William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

. (page 20 of 59)
Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 20 of 59)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

473. a. That (especially in the Veda) some stems which are
nouns rather than adjectives form derivatives of comparison is natural
enough, considering the uncertain nature of the division-line between
substantive and adjective value. Thus, we have vir&tara, vir&tama,
v&hnitama, mftt^tama* nftama, maruttama, and so on.

b. The suffixes tara and tama also make forms of comparison
from some of the pronominal roots, as ka» ya, i (see below, 680);
and from certain of the prepositions, as ud; and the adverbially used
accusative (older, neuter, -taram; later, feminine, -tar&m) of a com-
parative in tara from a preposition is employed to make a corres-
ponding comparative to the preposition itself (below, 1110); while
-tarftm and -tamftm make degrees of comparison from a few ad-
verbs: thus, nataram» natamim» kathaihtarSm, katattarftin»
addhfttamam, nicftiatar&m, etc.

c. By a wholly barbarous combination, finding no warrant in the
earlier and more genuine usages of the langnage, the suffixes of comparison
in their adTerhial feminine form, -tar&m and tamfim, are later allowed
to be added to personal forms of yerhs: thus, sidatetarSm (R. : the only
case noted in the epics) is more despondent, vyathayatitaram disturbs
more, alabhatatarSm obtained in a higher degree, haaifyatitarfim will
laugh more. No examples of this use of -tamftm are quotable.

d. The snffixes of secondary comparison are not Infrequently added
to those of primary, forming double comparatiyes and snperlatlYes : thus,
ganyastara, ^re^fhatara and Qr^fthatama, pftpiyastara* pftpiffha-
tara and -tama, bhuyastaram, etc.

6. The use of tama as ordinal suffix is noted below (487f j; with
this value, it is accented on the final, and makes its feminine in i:
thus, 9atatam& m. n., QatatamX f., hundredth,

474. From a few words, mostly prepositions, degrees of com-
parison are made by tbe briefer suffixes ra and ma: thus, 4dhara
and adliami, &para and apami, &wara and avam&, iipara and
upami, intara, &ntama, param&, madliyam&, oaramA, antima,
ftdima, pa^oima. And ma is also used to make ordinals (below, 487).

Digitized by VjOOQ iC






476. The simple cardinal numerals for the first te9
numbers (which are the foundation of the whole class),
with their deriyatives, the tens, and with some of the higher
members of the decimal series, are as follows:

1 ^

10 ^







20 f^fH







30 Hf^lf^^







40 t|Hir(l«rl^







6 q^

50 M^|!tlf^






60 irf^

10,000,000 Sfilft




7 HH





80 5|^H?T


8 51^







90 Roff?T






10 ^

100 5lrr






a. The accent sapti and a§t& is that belonging to these words in all
accentuated texts; according to the grammarians, they are B&pta and k^\ei,
in the later language. See below, 483.

b. The series of decimal numbers may be carried still further;
but there are great differences among the different authorities with

Wliitoey, Grammar. 3. ed. 12

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




regard to their names; and there is more or less of discordance even
from aynta on.

o. Thus, in the TS. and MS. we find ayuta, niyuta, prayuta,
4rbuda, nykrbuda, aamudrd, m&dhya, inta, parftrdh^; K. reTerses
the order of niyuta and prayuta, and Inserts badvB after nyarbuda
(reading nycurbudha): these are probably the oldest recorded series.

d. In modem time, the only numbers in practical use aboTe thousand
are lak§a (lac or lakh) and koti (crorey^ and an Indian sum ii wont to
be pointed thus; 123,46,67,890, to signify 123 croresy 45 lakhs, 67 thou-
sandy eight hundred and ninety.

e. As to the alleged stem-forms pa&oan etc., see below, 484. At
to the form fak^ instead of ^aif, see above, 146 b. The stem dva appears
in composition and deriyation also as dvft and dvi; oatur in composition
is accented o&tur. The older form of af^a is aft^^: see below, 488.
Forms in -9at and -9ati for the tens are occasionally interchanged: e. g.
viA9at (MBh. R.), trlA^ati (AB.), pa&oft^ati (RT,).

f. The other numbers are expressed by the various composition
and syntactical combination of those given above. Thus:

