William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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G.L. MnJ^H^




andA.D.G. ^





N. sren^




A. STFRHt^iq^

ijfuiK ^

araoUbi* nas

yo^min^ vas

I. ^TqTPW^




D. ym^tlM. RH^

u^H^uM. sm^


nas 3nxi?ni&bbyam, vas

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asmikam, nas


187 Pbrsonal Pkonouns. [—493



b. The briefer second fonnB for accus., dat., and gen., in all
nnmbers, are accentless; and hence they are not allowed to Btand at *
the beginning of a sentence, or elsewhere where any emphasis is laid.

e. Bat they may be qu&lifled by accented adjuncts, as adJectlTes: e. g.
te jiiyata^ of ihee when a conqueror ^ vo v^tibhya]^ for you that were
confined, nas tribhyi^ to ue three (aU Ry.>

d. The ablatlTe mat is accentless in one oi two AY. passages.

498, Forms of the older language. All the forms given
above are fonnd also in the older language; which, however, has also
others that afterward disappear from use.

a. Thus, we find a few times the lustr. sing. tv£ (only RY.: like
mani^a for mani^dyft); farther, the loc. or dat. sing. m6 (only VS.)
and tv6, and the dat. or loc. pi. a8m6 (which is by far the commonest
of these e-forms) and ytLfm6: their final e is uncombinable (or pra-
g^hya: 188 b). The YS. makas twice the ace. pi. fem. yufmas (as if
yu^m&n were too distinctively a masculine form). The datives in bhyam
are in a number of cases written, and in yet others to be read as if written,
with bhya, with loss of the final nasal; and in a rare instance or two we
have in like manner asm&a and yu^m&a in the gen. plural. The nsual
resolutions of semivowel to vowel are made, and are especially frequent in
the forms of the second person (tu&m for tv&m etc.).

b. But the duals, above all, wear a very different aspect earlier. In
Yeda and Brahmana and Sutra the nominatives are (with occasional
exceptions) ftT&m and yavim, and only the accusatives fivam and yuvim
(but in BY. the dual forms of 1st pers. chance not to occur, unless in
▼ain[?], once, for ftv&m) ; Ae instr. in BY. is either yuv&bhyfim (occurs
also once in A^.) or yavA^hyfim; an abl. yuv&t appears once in BY.,
and ftv&t twice in TS.; the gen.rloc. is in RY. (only) yuv6B instead of
ytiv&yo8. Thus we have here a distinction (elsewhere nnknown) of five
different dual cases, by endings in part accordant with those of the other
two numbers.

498. Peculiar endings. The ending am, appearing in the nom.
sing, and pi. (and Yedic du.) of these pronouns, will be found often,
though only in sing., among the other pronouns. The bbyam (or hyam)
.of dat sing, and pi. is met with only here; its relationship with the
bhyftm, bhyaa* bhls of the ordinary declension is palpable. The t (or

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498—] Vn. PRONOtJN8. 188

d) of the abl.f though here preceded by a short Towel, ip donbtlefls the
same with that of the a-declension of nouns and adjeotives. That the nom.,
dat., and abl. endings should be the same in sing, and pi. (and in part
in the earlier dn. also), only the stem to whloh they are added being dif-
ferent, is unparalleled elsewhere in the language. The element sma appear-
ing in the plural forms will be found frequent in the inflection of the
singular in other pronominal words: in fact, the compound stem aama
which underlies the plural of aham seems to be the same that furnishes
part of the singular forms of ayam (601), and its value of t^e to be a
specialisation of the meaifing these persons. The genitives singular, m&ma
and t&va, have no analogies elsewhere; the derivation from them of the
adjectives mfimaka and t&vaka (below, 616 b) suggests the possibility
of their being themselves stereotyped stems. The gen. pi., asmikaxa and
yu^makam, are certainly of this character: namely, neuter sing, caseforms
of the adjective stems asmftka and yu^mfika, other cases of which are
found in the Veda.

