 b» 142)» samrc^
universal ruler: samrit, Bamr^jam,' Bamr^bhis, samratau.

b. Stems in dh: -Tfdh increasing: -vft» -vfdhani* -vfdbhis,
-▼ftsa; -btidli (156) waking: -bh&t, -b^dham, -bhudbhiSy -bhutsu.

o. Stems in bh: -ati&bh praising: -stdp, -Btiibham, -stdbbhiB,

d. Stems in 9: di9 (218 a» 146) direction: dik, d{9ani, digbbfa,
dik^d; — v{9 (218» 146) the people: v{t, v{9am, vicjlbhls, vlfBu (V.
vik^h: 218 a).

e. Stems in 9 (226 b» 146): dvii^ enemy: dvl\, dvf^amt dvi^bhls,

f. Stems in h: dub-class (232-8 a» 166 b, 147), -duh milking,


Digitized by VjOOQ iC

391—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 148

yielding: -dhuk, -duham, -dhugbhis, -dliiikfu ; — nOi-class (223 b»
147)» -lih licking: -Ut» -liham, -U^bhis, -Ufsu.

g. Stems in m (148a, 212a: only pra^an, nom. sing., quotable):
-9ftm quieting: -^an, •^axnamy -^anbhis, -^ansu.

392. The root-Btems in ir and ur (383 b) lengthen their vowel
when the final r is followed by another consonant (245 b), and also
in the nom. sing, (where the case-ending s is lost).

a. Thus, from g{r f. song come glr (glh)» giram, gira etc.;
glr&Uy glrbhyam, gir68; gfras, glrbhls, girbhyds, girim, ipjc^u.
(165); and, in like manner, from pur f. eironghold come ptir (ptlh),
puram, pura, etc. ; purftu, ptirbhyain, pur6B ; puras, purbbfe* pur-
bhy&8, puram, pun|u.

b. There are no roots in is (except the excessiyely rare pis) or in
UB; but from the root iflB with its & weakened to i (250) comes the
noan 2iqiB t blessing ^ which is inflected like glr: thus, ftQls (&Qlb),
&9{fam» S^fiffS, etc.; &9{9&u, ft^Irbhyfim, fBLqli^oB; ft^f^as, ftQlrbhls,
aQlrbhyaSy S^^ftm, fiQl^fU. And sajlia together is apparently a stereo-
typed nominative of like formation from the root juf. The form af^apraf
(TS.), f^om the root-stem pruf, is isolated and anomalous.

o. These stems In ir, iir» Ib show a like prolongation of Towel also
in composition and derivation: thus, gXrvfi^, piirbbfd, dhtirgatay
dhuBtvay ftQlrda, ftQirvant, etc. (but also girvan, girvai^a).

d. The native grammar sets up a class of quasi-radical stems like
Jigamis desiring to go, made ftom the desiderative conjugation-stem (1027),
and prescribes for it a declension like that of ft^fs: thus, JigamiB, Jiga-»
mif S, jigamirbhiSy JigamihQU, etc. Such a class appears to be a mere
figment of the granunaiians, since no example of it has been found quotable
from the literature, either earlier ox later, and since there is, in fact, no
more a desiderative stem Jigamis than a causative stem gamay.

393. The stem &p f. wtUer is inflected only in the ploral, and
with dissimilation of its final before bh to d (151 e): thus, apas,
ap&s, adbhfsy adbhy&8» apam, apsu.

a. Bnt BY. has the sing, instr. apa and gen. ap&s. In the earlier
language (especially AY.), and even In the epics, the nom: and accus. pi.
forms are occasionally confused in use, apas being employed as accns.,
and ap&8 as nominative.

b. Besides the stem ap, case-forms of this woi^ are sometimes used
in composition and derivation; thus, for example, abja^ &iK>devBta»
ftpom&ya, apsumant.