476. The odd numbers between the even tens are made by
prefixing the (accented) unit to the ten to which its value is to be
added: but with various irregularities. Thus:

a* eka in 2/ becomes ekft, but is elsewhere nnchanged;

b. dva becomes everywhere dvft; but In 42-72 and in 9^ it Is
interchangeable with dvi, and in 52 dvl alone is used;

o. for tri is substituted its nom. pi. masc. tr&yas ; but tri itself Is
also allowed in 43-73 and in 93, and in 83 tri alone is used;

d. faf becomes i^ in 16 ^ and makes the initial d of da^a lingual
(199 d) ; elsewhere its final undergoes the regular conversion (226 b, 198 b)
to t or 4 or ]^; and in 96 the n of navati is assimilated to it (199 o);

e. a§ta becomes a^t^ (483) in 18-38^ and has either form in the
succeeding combinations.

f. yhus:

11 ^kftda^a

12 dvada^a

13 trayoda^a

14 c&turda^a

16 p&iicada^a
iG 964a9a

17 8apt&da9a

18 a9tada9a

19 ii&vada9a

31 6katrifL9at

32 dvatriii9at

33 tr&ya8trifL9at

34 o&tu8tri&9at

35 p4iioatrifL9at

36 9&ttrifL9at

37 8apt&triA9at

38 a9tatri&9at

39 n&vatrifL9at

61 dka^a^ti
^ Idvl^a^tl
^ Jtriya^L^afti

64 o&tu^fafti

65 p&fica§ai;t^

66 f&t9^t^

67 sapt&^a^ti

g ra^tifa^ti
69 n&va§a§ti

81 6kft9iti

82 dvy2i9iti

83 tryli9iti

84 o&tiara9lti

85 p&ficft9iti

86 944a9iti

87 8apta9iti

88 a^^iti

89 n&va9iti

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

179 Odd Numbers. [—478

g. The nomben 2i-29 are nude like those foi 31-39] the numbers
41'49y 51-69, 71-79, and 91-99 are made like those for 61-69.

h. The forms made with dTft and trayas are more usual than those
with dvl and tri, which are hardly to be quoted from the older literature
(y. and Br.). The forms made with a^t^ (instead of a^fa) are almost ex-
cluslTely used in the older literature (488), and are not Infrequent in the

477. The above are the normal expressioiiB for the odd num-
bers. But equivalent substituteB for them are also variously made.

a. By use of the adjectives ilna deficient and adhika redundant^ in
composition with lesser numbers which are to be subtracted or added, and
either independently qualifying or (more usually) in composition with larger
numbers which are to be increased or diminished by the others: thus,
trsrOna^aftiJI^L sixty decent by three (1. e. 57); a^tadliikanavatih
nineU/ increased by eight (1. e. 98) \ ekftdhikaih ^atam a hundred in-
creased hy one (i. e. 101) ; pafioonaih ^atam 100 less 5 (i. e. 95). For
the nines, especially, such substitutes as ekonayliigatiti W less i, or /9,
are not uncommon; and later the eka 1 is left off, and unavifiQati etc.
have the same -value.

b. A case-form of a smaller number, generally ^a one is connected
by n& not with a larger number from which it is to be deducted: thus,
6kayft n& triA94t (gs. PB. KB.) not thirty hy one (29); dv^hyftiii
ni 'gltim (QB.) not eighty hy two (78) ; pafkc&bhir n& catvari qaXiai
(QB.) not four hundred by Jive (395)] ^kasm&n n& pafioftQ&t (in ordinal)
49 (TS.); ^kasyfii (abl. fern.: 307 h) n&pa&o&^&t 49 (TS.); most often,
6kftn (t e. 6k&t, irregular abl. for 6ka8m&t) n& yifigatih 79; 6kftn nk
9at&m 99» This last form is admitted also in the later language; the
others are found in the Brahmanas.

0. Instances of multiplication by a prefixed number are occasionally
met with: thus, tri^aptA thrice seven; tri]^av& thrice nine] trida^A
thrice ten,

d. Of course, the nnmbers to be added together may be expressed by
independent words, with connecting and: thus, n&va oa navatf^ oa, or
n&va navatf^ oa ninefy and nine] dv&u ea vifi^ati^ oa two and
twenty. But the connectlTe is also (at least, in the older language) not
seldom omitted: thus, navatir n&va 99] trifL9&taiii trin 33] a9it{r
aftfiu 88.

