William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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b. The root dft is inflected in precisely the same way, with
change everywhere of (radical) dh to d.

669. The older language has irregularities as follows: 1. the usual
strong forms in 2d pi., d&dhftta and 4dadhftta» d&dftta and &dad&ta;
2. the usual tana endings in the same person, dhattana, d&dfttana» etc.
(654, 658); 3. the 3d sing, indie, act. dadh6 (like Ist sing.); 4. the 2d
sing. impv. act. daddhi (for both dehi and dhehi). And R. has dadmL

670. A number of roots haye been transferred from this to the
a- or bhfl-class (below, 749), their reduplicated root becoming a
stereotyped stem inflected after the manner of a-stems. These roots
are as follows:

871. In all periods of the language, from the roots sthft standi
pft drink, and ghrS stneU^ are made the presents tif^bftmi, p{bftmi
(with irregular sonantizing of the second p), and jighr&mi — which
then are inflected not like mfinftini, bat like bh&v&mi, as if from
the present-stems tfftba, p{ba, J{ghra.

672. In the Yeda (especially; also later), the reduplicated roots dft
and dhft are sometimes turned into the a-stems d&da and d&dha, or
inflected as if roots dad and dadh of the a-dass ; and single forms of the
same character are made f^om other roots: thus, mimaiiti (ymft bellow) ^
r&rate (yrft give: 3d sing. mid.).

873. In the Yeda, also, a like secondary stem, Jighna, is made horn
yhan (with omission of the radical Towel, and conversion, usual in this
root, of h to gh when in contact with n: 637); and some of the forms
of 8a90, from ysac, show the same conversion to an a-stem, sa^oa.

674. In AB. (viil. 28), a similar secondary form, Jighsra, is given to
ylii or hft: thus, jighyati, Jighyatu.

875. A few so-called roots of the first or root-class are the products
of reduplication, more or less obvious: thus, Jaks (840), and probably
9&B (from y^as) and oakf (from yk&9 or a lost root kaa see). In the
Yeda is found also sage, from |/Bae.

878. The grammarians reckon (as already noticed, 641) several roots
of the most evidently reduplicate character as simple, and belonging to the
root-class. Some of these (jfigf, daridrfty vevi) are regular intensive
stems, and will be described below under Intenslves (1020 a, 10i24a);
didhi $hine, together with Yedic didi shine and pipl stoell, are sometimes
also classed as intenslves; but they have not the proper reduplication of



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676—] IX. Presbmt-ststbm. 250

saoh, and may perhaps be best noticed here, as reduplicated present-stems
with irregularly long reduplicating ToweL

a. Of pros, indie, occurs in the older language only didyati, 3d pi.,
with the pples didyat and dldhyat, and mid. didye, didhye, didh-
yftthfim, with the pples didyftna, didhyfina, plpyftna. The subj. stems
are did&ya» did]iaya» pip&ya» and from them are made forms with both
primary (from dld4ya) and secondary endings (and the irregularly accented
dXdayat and didftyat and dldhayan). No opt. occurs. In impv. we ha^e
dXdihl (and didihl) and pipihl, and pipyatam, pipyatfim, pipyata.
In impf., adides and plpee» &didet and Adidliet and aplpet (with
augmentless forms), apipema (with strong form of root), and adldhayuB
and Qrregular) apipyan,

b. A few forms from all the three show transfer to an a-in flection ;
thus, didhaya and pipaya (impv.), dpipayat, etc.

o. Similar forms fh>m ymi bellow are amimet and mimayat.

677. The stem oakSs shine (sometimes oakS9) is also regarded by
the grammarians as a root, and supplied as such with tenses outside the
present-system — which, however, hardly occur in genuine use. It is not
known in the older language.

678. The root bhas chew loses its radical vowel in weak forms,
taking the form baps: thus, bibhasti, but bapsati (3d pL), bipsat
(pple). For babdb&m, see 233 f.