494. Stem -form a. To the Hindu grammarianB, the stems of
the personal pronouns are mad and asmad, and trad and yo^mad,
because these are forms used to a certain extent, and allowed to be
indefinitely used, in derivation and composition (like tad, kad» etc.:
see below, under the other pronouns). Words are thus formed from
them even in the older language — namely, mktkfta and m&tsakhi
and asm&tsaklil (RV.), tv&dyoni and matt&s (AV.), tv&tpit]* and
tv&dvivftoana (TS.), tv&tprasuta and tvaddevatya and yuvad-
devatya and yrmmaddevatya (QB.), asmaddevatya (PB.); but much
more numerous are those that show the proper stem In a, or with
the a lengthened to &: thus, mavant; asmatri, asmadrdhy etc.;
tv&yata, tvavant, tvadatta, tv&nfd, tvavaBU, tvahata, etc.; yu^-
mtoatta, yu^m^^ita, etc.; 3nivavant, sruvaku, yuv&dhlta, yuvtU
datta, yuvanita, etc. And the later language also has a few words
made in the same way, as mftd^r^.

a« The Yedas have certain more irregular combinations, with complete
forms : thus, tvazhk&ma, tv&m&huti, m&dipa^y&y mamasaty^* aamd-
hitiy ahaxSipurv&y ahamuttari, ahaxSiyi^, ahadieana.

b. From the stems of the grammarians come also the derivative
adjectives madiya» tvadlya, asmadSya yu^madiya, having a pos-
sessive value: see below, 616a.

o. For Bva and svay&m, see below, 618.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

496. The simplest demonstrativiB, cT ta, which answers
also the purpose of a personal pronoun of the third person,
may be taken as model of a mode of declension usual in

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189 Demonstrative Pbomoums. [ — 495

so many pronouns and pronominal adjectives that it is

fairly to be called the general pronominal declension.

a. Bat this root has also the special irregalarity that in the
nom. sing. masc. and fern, it has s&s (for whose peculiar euphonic
treatment see 176a,b) and sa, instead of t&s and ta (compare Gr.
o, f^, roy and Gk>th. «a, so, ihata). Thus:





N- mi






A. H^


































N.A. V. eft





I. D. Ab.





G. L.








N. ^






A. cTPJ^












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496—] Vn. Pronouns. 190

D. Al).









b. The Yedas show no other irregularities of Inflection than those
^hich helong to all stems in a and &: namely, t^nft sometimes; nsnally
ti for t&u, dn.; often ta for tani, pi. neat; nsnally t^bhis for tsfsi
inatr. pi.; and the ordinary resolntions. The RV. has one more case-form
fjTom the root sa, namely B&smin (occurring nearly half as often as t&B-
min); and OhU. has once aasmSt.

496. The peculiarities of the general pronominal declenBion, it
will be noticed, are these:

a. In the singular, the use of t (properly d) as ending of nom.-acc.
neut; the comhlnation of another element sma with the root in masc. and
neut dat., abl., and loc, and of sy in fem. dat, abl.-gen., and loc; and
the maso. and nent. loc. ending in, which is restricted to ^tds declension
(except in the anomalous yfid^min, BY., once). The substitution in B.
of fti for fie as fem. ending (307 h) was illustrated at 866 d.

b« The dual is precisely that of noun-stems in a and ft.

o. In the plural, the irregularities are limited to t^ for tas in nom.
masc, and the insertion of b instead of n before ftm of the gen., the stem-
final being treated before it in the same manner as before 8U of the loc.

497. The stem of this pronoun is by the grammarians given
as tad; and from that form come, in fact, the derivative adjective
tadiya, with tattv4, tadvat, tanmaya; and numerous compounds,
such as taocbila, tajjiia, tatkara, tadanantara, tamnfttra, etc.
These compounds are not rare even in the Veda: so t&danna, tadv{d»
tadva^A, etc. But derivatives from the true root ta are also many:
especially adverbs, as t&tas, t&tra, t&thft, tadi; the adjectives ta-
vant and t&ti; and the compound tSd^9 etc.

498. Though the demonstrative root ta is prevailingly of the
third person, it is also freely used, both in the earlier language and
in the later, as qualifying the pronouns of the first and second person,
giving emphasis to them: thus, 86 'h&m* this J, or I here] sk or sa
tv&m thou there \ te vayam, we here] tasya mama of me here, tasmi&B
tvayi in thee there, and so on.

499. Two other demonstrative stems appear to contain ta aa
an element; and both, like the simple ta, substitute ea in the nom.
sing. masc. and fem.

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191 Dbmonstrativb Pronouns. [—601

a. The one, lya, is tolerably common (although only a third
of its possible forms occur) in RV., but rare in AV., and almost
unknown later, its nom. sing., in the three genders, is sy&s, syat
ty&ty and it makes the accusatiyes tykm^ tyanx, ty&t, and goes on
through the remaining cases in the same manner as ta. It has in
RV. the instr. fem. tya (for tydyfi). Instead of syfi as nom. sing,
fem. is also found tyS.

b. The other is tlie usual demonstrative of nearer position, thts
here, and is in frequent use through all periods of the language.
It prefixes e to the simple root, forming the nominatives ef&s, e^,
et&t — and so on through the whole inflection.

c* The stem tya has neither compounds nor derivatives. But
from eta are formed both, in the same manner as from the simple
ta, only much less numerous: thus, etadda (^B.), etadartha, etc.,
from the so-called stem etad; and et&dfg and etivant from eta.
And e^a, like aa (498), is used to qualify pronouns of the 1st and
2d persons: e. g. e^a liam, ete vayam.

