William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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with a vowel: thus, mftrjantu, amarjan; but the only quotable case
is m&ijlta (LQS.). Forms from a-stems begin to appear already
in AV.

a. In the other tense-systems, also, and in derivation, mf j shows often
the v^ddhi instead of the guna-strengthening.

628. A number of roots accent the radical syllable throughout,
both in strong and in weak forms: thus, all those beginning with a
long vowel, fie, I^t xr, 19; and also cakf, takf, trft, nihs, vas cloihef
9inJ, 9I lie, and su. All these, except takf and trft (and tr& also in
the Vedic forms), are ordinarily conjugated in middle voice only.
Forms with the same irregular accent occur now and then in the Veda
from other verbs: thus, m&tsva, y&kfva, s&k^va, sakfva, fdhat.
Middle participles so accented kave been noticed above (619 d).

629. Of the roots mentioned in the last paragraph, 91 lie has
the gui^a-strengthening throughout: thus, qkye, 9^90, 9&yiya, ^^yftna,
and so on. Other irregularities in its inflection (in part already noticed)
are the 3d pi. persons 96rate (AY. etc. have also 9^re), ^eratSm,
&9erata (RV. has also &9eran), the 3d sing. pres. 9&ye (R.) and impv.
9&yam. The isolated active form &9ayat is common in the older
language; other a-forms, active and middle, occur later.

680. Of the same roots, if and 19 insert a union-vowel i hefore
certain endings: thus, iqi^e^ i9idhve, Ififva (these three being the only
forms noted in the older language); but RV. has ik^e beside {91^6; the
9^U. has once i9ite for l^{e. The 3d pi. X9ire (on account of its accent)
is also apparently present rather than perfect The MS. has once the 3d sing,
impf. fti9a (like aduha: 636).

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239 ROOT-OLASS (SBOOND, ad-CLASS). [—656

661. The roots rud we^, srap sleep, an breathe^ and ^vas blow
insert a union-vowel i before all the endings beginning with a con-
sonant, except the s and t of 2d and 3d sing, impf., where they insert
instead either a or I: thus, ■v&piml, ^risii^ &niti, and anat or
fLnit. And in the other forms, the last three are allowed to accent
either root or ending: thus, svipantu and ^T&santu (AY.), or
Bvap&ntu etc. The AY. has sv4ptu instead of svipitu.

a. In the older language, /vam makes the same insertions: thas,
vamiti) avamit; and other cases occasionally occur: thus, J&ni^va, vasifva
(yvBB elothe\ 9nathilii» stanihi (aU RY.), yamiti (JB.), ^oeimi (MBh.).
On the other hand, /an early makes forms from an a-stem: thns, &nati
(AY); pple 4nant (QB.); opt. anet (AB.).

632. The root bra epeak, say (of very frequent use) takes the
nnion-vowel i after the root when strengthened, before the initial
consonant of an ending: thns, br&vuni, br&vifi, brdviti, dbravis,
khTAvit; but brum&8» br^y^m, dbravam, 4bmvan, etc. Special
occasional irregularities are brtuni, bravihi, abruvam, abruvan,
bruyftty and sporadic forms from an a-stem. The subj. dual br&vftite
has been noticed above (615); also the strong forms abravita,
&bravitana (621 a).

633. Some of the roots in u are allowed to he inflected like bra:
namely, ka, ta» ra, and stu; and an occasional Instance is met with of
a form so made (in the older language, only taviti noted; in the later,
only stavimi, once).

634. The root am (hardly found in the later language) takes i as
union-Towel: thus, amifi (RY.), amiti and ftmit and amif^va (TS.). From
y^am occur ^amifva (VS.; TS. ^ami^va) and ^amidhvam (TB. etc.).

635. The irregnlarities of /duh in the older langnage have been
already in part noted: the 3d pi. indie, mid. dahate, dahre, and dulir4te;
3d sing. impy. daham, pi. duhr^ and duhrat&m; impf. act. 3d sing,
dduhat (which is found also in the later language), 3d pi. aduhran
(beside ddahan and duhos); the mid. pple dughana; and (quite un-
exampled elsewhere) the opt. forms duhiy&t and dahiy&n (RV. only).
The MS. has adoha 3d sing, and adohra 3d pi. impf. mid., apparently
formed to correspond to the pros, duhe (613) and dahre as adagdha and
adohata correspond to dugdhe and duhate: compare Blqa (630), related
in like manner to the 3d sing. 190.