478. The same methods are also variously used for forming the
odd numbers above 100. Thus:

a. The added number is prefixed to the other, and takes the accent:
for example, ^kftgatam 101] aff^atam 108] triiig&cchatam 130]
a^fftvi&^ti^atam 128] o&tul^fMiliaBram (RV. : unless the accent is
wrong) 1004] a^itisahasram 1080.


Digitized by VjOOQ iC

478—] VI. Numerals. 180

b* Or, the namber to be added is compounded with adhika redundant,
and the compound is either made to qualify the other number or is farther
compounded with it; thus, panoadhlkarh ^atam or pa&oftdbika9ata]n
105. Of coune, tlna deficient (as also other words equivalent to una or
adhika) may be used in the same way: thus, pa&oonaih ^atam 95,
^a^ti^ paficavaijitft 55; gatam abhyadhikaxh ^a^titah 160.

o. Syntactical combinations are made at couTenience : for example d&^a
gat&ih oa 110; gat&m 6kaih oa 101.

479. Another usual method (beginning in the Brahmanas) of
forming the odd numbers above 100 is to qualify the larger number
by an adjective derived from the smaller, and identical with the
briefer ordinal (below, 488): thus, dvfidag&iii gatdm, 112 (lit'ly a
hundred of a IS-eort, or characterised by 12); oatugoatvariAgiiii gat^on
144; ^atffa^t&iii gat&m 166.

480. To multiply one namber by another, among the higher or
the lower denominations, the simplest and least ambiguous method
is to make of the multiplied number a dual or plural, qualified by
the other as any ordinary noun would be ; and this method is a com-
mon one in all ages of the language. For example: p&fioa pafioft-
9&ta8 Jive fifties {250) ; n&va navat&yas nine nineties (810) ; agitibhis
tis^bhis with three eighties [240); p&fioa gat^tni Jive hundreds; trii^
8ah&8r&]^ three thousands; (^a^fliii sahdarSni 60,000; daga ca saliaB-
Thx^ aftftu oa gatftni 10,800: and, combined with addition, trfQi
gatani tr&yastrifigataih oa 333; sahasre dve pafioonaih gatam eva
ca 2095.

a. In an exceptional case or two, the ordinal form appears to take
the place of the cardinal as multiplicand in a like combination: thus, ^f-
trifigafLg ca caturah (RV.) 36X4 (lit. four of the thirty-six kind);
trifir ek&dagan (RV.) or traya ekadagftsa^^ (59S. viii 21. 1) lixs.

b. By a peculiar and wholly illogical construction, such a combination
as trii^ ^a^tigatani, which ought to signify 480 (3x100 + 60), is repeat-
edly used in the Brahmanas to mean 360 (3x100 + 60); so also dv6
oatustrifL^^ 9at6 234 (not 268); dvftfa^t&ni triijd gat&ni 362; and
other like cases. And even B. has trayal^ ^ataQatftrdhfi^ 350.

481. But the two factors, multiplier and multiplied, are also,
and in later usage more generally, combined into a compound (accented
on the final); and this is then treated as an adjective, qualifying the
numbered noun; or else its neuter or feminine [in 1) singular is used
substantively: thus, da^a^atas lOOO; faf^at&ih pad&tibhilbt (liBh.)
with 600 foot-soldiers; tr&yastrlAgat tri9atf^ ^afBahasra^ (AV.) 6333;
dvi^at&m or dvi^ati 200; a^t&da^a^atl I8OO.

a. In the usual absence of accentuation , there arises sometimes a
question as to how a compound number shall he understood : whether aft^-
^atam, foi example, is aft^^atam Wo or a^to^at&m 800, and the like.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

181 Inflection. [ — 482

482. Inflection. The inflection of the eaidinal numerals
is in many respects irregular. Gender is distinguished only
by the first four.

a. Eka one is declined after the manner of a pronominal adjec-
tive (like s^urva, below, 624); its plural is used in the sense of some,
certain ones. Its dual does not occur.