600. There is a defective pronominal stem, ena, which is accent-
less, and hence used only in situations where no emphasis falls upon
it It does not occur elsewhere than in the accusative of all numbers,
the instr. sing., and the gen.-loc. dual: thus.

m. n. f.

Sing. A. enaxn enat enam

I. enena enayfi

Dn. A. enftu ene ene

0. L. enayoB enayos

PI. A. enan enftni en&s

a. The RV. has enoB instead of enayoB, and in one or two instances
accents a form : thus, enam^ en^ (?). AB. uses enat also as nom. neat.

b. As ena is always used substantiyely, it has more nearly than ta
the value of a third personal pronoun, unemphatie. Apparent examples
of its adjectival use here and there met with are doubtless the result of
confusion with eta (489 b).

o. This stem forms neither derivatives nor compounds.

601. The declension of two other demonstratives is so
iiregnlaily made up that they have to be given in full. The
one, ^Rpr aydm etc., is used as a more indefinite demon-
strative, this or that; the other, ^^ asSii etc., signifies
especially the remoter relation, yon or yonder,

a. They are as follows:






N. A.

I. D. Ab.

G. L.

D. Ab.



VII. Pronouns*


m. n.

^^ ^
ay&m id&m


m. n.
as&ii acUui



4H1 m.


^3\ ^

amum adAs











asmtt ;




imft^ im6








ami amilbii amtis

Iman im&i


















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193 Dbmonstratites. [—603

b. The same fonns Aie used in ihb older language, withont Tariatlon,
except that (as nsnal) imi occurs for imSu and im&ii, and amti for
amtbii; amnyft when used adverhlally is accented on the final, amuya;
as&u (with accent, of ooorae, on the first, dsftu, or without accent, asftu:
314) is used also as Tocatlve; ami, too, occurs as vocative.

602. a. The former of these two pronouns, ay&m etc., plainly shows
Itself to he pieced together trom a number of defective stems. The majority
of forms come from the root a, with which, as in the ordinary pronominal
declension, sma (f. By) is combined in the singular. All these forms from
a have the peculiarity that in their substantive use they are either accented,
as in the paradigm, or accentless (like ena and the second forms from
ah&m and tv&m). The remaining forms are always accented. From an&
come, with entire regularity, an6na» an&yft, an&yos. The strong cases
in dual and plural, and in part in singular, come not less regularly from a
stem im&. And ay&m, iy&m, id4m are evidently to be referred to a
simple root i (id4m being apparently a double form: id, like tad etc.,
with ending am).

b. The Yeda has from the root a also the instrumentals ena and ayfll
(used in general adverbially), and the gen. loc. du. ay6B; fk'om ima,
imiioya occurs once in RV., imaamfii in AA., and imftis and ime^u
later. The RY. has in a small number of instances the irregular accen-
tuation ismftiy &8ya» abhie. >

o. In analogy with the other pronouns, id4m is by the gram-
marians regarded as representative stem of this pronominal declen-
sion; and it is actoally found so treated in a very small number of
compounds (idammdya and idiiiurupa are of Brahmana age). As
regards the actual stems, ana furnishes nothing further; from ima
comes only the adverb im&th& (RY., once); but a and i furnish a
number of derivatives, mostly adverbial; thus, for example, &ta8,
&tra» &tha, ad-dhi(?); it&s, id (Yedic particle), idft, ihk, {tara, im
(Yedic particle), id^9, perhaps ev& and ev&m, and others.

603. The other pronoun, asftu etc., has amu for its leading stem,
which in the singular takes in combination, like the a-stems, the element
sma (f. sy), and which shifts to ami in part of the maso. and neut.
plural. In part, too, like an adjective u-stem, it lengthens its final in the
feminine. The gen. sing, amu^ya is the only example in the language
of the ending sya added to any other than an a-stem. The nom. pi. ami
is unique in form; its i is (like that of a dual) prag^rhya, or exempt /
from combination with a following vowel (138 b). Ab&u and adds are
also without analogies as regards their endings.

a. The grammarians, as usual, treat ad&B as representative stem
of the declension, and it is found in this character in an extremely
small number of words, as adomula; adom&ya is of Brahmana age.
The ^B. has also asfton&nan. But most of the derivatives, as of

