William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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h. Other derivatives of a lilce value have no claim to be mentioned
here. But (excepting 8va) the possessives are bo rarely used as to make
but a small figure in the language, which prefers generally to indicate the
possessive relation by the genitive case of the pronoun itself.

517. By the suffix vant are formed from the pronominal roots,
with prolongation of their final vowels, the adjectives mavant, tva-
vant, yufmavant, yuvavant, tavant, etavant, yavant, meaning of
my sortj like mc, etc. Of these, however, only the last three are in
use in the later language, in the sense of tanttts and qtumtus. They
are inflected like other adjective stems in vant, making their femi-
nines in vati (462).

^ — sr "Words of similar meaning from the roots i and ki are {yant
and kiyant, inflected in the same manner: see above, 451.

518. The pronominal roots show a like prolongation of vowel
in combination with the root df9 see, look, and its derivatives -df^a
and (quite rarely) d^k^a: thus, m&d^^, -<iT9a; tv&d^^, *df^a; yu^-
m&dqp9, -df^a; t&df^, -df^a, -d^^kfa; etftdf^, -dt9a, -dfk^a; yftd^^*
-df^a; idt9, *<^9ci> -d^k^a; kid^^* -d^^a, -d^k^a. They mean o/ my
sort J like or resinnbling me, and the like, and tadp^ and the following
are not uncommon, with the sense of talis and qiuUis. The forms in
dr9 are unvaried for gender; those in d^a (and dqpk^a?) have fe-
minines in 1.

618. From ta* ka, ya come t&ti so many, k&ti /«otr many? yati
as many. They have a quasi-numeral character, and are inflected
(like the numerals p&fioa etc.: above, 488) only in the plural, and
with the bare stem as nom. and accus.: thus, N.A. t&ti; I. etc. t&ti-
bhis, t&tibhyas, tdtin&m, t&tifju.

520. From ya (in V. and B.) and ka come the comparatives and
superlatives yatari and yatami, and katar& and katami ; and from
i, the comparative (tara. For their inflection, see below, 528.

521. Derivatives with the suffix ka, some times conveying a
diminutive or a contemptuous meaning, are made from certain of the
pronominal roots and stems (and may, according to the grammarians,
be made from them all): thus, from ta, tak&m, tak&t, takas; from
sa, saka; from ya, yak&s, yaka, yak6; from asftu, asakftu; from
amu, amuka.

a. For the numerous and frequently used adverbs formed from pro-
nominal roots, see Adverbs (below, 1097 ff.).



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199 Adjectives declined pronominally. [—626

Adjectives declined pronominally.

622. A number of adjectives — some of them coming
from pronominal roots, others more or less analogous with
pronouns in use — are inflected, in part or wholly, accord-
ing to the pronominal declension (like cT ta, 496), with
feminine stems in fi. Thus:

628. The comparatives and superlatives from pronominal roots
— namely, katar& and katamA, yatard and yatami, and (tara;
also any& other, and its comparative anyatari — are declined like
ta throughout.

a. But even from these words forms made according to the adjective
declension are sporadically met with (e. g. itarftyftm K.).

b. Anya takes occasionally the form anyat In composition: thus,
anyatkftma, anyatsthana.

624. Other words are so inflected except in the nom.-acc.'voc.
sing, neat, where they have the ordinary adjective form am, instead
of the pronominal at (ad). Such are s&rva aUj vigva all, every ,
eka one.

a. These, also, are not without exception, at least in the earlier
language (e. g. vi^v&ya, vi^vftt, vi9ve RV.; dka loc. sing., AV.).

626. Yet other words follow the same model usually, or in some
of their significations, or optionally; but in other senses, or without
known rule, lapse into the adjective inflection.

a. Such are the comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems :
idhara and adhami, Antara and intama, ipara and apami, ivara
and avam&» uttara and uttami, upara and npam&. Of these, pro-
nominal forms are decidedly more numerous from the comparatlyes than
from the superlatives.

b. Further, the superlatives (without corresponding comparatives)
param&y oaramd, madhyami; and also anyatama (whose positive and
comparative belong to the class first mentioned : 628).

c. Further, the words p&ra distant, other-, piirvBi prior, east; dakfii^a
right, south-, pa^cima behind, western', ubh&ya (f. ubh&jri or ubhayl)
of both kinds or parties; n6ma the one, half; and the possessive 8v&.