Some of the roots of this class are abbreviated or otherwise
weakened in their weak forms: thns —

686. The root ^btfT as be loses its vowel in weak forms

(except where protected by combination with the augment).

Its 2d sing, indie, is ^^ &8i (instead of assi); its 2d sing.

impv. is ^ftr edhi (iiregnlaily &om asdhi). The insertion of

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686 - ]



^ T in 2d and 3d sing. impf. has been noticed already
above. ~~~

a. The forms of this extremely common verb, are, then,
as follows:


































Participle T{r{ sdnt (fern. W^ sati).

b. Besides the forms of the present-system, there is made from
this root only a perfect, asa etc. (800), of wholly regular inflection.

c. The Yedic subjunctive forms are the usual ones, made upon the
stem &8a. They are in frequent use, and appear (asat especially) even
in late texts where the subjunctive is almost lost. The resolution slam
etc. (opt.) is common in Yedic verse. As 2d and 3d sing. impf. is a few
times met with the more normal &8 (for as-s, fis-t). Sthina, 2d pi., was
noted above (618).

d. Middle forms from |/a8 are also given by the grammarians as allow-
ed with -certain prepositions (vi + ati), but they are not quotable; smahe
and sy Smahe (I) occur in the epics, but are merely instaucea of the ordi-
nary epic confusion of voices (529 a). Oonfusions of primary and secondary
endings — namely, 8va and sma (not rare), and, on the other hand, ayftvas
and syftmas — are also epic. A middle present indicative is said to be
compounded (in Ist and 2d persons) with the nomm ageniis in t;^ (tar)
to form a periphraatio future in the middle voice (but tee below, 047).
The 1st sing, indlc. is he; the rest is in the usual relation of middle to
active forms (in 2d pers., se, dhve, sva, dhvam, with total loss of the
root itself).

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241 EOOT-CLASS (SECOND, ad-OLASS). [—640

637. The root han smUe, slay is treated aomewhat after the
manner of noan-stems in an in declension (421): in weak forms, it
loses its n before an initial consonant (except m and v) of a personal
ending (not in the optative), and its a before an initial vowel — and
in the latter case its h, in contact with the n, is changed to gh (com-
pare 402). Thus, for example:

Present Indicatiye.
8. d. p.

1 h&nml hanv&B hanmis

2 hiiisi hath&8 hath&

3 h&nti hat&8 ghn&nti


8. d.

dhanam &lianva

&haii &liatam

&haii ihatSm


a. Its participle is ghn&nt (fern, ghnati). Its 2d sing. impv. is
Jahi (by anomalous dissimilation, on the model of reduplicating


b. Middle forms from this root are frequent in the Brahman&s, and
tho8A that occur are formed in general according to the same rules: thus,
hate, haninabe, ghnate; ahata, aghnStftm, aghnata (in AB., also
ahata); ghnita (but also hanlta). Forms from transfer-stems, haaa and
ghna, are met with from an early period.

638. The root va^ he eager is in the weak forms regularly and
usually contracted to U9 (as in the perfect: 794b): thus, uQin&sl
(V.: once apparently abbreviated in RV. to 9ma8i), U9&nti; pple
uQanty n^Sni. Middle forms (except the pple) do not occur; nor do
the weak forms of the imperfect, which are given as &u9va» &uftam, etc.

a. RY. has in like manner the participle uf fii^ from the root vas clothe.

639. The root 9&8 order shows some of the peculiarities of a
reduplicated verb, lacking (646) the n before t in all 3d persons pi.
and in the active participle. A part of its active forms — namely,
the weak forms having endings beginning with consonants (including
the optative) — are said to come from a stem with weakened vowel,
919 (as do the aorist, 854, and some of the derivatives); but, except-
ing the optative (9i97dm etc., U. S. and later), no such forms are

a. The 3d sing. impf. is a9fit (555 a), and the same form Is said
to be allowed also as 2d sing. The 2d sing. impv. is q&dhi (with total
loss of the s); and RY. has the strong 2d pi. 9&8t&na (with anomalous
accent); and a-forms, from stem 9ft8a, occasionally occur.

b. The middle inflection is regular, and the accent (apparently)
always upon the radical syllable (9a8te, 9a8ate, 9&&na).

o. The root d&9 toorship has in like manner (RY.) the pple da9at
(not d^ant).