Whitney QrHraiuar. S. ed. 1^

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608—] VII. Pronouns. 194

tbe cases, come from amu: thus, amntas, amutra, amnthft, amndft,
am&rhi, amuv&t, amuka.

b. In the older language occurs the root tva (accentless), meaning
one^ many a one] it is oftenest found repeated, as one and another. It
follows the ordinary pronominal declension. From it is made the (also
accentless) adverb tvadftnlm (MS.).

c. Fragments of another demonstrative root oz two are met with: thus,
&ma8 he occurs in a formula in AY. and in Brahmanas etc.; av68 as
gen.-loc. dual is found in RV,; the particle u points to a root u.

Interrogative Pronoun.

504. The characteristic part of the interrogative pro-
nominal root is ^ k; it has the three forms m ka, ^ ki,
^\ ku; but the whole declensional inflection is from ^ ka,
excepting the nom.-acc. sing, neut., which is from 1% ki,
and has the anomalous form 1^ kim (not elsewhere known


in the language from a neuter i-stem). The nom. and

accus. sing., then, are as follows:

m. n. f.

N. ^IH f^ ^

k&8 • kIm ka
A. 5|iq^ ^n^^ ^n^
k&m kfm kam
and the rest of the declension is precisely like that of cT
ta (above, 496).

a. The Veda has its usual variations, ka and k^bhis for kanl and
k&is. It also has, along with kfm, the pronominally regular neuter k&d;
and k&m (or kam) is a frequent particle. The masc. form kis, corres-
ponding to kim, occurs as a stereotyped ease in the combinations n&kis
and makis.

505. The grammarians treat kim as representative stem of the
interrogative pronoun ; and it is in fact so used in a not large number
of words, of which a few — kimm&ya, kiihkar&, kiihk&mya, kiih-
devata, kiih^ild, and the peculiar kiihyu — go back even to the
Veda and Brahmana. In closer analogy with the other pronouns, the
form kad, a couple of times in the Veda (katpay&, k&dartha), and
not infrequently later, is found as first member of compounds. Then,
from the real roots ka» ki, ku are made many derivatives; and
from ki and ku, especially the latter, many compounds: thus, k4ti.

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kathftt kathdm, kada, katari, katamd, k&rhi; k{yant, kidf9 ; kutas,
kutra, kuha» kva, kuoari, kukarmcui, kiunantrin, etc.

506. YariouB forms of this pronoun, as kad, kim, and ku (aud^^
rarely, ko), at Jhe be^^ning of compounds; have passed. from an ^
i nterrog sfc^ivft mi^^pjpg^ through an exckmatoij, to the value of pre- V
fixes pignifyriny a^n uniiaiiaJ quality ^ftifhnr ftnmftthing- admirable, or,

oftener, something:, c ontemptible. This use begins in the Veda, but ^
becomes much more common in later time.

607. The interrogative pronoun, as in other languages, turns
readily in its independent use also to an exclamatory meaning.
Moreover, it is by various added particles converted to an indefinite
meaning: thus, by oa, oand, old, dpi, vft, either alone or with the
relative ya (below, 511) prefixed: thus, k&9 oan& any one\ nk ko
'pi not any one] yani kani cit wJuUsoever] yatam&t katamao ca
whatever one. Occasionally, the interrogative by itself acquires a
similar value.

Relative Pronoun.

508. The root of the relative pronoun is BT ya, which
from the earliest period of the language has lost all trace
of the demonstrative meaning originally (doubtless) belonging
to it, and is used as relative only.

509. It is inflected with entire regularity according to
the usual pronominal declension: thus,






m. n.



n. f.

m. n.


y&T Ykt

m 1



^ %

y6 yanl


y&m y&t


yftu y6 y6

yan ySni






















a. The Veda shows its usual variations of
and for yani, and yabhis for yaia; y6B for
ytoft, with prolonged flnal, is in RV. twice as

these forms: yS for yftu
y&yos also occurs onoej
common as y6na. Reso-

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609—] VII. Pronouns. 196

latlons ooour in yabhias, and y^^aam and y^UMUun. The conjnnction
yat is an ablatiye form according to the ordinary declension.