679. The root hhl fear is allowed by the grammarians to shorten
its vowel in weak forms: thus, bibhimas or bibhimas, bibhSyfim or
bibhiyftm; and Mbhiyftt etc are met with In the later language.

680. Forms of this class from yjan give birth, with added i — thus,
JiO^ki^ey Jajfiidlive — are given by the grammarians, but have never been
found in use.

681. The roots oi and oit have in the Yeda reversion of o to k in
the root-syllable after the reduplication: thus, oik^^i, oik6the (anomalous,
for eikyathe). oikitfim, aoiket» ofkyat (pple); oikiddhl.

682. The root vyao has i in the reduplication (fh>m the y), and is
contracted to vio in weak forms: thus, viYikt&Sy dviviktSm* So the
root hvar (if its forms are to be reckoned here) has n in reduplication,
and contracts to hur: thus, Juhiirthfis.

III. Nasal Class (seventh, rudh-class).
688. The roots of this olass all end in consonants. And
their olass-sign is a nasal preceding the final consonant: in
the weak forms, a nasal simply, adapted in character to the
consonant; but in the strong forms expanded to the syllable
^ ni, which has the accent.



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251 Nasal Clabb (seventh, rudh-OLASS). [—686

a. In a few of the Teibs of the class, the nasal extends also into
other tense stems: they aie a&J, bhafij* biiia: see below, 604.

1. Present Indicative.

684. Examples of inflection: a. the root ^[^yuj
join: strong stem-form, ^^^yunij; weak, ^^T jrufij.

For the roles of eombination of final J, see 219.

active. middle.

8. d. p. s. d. p.

1 g=#T 3^^ 3^^ 3^ JfST^ U*H^
yrm^jmi ynfijvis sniiUmAs ynfU6 yufijv&he ynfijm&he

2 ^ 31^^ 3^^ 3^ 3^ 5^

ytin&kfi yu&kth&s yoflkthA yu&ki^ yufijtthe yailigdhv6

3 3=^ Wl. 3^ 3t 3^ P^

3rim&kti ynfikt&s ynfij&nti ynfikt^ sniiUate yufij&te

b. the root '^q[^rudh obstrtwt; bases "^nm ru^dh and
■pU rundh.

For the roles of combination of final dh, see 163, 160.

1 "^tnffe^ ^j'^y^ ^^rowT^ "^5=^ ^j*y^ "^01%

mpAdhml mndhv&s nmdhm&s nuidh6 rondhv&he nindhm&he

2 "prffH (j*^ti^ "pST "^rH 0^4 1^ "^5^
ru^&tBi ronddh&s ronddhi ronts^ rundhathe nuiddhv6

3 ipnfe (j'^n^ "^^1% ^p% "pcn^ "p^i^

nu^dhi ronddhAs rondh&nti mnddh^ mndh^ rondh&te

c. Instead of yofikthas, smfigdhve, and the like (here and in
the impv. and impf.), it is allowed and more usual (231) to write
ynfithas, 3ruiidhve, etc.; and, in like manner, rnndhas, nindhe, for
nmddhas* nmddhe; and so in other like cases.

685. Yedic irregolarities of infiectfon are: 1. the ordinary ose of a
8d sing. mid. like the 1st sing., as v^fije; 2. the accent on td of 9d pi.
mid. in afUat6» indhat6, bhufijatd.

a. Ynna&kfi, in BhP., is doubtless a false reading.

2. Freaent Subjunotlve.

686. The stem is made, as usual, by adding a to the strong
present-stem: thus, yonija. nu^idba. Below are given as if made



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686—]



IX. Presbnt-sybtbm:



252



from yyui all the fonns for which examples have been noted as
actually ocouring in the older langpiage.

active. middle.

8. d. p. B. d. p.