b. Occaalonal forms of the ordinary declension are met with : thaa, 6ke
(loc. sing.), 6kat (477 b).

o. In the late literature, eka is used in the sense of a certain
or even sometimes almost of a, as an indefinite article. Thus, eko
vyftghrah (H.) a certain tiger; ekasmin dine on a certain day; haste
daigKJlam ekam adaya (H.) taking a stick in his hand.

d. Dva two is dual only, and is entirely regular: thus, N. A. V.
dv&u (dvi, Veda) nb., dv6 f n.; I. D. Ab. dvabhy&m; G. L. dv&yos.

e. Tri three is in masc. and neut. nearly regular, like an ordinary
stem in i; but the genitive is as if from tray& (only in the later
language: the regular trli^im occurs once in RV.). For the feminine
it has the peculiar stem tisf, which is inflected in general like an
r-stem ; but the nom. and accus. are alike, and show no strengthening
of the r; &Q<1 the ^ is not prolonged in the gen. (excepting in the
Veda). Thus:


tr&yas trl^i



trin trl^














t. The Veda has the ahbreviated neut. nom. and accus. tri. The
accentnation tisfblifs, tis^bhy&s, tisfi^&m, and tis^^d is said to be
also allowed in the later language. The stem tls^ occnrs in composition
In ti8fd]ianv& (B.) a bow with three arrows

g. Oatdr four has catvar (the more original form) in the strong
cases; in the fern, it substitutes the stem o&tas^, apparently akin
with tisf , and inflected like it (but with anomalous change of accent,
like that in the higher numbers: see below, 483). Thus:

m. n. f.

N. oatviras oatv^ c&tasras

A. catnras catv&ri c&tasras

L caturbhiB oatasfbhis

D. Ah. eatdrbhyas catasf bhyas

G. catun^am oatas^^i^&ii

L. oat^fu oatasf^u.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

48a—] VI. NUBIERALS. 182

h. The use of n before ftm of the gen. maac. and nent. after a final
consonant of the stem is (as in ^a^: below, 488) a striking irregnlarity.
The more regular gen. fern, oatasfnfim also sometimes occurs. In the
later language, the accentuation of the final syllable instead of the penult
is said to be allowed in instr., dat-abl., and loc.

488. The numbers from 6 to 19 have no distinction of gender,
nor anj generic character. They are inflected, somewhat irregularly,
as plurals, save in the nom.-acc, where they have no proper plural
form, but show the bare stem instead. Of i|&9 (as of catur), n&m
is the gen. ending, with mutual assimilation (198 b] of stem-final and
initial of the termination. A^^ (as accented in the older language]
has an alternative fuUer form, a^^^, which is almost exclusively used
in the older literature (V. and B.), both in inflection and in compo-
sition (but some compounds with a^fa are found as early as the AY.);
its nom.-acc. is Bj^\k (usual later: found in BY. once, and in AY.),
or a^ta (RY.), or a^fftu (most usual in RY.; also in AY., B., and

a. The accent Is in many respects peculiar. In all the accented texts,
the stress of voice lies on the penult before the endings bhis, bhyas, and
so, firom the stems in a, whatever be the accent of the stem : thus, pa£i-
o&bhlB from p&fioa, nav&bhyas from n&va, da^&su from d&^a, nava-
dag&bhis from n&vada^a, ekftda^&bhyas from ^kKda^a, dv&da^&sti
from dyada9a (according to the grammarians, either the penult or the
final is accented in these forms in the later language). In the gen. pi.,
the accent is on the ending (as in that of i-^ u-, and ^sterns) : thuB, paii-
oada9&nam, eaptada^ftnam. The cases of fa^, and those made from
the stem-form a^fft, have the accent throughout upon the ending.

b. Examples of the inflection of these words are as follows:
N. A. paiica ^k\ e^^n a^t^

I. pafio&bhiB ^a^Lbhis a^t&bhis a^t^bhla

D. Ab. pafic&bhyaB 9a4bhy&s ai^tfibhy&s aft&bhyas

G. pa£ic&nam ^a^^im ai^tanftm

L. pafio&sa ^afsu a^t&su aft&su.

o. 8apt& (in the later language 84pta, as &9(a for a^t^) and n&va
and d&9a, with the compounds of d&^a (11-19'), are declined like p&fioa,
and with the same shift of accent (or with alternative shift to the endings,
as pointed out above).