626. Occasional forms of the pronominal declension are met with from
numeral adjectives: e. g. prathamisySa, tptlyasyftm; and from other
words having an indefinite numeral character: thus, 41pa/(6ir; axdhkhalf;
k^ala all] dvitaya of the two kinds; bahya outside — and others. RV.
has once samftn&smftt.



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527—] VIII. Conjugation. 200



CHAPTER Vni.



CONJUGATION.

627. Th£ subject of conjugation or yeibal inflection
involves, as in the other languages of the family, the dis-
tinctions of voice, tense, mode, number, and person.

a. Further, besides the simpler or ordinary conjugation
of a verbal root, there are certain more or less fully de-
veloped secondary or derivative conjugations.

528. Voice. There are (as in Greek) two voices, active

and middle, distinguished by a difference in the personal

endings. This distinction is a pervading one: there is no

active personal form which does not have its corresponding

middle, and vice versa; and it is extended also in part to

the participles (but not to the infinitive).

528. An active form is called by the Hindu grammarians
parasmfii padam a word for another, and a middle form is called
atmane padam a word for one's self: the terms might be best para-
phrased by transitive and reflexive. And the distinction thus expressed
is doubtless the original foundation of the difference of active and
middle forms; in the recorded condition of the language, however,
the antithesis of transitive and reflexive meaning is in no small
measure blurred, or even altogether effaced.

a. In the epics there is much effacement of the distinction between
actiye and ndddle, the choice of roice being very often determined hj
metrical considerations alone.

580. Some verbs are conjugated in both voices, others
in one only; sometimes a part of the tenses are inflected
only in one voice, others only in the other or in both; of
a verb usually inflected in one voice sporadic forms of the
other occur; and sometimes the voice differs according as
the verb is compounded with certain prepositions.



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201 Tbmsb and Mode. [—683

681. The middle forms outside the present-system (for
which there is a special passive inflection: see below, 768 ff.),
and sometimes also within that system, are liable to be
used likewise in a passive sense.

632. Tense. The tenses are as follows: 1. a present,
with 2. an imperfect, closely related with it in form, having
a prefixed augment; 3. a perfect, made with reduplication
(to which in the Veda is added, 4. a so-called pluperfect,
made from it with prefixed augment) ; 5. an aorist, of three
different formations : a. simple; b. reduplicated; o. sigmatic
or sibilant; 6. a future, with 7. a conditional, an augment-
tense, standing to it in the relation of an imperfect to a
present; and 8. a second, a periphrastic, future (not found
in the Veda).

a. The tenses here distingaiBhed (in accordance with prevailing
asage) as imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and aorist receive those
names from their correspondence in mode of formation with tenses
so called in other languages of the family, especially in Greek, and
not at all from differences of time designated by them. In no period
of the Sanskrit language is there any expression of imperfect or
pluperfect time — nor of perfect time, except in the older language,
where the ^aorist" has this value ; later, imperfect, perfect, and aorist
are so many undiscriminated past tenses or preterits: see below,
under the different tenses.

688. Mode. In respect to mode, the difference between
the classical Sanskrit and the older language of the Veda
— and, in a less degree, of the Brahmanas — is especially
great.

a. In the Veda, the present tense has, besides its indicative
inflection, a subjunctive, of considerable variety of formation, an
optative, and an imperative (in 2d and 3d persons). The same three
modes are found, though of much less frequent occurrence, as belong-
ing to the perfect; and they are made also from the aorists, being
of especial frequency from the simple aorist. The future has no modes
(an occasional case or two are purely exceptional).

b. In the classical Sanskrit, the present adds to its in-
dicative an optative and an imperative — of which last,



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538—] VIII. Conjugation. 202

moreovei, the first persons are a remnant of the old sub-
junctive. And the aorist has also an optative, of somewhat
peculiar inflection, usually called the precative (or bene-
dictive).

534. The present, perfect, and future tenses have each
of them, alike in the earlier and later language, a pair of
participles, active and middle, sharing in the various pe-
culiarities of the tense-formations; and in the Veda are
found such participles belonging also to the aorist.

535. Tense-systems. The tenses, then, with their
accompanying modes and participles, fall into certain well-
marked groups or systems:

I. The present-system, composed of the present
tense with its modes, its participle, and its preterit which
we have called the imperfect.