1 yun&j&ni yxmij&va yun^Jama ynnajfti yiiiiiO&°^&hfti

2 yun^as yunaj&dhvfti

3 yim&Jat yuniOataa yun^an yunijate

687. The RV. has once afijatas^ which is anomalous as being made
from the weak tense-stem. Forms with double mode-sign are met with:
thus, fq^i^&hftn (AY.), r&dlin&Tat and yunajSn (QB.); aud the only
quotable example of 3d du. act. (besides aAlat&fl) is hin&sfttas ((SB.).
,^B. has also hinasftvas as 1st du. act: an elsewhere unexampled form.

8. Present Optative.

688. The optative is made, as elsewhere, by adding the
compounded mode-endings to the weak form of present-
stems. Thus:



aotiye.



middle.



8. d. p.

1 yniiH^ gfOTsr gfbw ^_, , ^,

ynfijy^ yufijyava yufijyama yufijlyd yufijlv&hi ynfijun&hi



8.



d. JD.



etc.



etc.



etc.



etc.



etc.



etc.



a. AB. has once the anomalous 1st sing, act vfi&jlyam. And forms
like bhufijiyfim -yftt, yufijiyftt, are here and there met with in the
epics (bhufijiyatftm once in GQS.). MBh., too, has onoe bhufijltani.



s.



middle,
d.



4. Present Imperative.

689. In this class (as the roots all end in consonants)
the ending of the 2d sing. act. is always ^ dhi.

actiye.
s. d. p.

UHslliH ilHstN tiisiiH

o o o

yuniijanl yun^fiva yundjama
yufigdhi yu&kt&m yttfikti

3^ W^ 5^

yun&ktn snifikt^in ynfijAntu



yun^fii



P-
yun&Jftvah&i yun^i&malifti

ytifikfv& yufkj^thftm ynagdhvAm

3nifikt&n yufijitftm ynfij&tftm



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253 Nasal Class (seyemth, rudh-OLASS). [—694

690. There is no ocooirenoe, so far as noted, of the ending t&t in
▼erl)8 of this class. The Teda has, as nsual, sometimes strong forms, and
sometimes the ending tana, in the 2d pi. act. : thns, an&tta» yiin&kta,
anaktana, pina^ (ana.

6. Present Participle.

691. The participles are made in this class as in the
preceding ones: thus, act. g^rT yTxfljdnt (fem. Uyrfl ynlljati);
mid. y^H yu£USn& (but RV. has indh&na).

6. Imperfect.

692. The example of the regular inflection of this tense
needs no introduction:

active. middle.

B. d. p. 8. d. p.

*4ijHsiH^ ^g^ m?^ arof^ m§^ ^m^^

Aytmajam &yufijva iyuiUma iyufiji dyulijvalii &ytifijmahi
Aynnak ijraAktam dyufikta &3mftkthftB iyunjathSm &yuftgdhvam

m^ W4'W^ ^g^ m^' ^mm\ msrf

&3runak iiyunktftm dyufijan iyufikta dsniiUfitSm dyufijata

a. The endings a and t are necessarily lost in the nasal class
thronghout in 2d and 3d sing, act., unless sayed at the expense of the
final radical consonant: which is a case of very rare occnrrence (the
only quotable example^ were given at 665 a).

693. The Yeda shows no irregularities In this tense. Occorrences of
angmentless forms are found, especially in 2d and 3d sing, act., showing
an accent like that of the present: for example, bhin&t, pfigi&k, v^&k»
pi]^&k, rin&k.

a. The 1st sing. act. atp^am and aoohinam (for atp^dam and
acchinadam) were noted ahoTO, at 566 a.

694. The roots of this class number about thirty, more than
half of them being found only in the earlier language ; no new ones
make their first appearance later. Three of them, afij and bhafij and
hiikBy carry their nasal also into other tense-systems than the present.
Two, Tfdh and nbh, make present-systems also of other classes haying
a nasal in the class-sign: thus, fdhnoti (nu-class) and ubhnSti
(nft-class).



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694-—] IX. Prbsenthststem. 254

a« Many of the roots make forms from secondary a-stems: thus, ftom
afUa, unda, umbh&y ohinda, t^fthi* pi&9*f VX^ok* bhuiija, rundha,
^iftf&, etc.