484. The Hindu grammarians give to the stems for 5 and 7-/9 a
final n: thus, pafioan, eaptan, a^fan^ navan, da^an, and ekfida^an
etc. This, however, has nothing to do with the demonstrably original final
nasal of 7, 9, and 10 (compare sepiem, novem, decern; seven, nine,
ten)\ it is only owing to the fact that, starting from such a stem-form,
their inflection is made to assume a more regular aspect, the nom.-acc.
having the form of a neut. sing, in an, and the instr., dat.-abl., and loc.
that of a neut. or masc. pL in an: compare nima, n&nabl)i8» nima-

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

183 Inflection. [ — 487

bhyaSy n&nasa — the gen. alone being, rather, like that of an a-stem:
compare da^ftnSm with (ndrfti^ftm and n&nnBm or fttmiinftm. No trace
whatever of a final n is found anywhere In the language, in inflection or
derivation or composition, from any of these words (though QB, has twice
da^aihda9{n, for the osnal da^ada^fn).

486. a. The tens, vliigatf and triiiQ&t etc., with their compoundB,
are declined regularly, as feminine stems of the same endings, and in
all numbers.

b. Qiktk and Bah&ara are declined regularly, as neuter (or, rarely,
in the later language, as masculine) stems of the same final, in all

o. The like is true of the higher numbers — which have, indeed,
no proper numeral character, but are ordinary nouns.

486. Construction. As regards their construction with the
nouns enumerated by them —

a. The words for i to 7^ are in the main used adjectively,
agreeing in case, and, if they distinguish gender, in gender also, with
the nouns: thus, da^ibhir vlrftf^ toUk ten heroes i y6 devi divy
^ftdaQa ath^ (AY.) what eleven gods of you are m heaven ; pa&o&su
Jdne^u among the five tribes) catastbhir glrbhil^ with four songs.
Barely occur such combinations as d4^a kald^&n&m (RV .) ten pitchers^
ft&nfiih 9at (R.) six seasons,

b. The numerals above 19 are construed usually as nouns, either
taking the numbered noun as a dependent genitive, or standing in
the singular in apposition with it: thus, ^ataxii dfii^ or gataih
dftsinfim a hundred slaves or a hundred of slaves] viA9atyt h&ribhih
with twenty hays; ^m^XjiAi ^ar&tsu in 60 autumns; ^attoa p^ftih
with a hundred fetters; 9at&iii sah&srain aydtaxSi nykrbudaiii Ja-
ghina gakr6 d&ssrunfim (AY.) the mighty [Indra] slew a hundred^ a
thousand, a myriad, a hundred million, of demons. Occasionally they
are pat in the plural, as if used more adjectively: thus, paficftgad-
bhlr bSJ^ftil^ with fifty arrows.

o. In the older language, the numerals for 5 and upward are
sometimes used in the nom.-acc. form (or as if indeclinably) with
other cases also: thus, p&fioa k^t^fu among the five races; eaptd
r^u^fiiii of seven hards; sahitaram f^ibhih with a thousand bards;
^at&iii purbhi^ with a hundred strongholds. Sporadic instances of a
like kind are also met with later.

487. Ordinals. Of the classes of derivative words
coming from the original or cardinal numerals, the ordin-
als are by far the most important; and the mode of their
formation may best be explained here.

Digitized by VjOOQ iC

487—] VI. Numerals. 184

Some of the first ordinals are irregularly made: thus,

a. ^}^ 1 forms no ordinal; instead is used prathami (i. e. pra-
tama foremoet); &dya (from ftdi beginning) appears first in the Sutras,
and ftdima much later;

b. from dvk 2, and trf 3, come dvitlya and tftXya (secondarily,
through dvlta and abbreviated trita);

o. catdr 4, 9^9 6, and sapti 7, take the ending tha: thus,
caturthi, ^a^thi, eapt&tha; but for fourth are used also turiya and
turya^ and sapt&tha belongs to the older language only; paiioatha,
for Ji/thy is excessively rare;

d. the numerals for 5 and 7 usually, and for 8, 9, 10, add ma,
forming paSioami, Baptani&, a§tam&» navamd, da^ami;