640. The double so-called root Jak^ eat, laugh is an evident redu-
plication of ghaa and has respectively. It has the absence of n in act.

Whitney, Orammar. 3. ed. 16

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640—] EL PRB8BNT-ST8TB1C. 242

8d penont pL and pple, and the accent on the root hefore Towel-endings,
which belong to lednplieatad Terbe; and it also takes the union-Towel i
in the manner of rod etc. (abore, 681). For ita forma and deriTatlTea
made with utter loaa of the ilnal sibilant, see 288 1

641. Certain other obviotiBly reduplicated verbs are treated hj
the native grammarians as if simple, and referred to this conjugation:
such are the intensively reduplicated jSgr (1020 a)» daridrft (1024 a)»

and van (1024 a)» didhi etc. (676)» and cakfis (677).

II. Reduplicating Class (third, hu-class).

642. This class forms its present-stem by prefixing a
reduplication to the root.

648. a. As regards the consonant of the reduplication,
the general rules which have already been given above (690]
are followed.

b. A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicating syl-
able: thus, ^ dadft from y^ dft; f^Ht bibh! firom y^ bhi;
sT^ juhtl from /§[ hfL The vowel ^ v never appears in the
reduplication, but is replaced by ^ i: thus, fsp\ bibhr from
y^ bhir; ft^ Pipyo from yr:^ pyo.

0. For yerbs in which a and ft also are irregularly represented in the
reduplication by i, see below, 660. The root vpt (T. B.) makes vavartti
etc.; oakr4nt (RV.) is very doabtfal.

d. The only root of this class with initial vowel is ^ (or ar);
it takes as reduplication i, which is held apart from the root by an
interposed y: thus, iyar and iyr (the latter has not been found in
actual use).

644. The present-stem of this class (as of the other

classes belonging to the first or non-a-conjugation) has a

double form: a stronger form, with gunated root-vowel;

and a weaker form, without gu^a: thus, from y^ ho, the

two forms are ^^ Juho and ^^ juhu; from y^ bhl, they

are i^ bibhe and fipft bibhl. And the rule for their use

is the same as in the other classes of this conjugation: the

strong stem is found before the unaccented endings (662),

and the weak stem before the accented.

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Bbduplicatjno Glass (thibd, hu-OLASS).


645. According to all the analogies of the first general conju-
gation, we should expect to find the accent upon the root-syllable
when this is strengthened. That is actually the case, however, only
in a small minority of the roots composing the class : namely, in hu,
bhl (no test-forms in the older language), hri (no test-forms found in
the older language), mad (very rare), jan (no forms of this class
found to occur), oi notice (in Y.), yu separate (in older language only),
and in bhf in the later language (in V. it goes with the minority:
but BY. has bibh&rti once, and AY. twice; and this, the later
accentuation, is found also in the Brahmanas); and BY. has once
iy&Tfi. In all the rest — apparently, by a recent transfer — it rests
upon the reduplicating instead of upon the radical syllable. And in
both classes aUke, the accent is anomalously thrown back upon the
reduplication in those weak forms of which the ending begins with
a Yowel; while in the other weak forms it is upon the ending (but
compare 666 a).

a. Apparently (the cases with written accent are too few to determine
the point satisfactorily) the middle optattye endings, lya etc. (566), are
reckoned throughout as endings with initial vowel, and throw back the
accent upon the reduplication.

646. The verbs of this class lose the ^ n in the 3d
pi. endings in active as well as middle, and in the imper-
fect have 3Tr us instead of 3BFT an — and before this a final
radical vowel has gn^a.

1. Present Indicative.

647. The combination of stem and endings is as in
the preceding class.

Examples of inflectic
stem-form, ^^ juh6; weak

s. d. p.