Irregularities of the Nasal Class.

695. The root t|^)i combines tp^ah with ti, tu, etc. into tfi^e^hi*
tf]^6(Jlhu; and, according to the grammarians, has also such forms as
tp^ehmi: see above, 224 b.

696. The root hitiB (by origin apparently a desiderative from j/han)
accents Irregnlarly the root-syllable in the weak forms: thns, hfAflant1»
hiiiBte, h{&8ftna (but hin&sat etc. and hi&syit gB.).

IV. Nu- and u-classes (fifth and eighth, su- and tan-classes).

697. A. The present-stem of the nu-olass is made by
adding to the root the syllable ^ nu, which then in the
strong forms receives the accent, and is strengthened to ^ no.

B. The few roots of the u-class (about half-a-dosen)

end in ^ n, with the exception of the later irr^^uli^ ^ kr

(or kar) — for which, see below, 714. The two classes,

then, are closely correspondent in form; and they are wholly

accordant in inflection.

a. The u of either class-Bign is allowed to be dropped before
V and m of the 1st du. and 1st pi. endings, except when the root
(nu-dass) ends in a consonant; and the u before a vowel-ending
becomes v or uv, according as it is preceded by one or by two
consonants (129 a).

1. Present Indicative.

698. Examples of inflection: A. nu-class; root
T{ su press out\ strong form of stem, "^t 8un6; weak form.



W( sunu.

8.

1 §^

8un6ini


active,
d.

snnuv&s


8unnm&8


8unv6


middle,
d.

snnuv&he




2 g^lftr

8nn69i


8unuth&8


Bunuthi


sunufi


sunvithe


^



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255 IfU- AND U- (FIFTH AND EIGHTH, 8U- AND tan-CLASSES). [—700

3 HHlfd HjHH^ H'^lltl 2^ ^-^Ic) g^^

8un6ti Biinutis sav&nti 8uiiut6 sunvite sunv&te

a. The fonoB sunv&s, sunm&s, sonv&he, simm&he are alter-
native with those given here for Ist du. and pL, and in practioe are
more common. From >^ftp, however (for example), only the forms
with u can occur: thns, ftpnuv&s, &pnn]n&he; and also only &pnu-
v&nti» &pnuv6, ftpnuv&te.

B. u-class; root cR tan stretch: strong form of stem,

fnt tan6: weak, rR tanu.

1 ci-iIIh rF^rq;^ cPTH^ cF^ fF^ cFR%

tan6mi tanv&s tanmis tanv6 tanv&he tanm&he
etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.

b. The inflection is so precisely like that given above that it
is not worth writing out in full. The abbreviated forms in 1st du,
and pi. are presented here, instead of the fuller, which rarely occur
(as no double consonant ever precedes).

600. a. In the older language, no strong 2d persons dn. or pL^
and no thana-ending, chance to occoi (but they are numerous in the
impy. and impl: see below). The BY. h&s several cases of the irregular
accent in 3d pi. mid.: thus, Iq^vat^, tanvate, manvat^, vp^vat^,
Bp^vatd.

b. In RV. occur also several 3d pi. mid. in ire from present-stems
of this class : thus, invlre» rvvire, pinvlre, gp^vird, 8unvir6, hlnvird.
Of these, pinvire, and hinvird might be perfects without reduplication
from the secondary roots pinv and hlnv (below, 716). The 2d sing. mid.
(with passive value) ^p^vif^ (RV.) is of anomalous and questionable
character.

2. Present Subjunotive.

700. The subjunctive mode-stem is made in the usual manner,
by adding a to the gnnated and accented class-sign: thus, sunAva,
tan&va. In the following scheme are given all the forms of which
examples have been met with in actual use in the older language
from either division of the class; some of them are quite numerously
represented there.

active. middle.

s. d. p. 8. d. p.