394. The stem puiiiB m. man is very irregular, substitutiDg
pumfiAs in the strong cases, and losing its s (necessarily) li)efore
initial bh of a case-ending, and likewise (by analogy with this, or
by an abbreviation akin with that noticed at 231) in the loc. plural.
The vocative is (in accordance with that of the somewhat similarly

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

149 Declension V., Consonantal Stems. [-—398

inflected perfect participles: see 462 a) puman in the later language,
bnt pumas in the earlier. Thus: p^mftn* pumftftsam, pudis^
pimiB^y pmhs&Sy padisf, puman; puma^sfiu* pumbhyam, puihsbs;
puma&saSj pmiisis, pumbhls, pumbhy&Sy pudisam, puihsu.

a« The accentuation of the weak forms, it will be noticed, is that of
a trne monosyllabic stem. The fonns with bh-endings nowhere occnr in the
older language, nor do they appear to have been cited from the later.
Instances of the confusion of strong and weak forms are occasionally met
with. As to the retention of a unlingualized in the weakest cases (whence
necessarily follows that in the loe. pi.), see 183 a.

b. This stem appears under a considerable Tariety of forms in com-
position and deriTation: thus, as pudis in puih^call, puiiistva, puihs-
vant, -pudiska, etc.; as pum in puihvatsa, puxiirupa, puxiivaty
pumarthay etc.; as puiiisa in puihsavant; — at the end of a compound,
either with its full inflection, as in stripuihB etc. ; or as pumsa, in
BtripuiiiBa, mahapuihsa; or as puma in atnpuma (TS. TA.).

395. The stem path m. road is defective in declension, forming
only the weakest cases, while the strong are made from pinthft or
p&nthan, and the middle from path!: see under au-stems, below, 433.

396. The stem d&nt m. tooth is perhaps of participial origin, and
has, like a participle, the forms d&nt and d&t, strong and weak:
thus (Y.)) d&n, d&ntam, data, etc.; dat&s ace. pi. etc. But in the
middle cases it has the monosyllabic and not the participial accent:
thus, dadbhisy dadbhy&s. In nom. pi. occurs also -datas instead
of -dantas. By the grammarians, the strong cases of this word are
required to be made from d&nta.

397. A nnmber of other words of this diyision are defective,
making part of their inflection from stems of a different form.

a. Thus, hfd hearty mafus or mas n. meai^ m& m. month, n&s
f. nose^ ni9 f. night (not found In the older language), pft f. army, are
said by the grammarians to lack the nom. of all numbers and the accus.
sing, and du. (the neuters, of course, the ace. pi. also), making them
respectively from hf daya, mafL8&» masa, nasikS, ni^ft, p^tanfi. But
the usage in the older language is not entirely in accordance with this
requirement: thus, we find mis flesh aocus. sing.; mas month nom. sing.;
and nasft nostrils du. From p^ occurs only the loc. pi. p^u and (BY.,
once) the same case with double ending, p]rt8U§u.

398. On the other hand, certain stems of this division, allowed
by the grammarians a full inflection, are used to fill up the deficien-
cies of those of another form.

a. Thus, &8|j n. bloody 9&krt n. ordure, y&k^ n. liver, d6B n.
(also m.) fore-arm, have beside them defective stems in &n: see below,
432. Of none of them, however, is anything but the nom.-acc. sing, found
in the older language, and other cases later are but very scantily represented.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

89S— ] V. Nouns and Adjbtivbb. 150

b. Of aa n. nwuthy and ud tcaUr, only a case or two are found, in
the older langnage, beside ftsto and Ssyk, .and ud&n and udaka (432).

899. Some of the alternative eteniB mentioned above are instancefl of
transition from the eonsonant to a vowel declension: thus, d&nta, masa.
A number of other similar cases occur, sporadically in the older language,
more commonly in the later. Such are -pada» -Inftds, -dft^a, bhri^i,
vift&pa, dvSra and dnra» pnra, dhora, -d^a» nasft* nidft, k^fpft,
kfapa, &9t» and perhaps a few others.

a* A few Irregular stems will find a more proper place under the head
of Adjectives.


400. Original adjectives haying the root-form are comparatively
rare even in the oldest language.

a. About a dozen are quotable from the BY., for the most part only
in a few scattering oases. But mah great is common in RT., though it
dies out rapidly later. It makes a derivative feminine stem, mahl, which
continues in use, as meaning earth etc.