1 s|«^liM 5^^ ^^HH^

ion: a. y^ hu sacrifice: strong
form, ^^ juhu (or jiihu).


iuh6mi Jnlmv&s Jnhnm&s

Jah69i juhtith&8juliath&

a sJ^Ih 5^rre^ 5^S%

Jiili6ti Jnhut&B JithTati

5% p?^ PR%

J^ve Juhuv&lie jnhnmAhe

Jaliu§6 Juhvftthe jaliadhv6

juhutd jiihvftte j^vate

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647—] EX. Present-system. 244

b. Root H bhr bear (given with Vedio accentuation):
strong stem-form, ^^X^ bibliar; weak, fipT bibhr (or bibh^).

1 («^Hpf |6<4M^^ fspjTO^ fii^ fsMc% ftHM^
b{bharmi bibhfv&s bibhpn&s

bibharf i bibhrth&s bibh^rtli^

3 fenf^f f^HrfH fswIrT
bfbharti bibhrt&s bibhrati

e. The u of hu (like that of the class-signs nu and u: see below,
697 a) is said to be omissible before v and m of the endings of Ist dn.
and pi.: thus, jahv&s, Juhv&he» etc.; but no such fonns aie quotable.

2. Present SubjiinctiYe.

648. It is not possible at present to draw a distinct line between
those subjunctive forms of the older language which should be reckoned as
belonging to the present-system and those which should be assigned to the
perfect — or eyen, in some cases, to the reduplicated aorist and intensiye.
Here will be noticed only those which most clearly belong to this cla^s;
the more doubtful cases will be treated under the perfect-system. Except
in first persons (which continue in use as ^imperatiyes" down to the later
language), subjunctiyes from roots haying unmistakably a reduplicated
present-system are of far from frequent occurrence.

649. The subjunctive mode-stem is formed in the usual manner,
with the mode-sigD a and gui^a of the root-vowel, if this is capable
of such strengthening. The evidence of the few accented forms met
with indicates that the accent is laid in accordance with that of the
strong indicative forms: thus from yliu, the stem would be Juhiva;
from yhh:fy it would be bibhara (but bibh&ra later). Before the
mode-sign, final radical ft would be, in accordance with analogies
elsewhere, dropped: thus, d4da from ydft, d&dha from ydhA (all the
forms actually occurring would be derivable from the secondary roots
dad and dadb).

650. Instead of giving a theoretically complete scheme of
inflection, it will be better to note all the examples quotable from
the older language (accented when found so occurring).

a. Thus, of ist persons, we haye in the active Juh&vftni, bibharS^,
dad&ni, dadhftni, Jahfini; Jubavftma, d&dhftma, J&hftma; — in the
middle, dadhfti, mimfti; dadhftvahSi; Juhavftmahai, dadftmahe,
dadSmahftl, dadhftmahfti.

b. Of other persons, we haye with primary endings in the active
bibharftai (with double mode-sigh: 660 e), dddhathas, Juhavfttba (do.)

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245 Reduplicating Class (thied, hu-oLASs). [—653

And Juhavatha ; in the middle, dAdliase ; d&dhate, r&rate, d&dhfttfii,
dadfttfii ; — with secondary endings, d&dhfts, vive^as* Juhavat, bibharat,
yuy&vat, d&dhat, dadh&nat, babhaaat; dadhan» yuyavan, Juhavan.

8. Present Optative.

651. To form this mode, the optative endings given
above (566 a), as made up of mode-sign and personal endings,
are added to the unstrengthened stem. The accent is as
already stated (645 a). The inflection is so regular that it is
unnecessary to give here more than the first persons of a
single verb: thus,

aetive. middle.

8. d. p. 8. d. p.

1 g^irm^ ^rm s^^um pffer 5^^ pfW%

Juhuyim Johusrava Juhny&na Juhvlya Jtihvivahi Ji^vimalii

etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.

4. Present Imperative.

652. The endings, and the mode of their combination
with the root, have been already given. In 2d sing, act.,
the ending is f^ hi after a vowel, but ^ dhi after a con-
sonant: ^ ho, however, forms sl^jtT juhudhi (apparently,
in order to avoid the recurrence of ^ h in two successive
syllables): and other examples of fu dhi after a vowel are
found in the Veda.

658. a. Example of inflection:

active. middle.