II. The perfect-system, composed of the perfect
tense (with, in the Veda, its modes and its preterit, the
so-called pluperfect) and its participle.

ni. The aorist-system, or systems, simple, re-
duplicated, and sibilant, composed of the aorist tense
along with, in the later language, its ''precative" Opta-
tive (but, in the Veda, with its various modes and its
participle).

IV. The future-systems: 1. the old or sibilant
future, with its accompanying preterit, the conditional,
and its participle; and 2. the new periphrastic future.

536. Number and Person. The verb has, of course,
the same three numbers with the noun: namely, singular,
dual, and plural ; and in each number it has the three per-
sons, first, second, and third. All of these are made in
every tense and mode — except that the first persons of
the imperative numbers are supplied &om the subjunctive.



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203 Verbal Adjectives and Nouns. [—640

687. Verbal adjectives and nouns: Participles.
The participles belonging to the tense-systems have been
already spoken of above (684j. There is besides, coming
directly firom the root of the verb, a participle, prevailingly
of past and passive (or sometimes neuter) meaning. Future
passive participles, or gerundives, of several different for-
mations, are also made.

638. Infinitives. In the older language, a very con-
siderable variety of derivative abstract nouns — only in a
few sporadic instances having anything to do with the tense-
systems -~ are used in an infinitive or quasi-infinitive sense;
most often in the dative case, but sometimes also in the
accusative, in the genitive and ablative, and (very rarely)
in the locative. In the classical Sanskrit, there remains a
single infinitive, of accusative case-form, having nothing to
do with the tense-systems.

689. Gerunds. A so-called gerund (or absolutive) —
being, like the infinitive, a stereotyped case-form of a de-
rivative noun — is a part of the general verb-system in
both the earlier and later language, being especially frequent
in the later language, where it has only two forms, one
for simple verbs, and the other for compound. Its value
is that of an indeclinable active participle, of indeterminate
but prevailingly past tense-character.

a. Another gerund, an adverbially used accusative in form, is
found, but only rarely, both earlier and later.

640. Secondary conjugations. The secondary or

derivative conjugations are as follows: 1. the passive; 2. the

intensive; 3. the desiderative; 4. the causative. In these,

a conjugation-stem, instead of the simple root, underlies

the whole system of inflection. Yet there is clearly to be

seen in them the character of a present-system, expanded

into a more or less complete conjugation; and the passive is



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540 -] VIII. Conjugation. 204

so purely a present-system that it will be described in the
chapter devoted to that part of the inflection of the verb.

a. tinder the same general head belongs the subject of
denominative conjugation, or the conversion of noun and
adjective-stems into conjugation-stems. Further, that of
compound conjugation, whether by the prefixion of prepo-
sitions to roots or by the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun
and adjective-stems. And Anally, that of periphrastic con-
jugation, or the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal
nouns and adjectives.

541. The characteristic of a proper (finite or personal)
verb-form is its personal ending. By this alone is deter-
mined its character as regards number and person — and
in part also as regards mode and tense. But the distinc-
tions of mode and tense are mainly made by the formation
of tense and mode-stems, to which, rather than to the pure
root, the personal endings are appended.

a. In this chapter will be given a general account of the per-
sonal endings, and also of the formation of mode-stems from tense-
stems, and of those elements in the formation of tense-stems — the
augment and the reduplication — which are found in more than one
tense-system. Then, in the following chapters, each tense-system
will be taken up by itself, and the methods of formation of its stems,
both tense-stems and mode-stems, and their combination with the
endings, will be described and illustrated in detail. And the com-
plete conjugation of a few model verbs will be exhibited in syste-
matic arrangement in Appendix O.

Personal Endings.

542. The endings of verbal inflection are, as was pointed out
above, di£ferent throughout in the active and middle voices. They
are also, as in Greek, usually of two somewhat varying forms for
the same person in the same voice: one fuller, called primary; the
other briefer, called secondary. There are also less pervading differ-
ences, depending upon other conditions.

a. In the epics, exchanges of primary and secondary activo endings,
(especially the substitution of ma, va, ta, for mas, vas, tha) are not
infrequent.



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205 Personal Endings. [—546

b. A condeneed statement of all the TarletleB of ending for each per-
son and nnmber here follows.