1 8i2n4vftni sun&vftva sonivftma sun&vfti snn&v&vahfti sanivfixnahfii

2 BxmkvtM Bun&Tatha sun&vase snnivftithe

3 BunAvat Bim&van J*^™^**® Bun&vanta

iBim&vfttfti



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701—]



IX. Present-system.



256



701. Of the briefer Ist sing, act, RY. has k^avft and hinav&.
Forms with double mode-sign occur (not in RV.): thus, kfi^vftt and
karavat (AY.); a^nav&tha (K.), k)r:^vfttha (YS.; but -vatha in
Kanva-text), karavfttha (QB.). On the other hand, afnavatfti is found
once (in TS.). Forms like apnav&niy ardhnuvat, a9nuvat, met with
now and then in the older texts, are doubtless to be regarded as false
readings. RY. has in a single passage kpoLvSite (instead of kfi^vftite);
the only form in &ithe is agn&vftithe.

3. Present Optative.

702. The combined endings (566) are added, as usual,
to the weak tense-stem: thus,

active. middle,

s. d. p. s. d. p.

^ S5^ W^ ^TS^ W^ g=^t^ tj-4lHf<^

Bunuyam sunuyava sunuyama Bunviy& sunviv&hi sun^m&hi
etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.

a. From /ftp, the middle optative would be ftpnuviy& — and so
in other like cases.



4. Present Imperative.

703. The inflection of the imperative is in general like
that in the preceding classes. As regards the 2d sing, act.,
the rule of the later language is that the ending i% hi is
taken whenever the root itself ends in a consonant; other-
wise, the tense- (or mode-) stem stands by itself as 2d per-
son (for the earlier usage, see below, 704). An example of
inflection is:

active. middle.



8. d.

son&vani sunAvftva san&vftma



P-



W{
snnu

8an6tn



simut&m 8nnat&
sunut^ smiv&nta



6. d. p.

sun&v&i Bun&vftvalifti sun&vfimahfii
Bunu^vi Bunvfltliftm stinudhv&m



Bunuttm Bunvtltfim



Bunv&tam



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257 Wu- AND U- (FIFTH AND EIGHTH, BU- AND tan-)GLABSES. [—706

a. From }/ftp, the 2d sing, aet would be ftpnnbf; from j/a^,
a^nohl; from ydhf^f dh^p|niih£; and so on. From |/ftp, too, would
be made fipnuv&ntu, apnuvathftm, apnuvat&m, ftpnuv&tftm.

704. In tlie earliest laDguage, the rule as to the omission of hi
after a root with final Yowel does not hold good: in BV., suoh forms as
inuhi, Iq^iihf, oinuhi, dhunuhi, 9p^iih{, spf^olil, hinuhi, and
tanuhi, Banuhiy are nearly thrice as frequent in use as ini^, 979^9
sun6, tanUy and their like; in AV., however, they are only one sixth
as frequent; and in the Brihmanas they appear only sporadically: even
9l^tidh{ (with dhi) occurs seyeral times in BV. BY. has the 1st sing,
act. hinavft. The ending tat is found in kp^ut&t and hinutftt, and
kurut&t. The strong stem-form is found in 2d du. act. in hinotam and
kfi^otam; and in 2d pi. act. in k7]^6ta and kp^6tana, 9p^6ta and
^fi^otanay 8un6ta and 8tin6tana9 hin6ta and hinotana, and tanota,
kar6ta« The ending tana occurs only in the forms Just quoted.

5. Present Fartioiple.

705. The endings ^RFT &nt and 9H find are added to the
weak foim of tense stem: thus, from VH su come act. W^r{
snnv&nt (fem. H^cfl snnvati), mid. h-^H flunvanA; from yfR
tan, H*«lrl tanvdnt (fem. r?^Irft tanvati), r?^rR tanvBnA. From
yW^ ftp, they aie ^Bn^^FT^SpnuvAnt and MIM(MH apnuvftnA.

6. Imperfect.

706. The combination of augmented stem and endings
is according to the rules already stated: thus,

active. middle,

s. d. p. s. d. p.