610. The use of y&t as representative stem begins very early:
we have y&tkfima in the Veda, and yatkfirfn, yaddevaty^ in the
Brahmana; later it grows more general. From the proper root come
also a considerable series of derivatives: y&tas, y&ti, y&tra» y4th&,
y&dft, y&di, y&rhi» yavant, yatari, yatam&; and the compound

611. The combination of ya with ka to make an indefinite
pronoun has been noticed above (607). Its own repetition — as
y&d-yat — gives it sometimes a like meaning, won through the dis-

612. One or two marked peculiar! tes in the Sanskrit use of the
relative may be here briefly noticed:

a. A very decided preference for putting the relative clause before
that to which it relates: thus, yiJ^ sunvati^ B&kbft t&smft indrfiya
gayata (RV.) iv?u> is the friend of the soma-presaer, to that Indra sing ye\
y&ih yajMiii paribhiir &8i s& id deveiju gaochati (RV.) what offering
thou protecteat, that in truth goeth to the gods; y6 tri^aptal^ pariy&nti
bdia t^^ftdi dadhfttu me (AY.) what thrice seven go about, their stretigth
may he assign to me; asau y6 adharad gph&a t&tra santv arftyyah
(AY.) what house is yonder in the depth, there let the witches he\ BBhk
y4n me dsti t6na (TB.) along with that which is mine; hafiflfinftib
vaoanaiii yat tu tan maiii dskhati (MBh.) hut what the words of the
swans were^ that bums me; sarvasya looanaiii Qftstraiii yasya nft 'sty
andha eva sah (H.) who does not possess learning, the eye of everything,
blind indeed is he. The other arrangement, though frequent enough, Is
notably less usual.

b. A frequent conversion of the subject or object of a verb by an
added relative into a substantive claxise: thus, m6 "m&iii pra "pat pfti^-
rufeyo vadho y&h (AY.) may there not reach him a human deadly
weapon (Ut'ly, w?iat is such a weapon); p&ii i^o pfihi y&d dh&nam
(AY.) protect of us what wealth [there is]; apftmJbrg6 *pa mftr^fu
kfjetriy&iii ^ap&tha^ oa y&^ (AY.) may the cleansing plant cleanse
away the disease and the curse; pufjkarei^a hftaih rajyaiii yao o&
'nyad vasu kiiiioana (MBh.) by Jhiskkara was taken away the kingdom
and whatever other property [there was"].

Other Pronouns: Emphatic, Indefinite.

518. a. The isolated and uninflected pronominal word
HUH svayam (from the root sva) signifies self, own self.
By its form it appears to be a nom. sing., and it is often-

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197 Pronominal Dbrivativbs. [ — 516

est used as nominatiye, but along with words of all persons
and numbers; and not seldom it represents other cases also.

b. Svayam is also used as a stem in composition: thus, sva-
yaifaja, svayambhd. But sva itself (usually adjective: below, 51 6 e)
has the same value in composition; and even its inflected forms are
(in the older language very rarely) used as reflexive pronoun.

o. In RV. alone are found a few examples of two indefinite
pronouns, sama (accentless) ant/y every, and sim& everyy all.

Nouns used pronominally.

514. a. The noun Etm&n soul is widely employed, in the sin-
gular (extremely rarely in other numbers), as reflexive pronoun of all
three persons.

b. The noun tanA body is employed in the same manner (but in all
nnmberg) In the Veda.

o. The adjective bhavant, f bhavati, is used (as ahready pointed
out: 456) in respectful address as substitute for the pronoun of
the second person. Its construction with the verb is in accordance
with its true character, as a word of the third person.

Pronominal Derivatives.

615. From pronominal roots and stems, as well as from
the larger class of roots and from noun-stems, are formed
by the ordinary suffixes of adjective derivation certain words
and classes of words, which have thus the character of pro-
minal adjectives.

Some of the more important of these may be briefly noticed here.

516. Possessive s. a. From the representative stems mad etc.
are formed the adjectives madiya» asmadiya, tvadiya, yufjmadiya,
tadiya, and etadXya, which are used in a possessive sense: relating
to me, mine, and so on.

b. Other possessives are mftmak& (also m&maka, RV.) and
tSvakd, from the genitives m&ma and t&va. And BY. has once

o. An analogous deiivatiye from the genitive amu^ya is ftmu^yft*
yai^ (AY. etc.) descendant of such and such a one.

d. It was pointed oat above (488) tliat the ^genitives'' asmakam
and yufmikam are really stereotyped cases of possessive adjectives.

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5ie— ] Vn. Pronouns. 198

e. Corresponding to svay&m (518) is the possessive Bvk, meaning
oivfiy as relating to all persons and numbers. The RY. has onoe the
corresponding simple possessiye of the second person, tvk thy,

f. For the use of 8va as reflexive pronoun, see above, 518 b.j

g. All these words form their feminines in &.

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 21 of 59)