401. Bat compound adjectives, having a root as final member,
with the value of a present participle, are abundant in every period
of the language.

a. Possessive adjective compounds, also, of the same form, are
not very rare: examples are yat&sruo with offered hotol; sAryatvac
8un-skinned\ o&tofpad four-footed ] suhard kind-hearted, friendly)
ritykp (1. e. ritf-ap) having streaming tcatere; BahkaxeAvBx furnished
with a thousand doors,

b. The inflection of such compounds is like that of the simple root-
stems, masculine and feminine being throughout the same, and the nenter
varying only in the nom.-aco.-voc. of all numbers. But special neuter forms
are of rare oecurrenoe, and masc.-fem. are sometimes used instead.

e. Only rarely is a derivative feminine stem In i formed: in the older
language, only from the compounds with ac or a£Lo (407 ff.), those with
han (402), those with pad, as 6kapadl, dvip&dl» and with dant, as
vf^adati, and mahl, &niucl (AY.), upasadi (? ^B).

Irregularities of inflection appear in the following:

402. The root han «foy, as final of a compound, is inflected
somewhat like a derivative noun in an (below, 420 flf.)* becoming hfi
in the uom. sing., aud losing its n in the middle cases and its a in
the weakest cases but only optionally in the loc. sing.). Further, when
the vowel is lost, h in contact with following n reverts to its orig-
inal gh. Thus:


Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Declension V., Consonantal Stems.


|vTtwMbhy ton |,,ytrah&bhyaft


Singolar. Dual.

N. vrtraht
A. vftrAli&i^ftxn
I. vi^traghni

D. vrtraghn6.

f;- )vxtr*i&m&B \ ^^^ vytraghnSm

L. vrtraghni, -h&i^ ^vfw.«K v^^ahAsu

y. vftralian vftrahai^a vftrahajgiaB.

a. Aft to the ehange of n to ^ see 183» 185.

b. A feminine ii made by adding I to, as oflual, tlie stem-form shown
in the weakest cases: thas, T^^aghni.

0. An accns. pi. -h&nas (like the nom.) also occnis. Vftrah&bhis
(BY., once) is the only middle case-form qnotahle from the older langaage.
Transitions to the a-declension hegin already in the Veda: thus, to -h&
(BV. AT.), -shnA (RV.), -hana.

403. The root vah C4tny at the end of a compound is said by
the grammarians to be lengthened to vfth in both the strong and
middle cases, and contracted in the weakest cases to uh, which with
a preceding a- vowel becomes fta(137c): thus, from havyav&h sacri'
JUe-hearing (epithet of Agni), hayyavaf, havyavaham, havyftuhft,
etc.; havyav&ftri, havyava^bhyton, havyftuhos; hayyavahas,
havyftuhasy havydva^bbis, etc. And 9vetav&h (not quotable) is
said to be further irregular in making the nom. sing, in vfts and the
Yocative in vas or vfta.

a. In the earlier language, only strong forms of compounds with vah
haye been found to occur: namely, -vaf, -vibiam* -v&ftu or -v&S, and
-vahas. But feminines in i, from the weakest stem — as turyftuhl,
dityfiubi, pafthftuhi — are met with in the Brahmanas. TS. has the
irregular nom. sing, pa^fbavat.

404. Of very irregular formation and inflection is one common
compound of vah, namely ana^v&b (anas + vah hurden-bearing or
eari^rawing^ 1. e. ox). Its stem-form in the strong cases is ana<jlvab,
in the weakest ana<jluh, and in the middle ana<jlud (perhaps by dis-
similation from ana^uf}}. Moreover, its nom. and voc. sing, are made
in vSn and van (as if from a vant-stem). Thus:













Wudbhyam \ana44dbhya8






Digitized by VjOOQ iC

404—] V. Nouns and Adjectives. 152

a. Anatjludbhyas (AT., once) Is the only middle case-form quotable
firom the older language. But compounds sho^ring the middle stem — as
aaa^uoehata, anatjludarha — are met with in Brahmanas etc.

b. The corresponding feminine stem (of very infrequent occurrence)
is either anaijuhi (gB.) or ana^vfthl (K. MS.).

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 17 of 59)