«^Ho|ij^ 5r^p *«HHH 44Hpc| M^jc|% M^Hf^

&8unavam dsunuva dsunuma dsunvi isunuvahi dsunumahi



35ig%i^



*4^HHH^ 3^^ Jb4HH«im^ ^j^miq ^35^



d^unoB dflunutam dsunuta dsunuthfts dsunvftthftm dsunudhvam

5nR%^ MHHHIH^ *IH'<^H^ M^rl MH-<MIHIH^ MH*<^H
dstinot dsunut&m dsunvan dsunuta dsunvfitSm dsunvata

a. Here, as elsewhere, the briefer forms dsunvay &8unma» dsun-
vahi, dsunmahi are allowed, and more usual, except from roots
with final consonant, as dhjp^i which makes, for example, always
ddhfipi^uma etc., and also ddb|ip^uvan, ddhrfi^uvi, ddh^fi^uvathSm,
&dli{^avfttam» ddh^i^uvata.

Whitney, Grammar. 3. ed. 17



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707—] IX. PRB8EMT-SYSTBM. 258

707. Strong stem-forms and tana-ending are found only in RY., in
alq^ota, akp^tana. Angmentless forms with accent are miny&n,

708. About fifty roots make, either ezoluBively or in part, their
present-forms after the manner of the nu-class : half of them do so
only in the older language; three or four, only in the later.

a. As to transfers to the a-conjngation, see below, 716.

700. The roots of the other division, or of the u-olass, are
extremely few, not exceeding eight, even including tf on account
of tarat6 BY., and han on account of the occurrence of hanoml
once in a Siitra (PGS. i. 3. 27). BR. refer the stem inu to in of the
u-clasB instead of i of the nu-class.



Irregularities of the nu and u-olasses.

710. The root t{p be pleased is said by the grammarians to retain
the n of its class-sign nnlingaalized In the later langnage — where, howeyer,
forms of conjugation pt this class are very rare; while In the Yeda the
regular change is made; thus, tpp^u.

711. The root 9ru hear is \»>ntracted to gr before the class-sign,
forming 9p^6 and 9|i^u as stem. Its forms 9p^vi9^ and 9f]|^Tir6
have been noted above (690 b).

712. The root dhti shake in the later language (and rarely in
B. and S.) shortens its vowel, making the stem-forms dhun6 and
dhunu (earlier dhan6, dhOnu).

718. The so-called root un^u, treated by the native grammarians as
dissyllabic and belonging to the root-class (I.), 1e properly a present-stem
of this class, with anomalous contraction, from the root vx (or var). In
the Yeda, it has no forms which are not regularly made according to the
nu-class ; but in the Brahmana langnage are found sometimes sach forms
as tbn^ftuti, as if from an u-root of the root class (620); and the gram-
marians make for it a perfect, aorist, future, etc. Its 2d sing. impv. act
is un^u or un^uhi; its imp f., ftun^os, aur^ot; its opt. mid., Gr^uvita
(K.) or uri?vit& (TS.).

714. The extremely common root SR ky (or kar) make
is in the later language inflected in the piesentHsystem ex-
clusively according to the u-class (being the only root of
that class not ending in ^ n). It ha« the irregularity that
in the strong form of stem it (as well as the class-sign) has
the guijia-streiigthening, and that in the weak form it is



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259 Nu- AND U- (FIFTH AND EIGHTH, BU- AND tan-) CLASSES. [—714

changed to kur, so that the two forms of stem are efrft kar6
and c^ kuru. The class-sign 3 u is always dropped be-
fore cT y and T[m of the 1st du. and pi., and also before
IT y of the opt. act. Thus:



kar6mi

kar69i

kar6ti



1 «3hUIH
Isjxrytm,
etc.



1. Present Indicative.

active. middle,

d. p. 8. d.

knrv&a knrm&s karv6 kurv&he

W^ TW f^ 5^

karath&8 kuruthd koruf 6 kurvithe

kumt&B kurv&nti koratd knrvate



kuryiva kury^bna
etc. etc



2. Present Optative.

jaw j^Kii j^firi%



kurviyi knrviv&hi
etc. etc.



ktirm&he

kumdhv6

kurv&te



kurvlm&hi

etc.