8. d. p. 8. ' d. p.

s^c^cl i iH PAPIST ^^m 5# s|cj>c|M^ s^^j^cllH^

juh&vani juh4v&va Juh&v&ma Juh&vSi Juh&vftvahSi Juh&vftmahfti

juhudhi Juhut&m Juhat& juhuQv& J^vftthftm juhudhv&m

Juh6tu Juhut&n Juhvatu Juhutam Jiihvftt&m Jiihvat&m
b. The verbs of the other diviaion differ here, as in the indicative,
in the accentaation of their strong forms only: namely, in all the

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663—] EL Preskmt-sytbm. 246

first persons (borrowed sabjanctiyes), and in the 3d sing, act.: thus,
(in the older language) bibhari^i etc., blbhartu, bibharfti etc

664. Yedic inegnlaiities of inflection an: 1. the oeeasional dm of
strong forms in 2d persons: tbns, yuyodhi, ^i^ftdhi (beside ^i^Ihl);
ynyotam (beside sruyat&m); (yairta, d&dftta and dad&tana, d&dh&ta
and d&dhfitana (see below, 668), pipartana, Jah6ta and juh6tana,
yuyota and ynyotana; rarftava (666); 2. the use of dhi instead of
hi after a Towel (only in the two instances jnst quoted); 3. the ending
tana in 2d pi. act.: namely, besides those Just giyen, in jlg&tana,
dhattana, mam&ttana, vivaktana, didiffana, bibhitana, Jujuftana*
Juhutana» vav^ttana: the oases are proportionally mnch more nomerons
in this than in any other class; 4. the ending tftt in 2d sing, act., in
dattftt, dhattit, piprtftt, JalutftU

6. Present Partioiple.

606. As elaewheie, the active paitioiple-stem may be
made mechanically &om the 3d pi. indie, by dropping ^ i:
thus, ^<^^jdhyat, 1^[%FT bibhrat. In inflection, it has no
distinction of strong and weak forms (444). The feminine
stem ends in ^^ atl. The middle participles are regularly
made: thus, ^^|H jiihvftna, {sl^lUI bibhrS^a.

a« BY. shows an irregular accent in pipftn& (ypft drmk),

6. Imperfeot.

666, As already pointed out, the 3d pi. act. of this
class takes the ending 3^ us, and a final radical vowel has
gu^ before it. The strong forms are, as in present indic-
ative, the three singular active persons.

667. Examples of inflection:

aetlTe. middle.

8. d. p. s. d. p.

djuhavam 4fuhuva ^fuhuma iijulivi ^uhnvahi ^uhumahi
iiJuhOB 4fubutam 4f uhuta ^uhuthSa ^uhvathfim ^uhudhvam

Unhot Aiuliutlmiijuhavus ^uhuta i^ttil^v&tSm tjulivata

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247 RsDUPLicATiNa Class (tbibd, hu-CLAss). [—668

a. From y^ bhr, the 2d and 3d sing. act. are Mf«IH4>
ibibhar (for abibhar-s and abibhar-t] — and so in all other
eases where the strong stem ends in a consonant. The 3d
pi. act. is Mi^H^H ibibharus; and other like cases are
ibibhayns, aoikayns, asuyavus.

b. In MS., onc«, abibhrus is doubtless a false reading.

668. The usual Tedio iiregnlarities in 2d pi. act. — strong foni\s,
and the ending tana — oeenr in this tense also : thus, Adada t a , ddadhftta;
Adattana, ^ahfttana. The BY. has also once apiprata for apip^ta
in 3d sing, mid., and abibhran for abibhama in 3d pi. act. Examples
of angmentless forms are ^i^as, viv^ Jiffftt; j{hita» gi^Ita, Jihata;
and, with irregular strengthening, ynyoma (AY.), ynyothfis* ynyota.

609. The roots that form their present-stem by redaplicstion are
a very small class, especially in the modem language; they are only
50, all told, and of these only a third (16) are met with later. It is,
howeyer, very difficult to determine the precise limits of the class,
because of the impossibility (referred to above, under subjunctive: 648)
of always distinguishing its forms from those of other reduplicating
conjugations and parts of coiijugations.

a« Besides the iiregnlarities in tense-inflection already pointed out,
others may be noticed as follows.

Irregularities of the Beduplioating Glass.