6. for llih to 19th J the forms are ekftda^i, dvftda^i* and so
on (the same with the cardinals, except change of accent); but ekft-
da^ama etc. occasionally occur also;

f. for the tens and intervening odd numbers from 20 onward,
the ordinal has a double form — one made by adding the full (super-
lative) ending tam& to the cardinal : thus, vlA9atitam&, triA9attu]i&,
a^Ititam&t etc.; the other, shorter, in a, with abbre^tion of the
cardinal: thus, vthqik 20th; triA^d 80th; 0B,tv9xitqk dOth; pafioftgi
50th; fa^ti 60th; saptati 70th; a^iti 80th; navat& 90th; and so
likewise ekavlA9& 2l8t; oatostrUiqk 34th; a9tftoatvfirii^9& 48th;
dv&paiioft9& 62d; eka^a^^ Olst; and ekfinnavi^9& and tUiavi&9&
and ekonavlii9& 19th; — and so on. Of these two forms, the latter
and briefer is by far the more common, the other being not quotable
from the Veda, and extremely rarely from the Br&hmai;ia8. From 50th
on, the briefer form is allowed by the grammarians only to the odd
numbers, made up of tens and units; but it is sometimes met with,
even in the later language, from the simple ten.

g. Of the higher numbers, ^ati and sah&sra form 9atatai]i& and
Bahasratami; but their compounds have also the simpler form: thus,
eka^ati or eka^atatama lOlst

h. Of the ordinals, pratham& (and fidya), dvitlya, tptXya, and
turiya (with turya) form their feminine in ft; all the rest make it
in i.

488. The ordinals, as In other langnages, have other than ordinal
offices to fill; and In Sanskrit especially they are general adjectlTot to the
cardinals, with a considerable variety of meanings, as fractlonals, as signi-
fying composed of so many parte or 'eo-^nany-foldt or containing $0 many,
or (as was seen above, 479) having bo many added.

a. In a fractional sense, the grammarians direct that their accent be
shifted to the first syllable ; thus, dvltlya Ao/f ; t^tiya third part; o&tor-
tha quarter; and so on. But In accented texts only tftiya third, and
c&turtha ((B.) and turiya quarter, are fonnd so treated; for half occars

Digitized by VjOOQ iC

185 Numeral DBMVATivBfl. [—491

only ardli4 ; and oaturth^ (MS. etc.); paftoami) and so on, are accented
as in their ordinal Qge.

489. There are other numeral deriyatives: thns —

a. mnltiplicatiye adverbs, as dvls twiee^ trla thrice^ oatos four

b. adrerbs with the suffixes dhft (1104) and ^ai (1106): for
example, ekadhit in one way^ ^atadhi in a hundred ways; eka9ai
one by one, 9ata948 by hundreds;

o. collectives, as dvftaya or dvay4 a pair, di^ataya or da9&t
a decade;

d. adjectives like dvika composed of two, paSioaka consisting of
five or fives;

and so on; but their treatment belongs rather to the dictionary, or
to the chapter on derivation.



490. Thb pronouns differ from the great mass of nouns
and adjectives chiefly in that they come by derivation from
another and a very limited set of roots, the so-called pro-
nominal or demonstrative roots. But they have also many
and marked peculiarities of inflection — some of which,
however, find analogies in a few adjectives; and such ad-
jectives will accordingly be described at the end of this

Personal Pronouns.

491. The pronouns of the first and second persons are
the most irregular and peculiar of all, being made up of
fragments coming from various roots and combinations of
roots. They have no distinction of gender.

Digitized by VjOOQIP

— ] Vn. Pronouns. 186

a. Their inflection in the

later language is a follows:


Ist pen.

2d pets.

N. y^H^




A. rnxj^lTT

mitm, mft

tvim, tva





D. '^'^^


m&hyam* ine

tfibhyam, te

Ab. qn




G. m.^


m&ma, me

t&va, te

L. qfir





N.A.V. qi^ltjf^




I. D. Ab. MHI^tll4^

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 20 of 59)