548. Singular: First person, a. The primary ending in
the active is mi The subjunctive, however (later imperative), has
ni instead; and in the oldest Veda this ni is sometimes wanting,
and the person ends in ft (as if the ni of ftni were dropped). The
secondary ending is properly m; but to this m an a has come to
be so persistently prefixed, appearing regularly where the tense-stem
does not itself end in a (vam for varm or varam in RV., once, and
abhum MS., avadhim TS. etc., sanem TB., are rare anomalies), that
it is convenient to reckon am as ending, rather than m. But the per-
fect tense has neither mi nor m; its ending is simply a (sometimes
ft: 248 o); or, from ft-roots, au.

b. The primary middle ending, according to the analogy of the
other persons, would be regularly me. But no tense or mode, at
any period of the language, shows any relic whatever of a m in this
person; the primary ending, present as well as perfect, from a-stems
and others alike, is e; and to it corresponds i as secondary ending,
which blends with the final of an a-stem to e. The optative has,
however, a instead of i; and in the subjunctive (later imperative)
appears fti for e.

644. Second person, a. In the active, the primary ending
is si, which is shortened to s as secondary; as to the loss of this
8 after a final radical consonant, see below, 666. But the perfect
and the imperative desert here entirely the analogy of the other
forms. The perfect ending is invariably tha (or thft: 248 o). The
imperative is far less regular. The fullest form of its ending is dhi;
which, however, is more often reduced to hi; and in the great ma-
jority of verbs (including all a-stems, at every period of the language)
no ending is present, but the bare stem stands as personal form.
In a very small class of verbs (722-8), ftna is the ending. There is
also an alternative ending tftt; and this is even used sporadically in
other persons of the imperative (see below, 670-1).

b. In the middle voice, the primary ending, both present and
perfect, is se. The secondary stands in no apparent relation to this,
being thfts; and in the imperative is found only sva (or svft: 248 c),
which in the Veda is not seldom to be read as sua. In the older
language, se is sometimes strengthened to sfii in the subjunctive.

646. Third person, a. The active primary ending is ti; the
secondary, t; as to the loss of the latter after a final radical con-
sonant, see below, 666. But in the imperative appears instead the
peculiar ending tu; and in the perfect no characteristic consonant is
present, and the third person has the same ending as the first.

b. The primary middle ending is te, with ta as corresponding
secondary. In the older language, te is often strengthened to tfti in



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645—] Vni. CONJUOATION. 206

the Bubjunctivo. lo the perfect, the middle third person has, Hke the
active, the same ending with the first, namely e simply; and in the
older language, the third person present also often loses the distinctive
part of its termination, and comes to coincide in form with the first
(and MS. has aduha for adtigdha). To this e perhaps corresponds,
as secondary, the i of the aorist 3d pers. passive (842 ff.}. The im-
perative has tarn (or, in the Veda, rarely ftm) for its ending.

546. Dual: First person. Both in active and in middle, the
dual first person is in all its varieties precisely like the correspond-
ing plural, only with substitution of v for the m of the latter: thus,
vas (no vasi has been found to occur), va, vahe, vahi, vahfti. The
person is, of course, of comparatively rare use, and from the Veda
no form in vas, even, is quotable.

547. Second and Third persons, a. In the active, the primary
ending of the second person is thas, and that of the third is tas;
and this relation of th to t appears also in the perfect, and runs
through the whole series of middle endings. The perfect endings are
primary, but have n instead of a as vowel; and an a has become so
persistently prefixed that their forms have to be reckoned as athus
and atus. The secondary endings exhibit no definable relation to
the primary in these two persons; they are tarn and t&m; and they
are used in the imperative as well.

b. In the middle, a long ft — which, however, with the final a
of a-stems becomes e — has become prefixed to all dual endings
of the second and third persons, so as to form an inseparable part
of them (didhithSm AV., and Jihithftm (JB., are isolated anomalies).
The primary endings, present and perfect, are ftthe and ftte; the
secondary (and imperative) are ftth&m and fttam (or, with stem-final
a, ethe etc.).

c. The Rig-Veda has a very few forms in ftithe and ftite, apparently
from ethe and ate with subjunctive strengthening (they are all detailed
below: see 615, 701, 737, 752, 886, 1008, 1043).