660. Besides the roots in x or ar — namely, f, ghf (usually
written ghar), t^, pf, bhr, 8{>» hf, pro — the following roots having
a or a as radical vowel . take i instead of a in the reduplicating
syllable: gft go, ma insasiir«, mft bellow, q^ h& remove (mid.), vao»
sac; vag has both 1 and a; rft has i once in RV.; for sthft, pa drink,
ghra, han« hi, see below (670-4).

661. Several roots of this class in final a change the a in weak
forms to I (occasionally even to i), and then drop it altogether before
endings beginning with a vowel.

a. This is in close analogy with the treatment of the vowel of the
class-sign of the na-class: below, 717.

These roots are:

668. 9a eharpen, act and mid. : thus, 9i9ati» ^t^Imasi, qiiphi (also
^i^adhi: above, 664), 9i9ata, a9i9at, 9{9lte, 9{9lta.

668. ma heUmo, act., and ma measure, mid. (rarely also act.): thus,
mimati, mimiyat; mimito, mimate, Amimlta; mimihi, mimatu.
RV. has onoe mimanti 3d pi. (for mimati).

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IX. Present-system.


664. hfi remove, mid.: thus, j{hite, JihidhTe, Jiliate; Jihifva,
jihatftm; ^ihlta, ajihato. QB. has jihith&m (for Jih&thftm).

665* hfi quit, act. (originally Identical with the former), may farther
shorten the i to i: thus, Jahftti, Jahita, jahitftt (AY.); Jahimas (AY.),
Jahitas (TB.), Jahitam (TA.), ajahitftm (TS. AB.). In the opUtive,
the radical Towel is lost altogether; thns, Jahyftm* Jabyns (AY.). The
!M sing. impT., according to .the grammarians, is Jahlhi or jahihi or
JahShi; only the first appears quotahle.

a. Forms from an a-stem, jaha, are made for this root, and even
deriyatiyes from a quasi-root J ah.

666. rft give, mid.: thns, rarldhvam, rarithfts (impf. without
augment); and, with i in reduplication, ririliL But AY. has rarftava.

a. In those yerhs, the accent is generally constant on the reduplicating

667. The two roots dft and dhft (the commoneBt of the class)
lose their radical vowel altogether in the weak forms, being shortened
to dad and dadh. In 2d sing. impy. act, they form respectively
dehf and dhehf. In combination with a following t or th, the final
dh of dadh does not follow the special rule of combination of a
final sonant aspirate (becoming ddh with the t or th: 160), but —
as also before s and dhv — the more general rales of aspirate and
of surd and sonant combination; and its lost aspiration is thrown
back upon the initial of the root (155).

668. The Inflection of /dhft is, then, as follows:

Present Indicative.

actiye. middle,

s. d. p. 6. d. ' p.

1 dAdhftmi dadhv&s dadhm&s dadh6 dAdhvahe dAdhmahe

2 d&dhfisi dhatthae dhatth& dhats6 dadhSthe dhaddhve

3 dAdhfiti dhatt&B dAdhati dhatt6 dadhate dAdhate

Present Optative.
1 dadhyam dadhyava dadhy&na dAdhiya dA^vahi dAdhimahi
etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.

Present Imperative.

1 d&dhani dAdhftva d&dh&ma dAdh&i dAdh&vahfti dAdh&mah&i

2 dhehi dhatt&m dhatt& dhatsva dadhfithSm dhaddhvam
9 d&dh&tu dhattam dAdhatu dhattSm dadhfttftm dadhatfim


1 Adadhftm &dadhva Adadhma Adadhi Adadhvahi Adadhmahi

2 Adadh&B Adhattam Adhatta Adhatth&s Adadhfttham Adhaddhvam

3 Adadh&t Adhattftm Adadhos Adhatta Adadhfttfim Adadhata

Digitized by VjOOQIC

249 Rbduplioatino Glass (thikd, hu-CLASs). [—876

Participles: tct. d&dhat; mid. dMhftna.

a. In the middle (except impf.), only those forms are here accented
for which there is authority in the accentuated texts, as there is discordance
between the actual accent and that which the analogies of the class would
lead ns to expect BY. has once dh&tse : dadli6 and dadhate might he
perfects, so far as the form is concerned. RY. accents dadhit& once
(d&dmta thrice); several other texts haye d&dhlta» d&dhlran, dAdita.

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 26 of 59)