3. Present Imperative.
4i(c<|[UI °h(Q|N ^{mn ^v^ +(c||o|^ *|cjiH^
kar&vfti^i kar&vftva kar&vSma karivfii kar&vavahfti kar&vftmah&i



kuru
kar6tu



kurut^ kuruti



kuru9v& kurvathftm kurudhv&m



kurutam kurv&ntu kurutam kurvatftm



kurv&tftm



4. Present Participle.
cn<^t1 kurvtot (fern. <4HH1 kurvati) SR^TO kurvaijii



akaravam ikurva



&kurma



Imperfect,
dkurvi



ikurvahi



ikurmahi



4karo8
ikarot



^kurutam ikuruta



w^sim^ 35ij5rranw mj^^m^j^

iikuruthSs ikurvathSm ikurudhvam



O V -S. O -Xv

&kurutftm &kurvan



dkuruta



ikurvfttSm dkurvata
17*



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716 — ] IX. Present-system. 260

715. In BY., this root is regularly iuflected iu the present-system
according to the nu-class, making the stem- forms ]q^6 and kp^u; the
only exceptions are kurmas once and kum twice (all in the tenth book);
in AV.i the nu-forms are still more than six times as fteqnent as the
u-forms (nearly half of which, moreover, are in prose passages); bnt in
the Brahmana language and later, the u-forms are used to the exclusion
of the others.

a. As 1st sing. pres. act. is found kurml in the epos.

b. What irregular forms from kf as a verb of the nu-class occur in
the older language have been already noticed aboye.

o. The isolated form tarut^, ftom ytf, shows an apparent analogy
with these u-forms from ky.

710. A few verbs belonging originally to these classes have been
shifted, in part or altogether, to the a-class, their proper class-sign
having been stereotyped as a part of the root.

a. Thus, in BY. we find forms both from the stem inu (yi or in),
and also from Inva, representing a derivative quasi-root inv (and these
latter alone occur in AY.). So likewise forms from a stem fnnva beside
those from ftpi (Vf); and from hinva beside those from hinu (yU).
The so-oaUed roots jinv and pinv are doubtless of the same origin, although
no forms firom the stem pinu are met with at any period — unless pinTire
(above, 600b) be so regarded; and AY. has the participle pinv&nt, f.
pinvati. The grammarians set up a root dhinv, bat only forms from
dhi (stem dhinu) appear to occur in the present-system (the aorist
adhinvit is found in PB.).

b« Occasional a-forms are met with also from other roots: thus,
cinvata etc., dunvasva.

V. NS-class (ninth or kri-class).

717. The class-sign of this class is in the strong forms
the syllable RT nft, accented, which is added to the root;
in the weak forms, or where the accent falls upon the end-
ing, it is ^ nl; but before the initial vowel of an ending
the ^ I of ^ nl disappears altogether.

1. Present Indioative.

718. Example of inflection: root ^ kri btty: strong
form of stem, ^fHiTT krl^; weak form, ihlui) krl^I (before
a vowel, gfittn krl]^).



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261 NftrOLASS (NINTH, kri.-OLASS). - [—722

active. middle,

s. d. p. 8. d. p.

1 shImiiH gtOuiic^4 ^ ghlu i lHH ^ w^ gfHui^M^ gtOunH^

kru^ami kni^iv&s krmlm&s krii^6 kri^iv&he krii^Im&he

2 stOui i i^ cRhnkq^ gjWk g^lufiM ^lu ii Sl ghiufly

kn^ati krinit&B kru^ti krl^it^ kri^ate krii^te
710. In the Veda, the 3d Blng. mid. haa the same form with the 1st
in gpgie ; the peculiar accent of 3d pi. mid. is seen in punat6 and rh^at^ ;



Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 27 of 59)