548. Plural: First person, a. The earliest form of the
active ending is masi, which in the oldest language is more frequent
than the briefer mas (in RV., as five to one; in AV., however, only
as three to four). In the classical Sanskrit, mas is the exclusive
primary ending; bat the secondary abbreviated ma belongs also to
the perfect and the subjunctive (imperative). In the Veda, ma often
becomes mft (248 c), especially in the perfect.

b. The primary middle ending is mahe. This is lightened in
the secondary form to mahl; and, on the other hand, it is regularly
(in the Veda, not invariably) strengthened to mahai in the subjunctive
(imperative).

549. Second person, a. The active primary ending is tha.
The secondary, also imperative, ending is ta (in the Veda, t& only



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207 Personal Endings. [—660

once in impv.). But in the perfect any characteristic consonant is
wanting) and the ending is simply a. In the Veda, the syllable na,
of problematic origin, is not infrequently added to both forms of the
ending, making thana (rarely thana) and tana. The forms in which
this occurs will be detailed below, under the different formations ; the
addition is very rarely made excepting to persons of the first general
conjugation. •

b. The middle primary ending is dhve, which belongs to the
perfect as well as to the present. In the subjunctive of the older lan-
guage it is sometimes strengthened to dhvfti. The secondary (and
imperative) ending is dhvam (in RY., once dhva); and dhv&t is
once met with in the imperative (671 d). In the Veda, the v of all
these endings is sometimes to be resolved into u, and the ending
becomes dissyllabic. As to the change of dh of these endings to (}h,
see above, 226 o.

660. Third person, a. The full primary ending is anti in
the active, with ante as corresponding middle. The middle second-
ary ending is anta, to which should correspond an active ant; but
of the t only altogether questionable traces are left, in the euphonic
treatment of a final n (207); the ending is an. In the imperative,
antu and ant&m take the place of anti and ante. The initial a of
all these endings is like that of am in the 1st sing., disappearing
after the final a of a tense-stem.

b. Moreover, anti, antu, ante, ant&m, anta are all liable to be
weakened by the loss of their nasal, becoming ati etc. In the active,
this weakening takes place only after reduplicated non-a-stems (and
after a few roots which are treated as if reduplicated : 688ff.j; in the
middle, it occurs after all tense-stems save those ending in a.

o. Further, for tho secondary active ending an there is a sub-
stitute U8 (or ur: 169b; the evidence of the Avestan favors the
latter form), which is used in the same reduplicating verbs that
change anti to ati etc., and which accordingly appears as a weaker
correlative of an^ The same ua is also used universally in the per-
fect, hi the optative (not in the subjunctive), in those forms of the
aorist whose stem does not end in a, and in the imperfect of root-
stems ending in a, and a few others (621).

d. The perfect middle has in all periods of the language the
peculiar ending re, and the optative has the allied ran, in this per-
son. In the Veda, a variety of other endings containing a r as dis-
tinctive consonant are met with: namely, re (and ire) and rate in
the present; rata in the optative (both of present and of aorist);
rire in the perfect; ranta, ran, and ram in aorists (and in an im-
perfect or two); rftm and ratftm in the imperative; ra in the imper-
fect of duh (MS.). The three rate, ratSm, and rata are found even
in the late* language in one or two verbs (629).



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651—] VI. CoNjtraATioN. 208

561. Below are giyen, for convenience, in tabular form, the
schemes of endings as accepted in the classical or later language:
namely, a. the regular primary endings, used in the present indicative
and the future (and the subjunctive in part); and b. the regular
secondary endings, used in the imperfect, the conditional, the aorist,
the optative (and the subjunctive in part); and further, of special
schemes, c. the i^rfect endings (chiefly primary, especially in the
middle); and d. the imperative endings (chiefly secondary). To the
so-called imperative endings of the first person is prefixed the ft which
is practically a part of them, though really containing the mode-sign
of the subjunctive from which they are derived.

552. Further, a part of the endings are marked with an accent,
and a part are left unaccented. The latter are those which never,
under any circumstances, receive the accent; the former are accented
in considerable classes of verbs, though by no means in all. It will
be noticed that, in general, the unaccented endings are those of the
singular active; but the 2d sing, imperative has an accented ending;
and, on the other hand, the whole series of 1st persons imperative,
active and middle, have unaccented endings (this being a characteristic
of the subjunctive formation which they represent).



Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 22 of 59)