William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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sion; but there are in the older language a number of dear cases, in which
the accent wavers and changes, and the others are to be Judged by analogy
with them. Thus, }/muo forms muoyate once or twice, beside the usual
mucy&te, in RY. and AY.; and in the Brahmanas the former is the
regular accent. Similar changes are found also in ya-forms from other
roots : thus, from Iqii destroy, ji or Jyft injure, tap heat, dfh make firm,
pao cook, VX fi^i ^^ damage, rio leave, lup break, hfi leave. Active
forms are early made from some of these, and they grow more common
later. It is worthy of special mention that, from the Yeda down, Jiyate
is bom etc. is found as altered passive or original ya-formation by the side
of VJan give birth.

o. A considerable body of roots (about forty) differ from the above in
having an apparently original transitive or neuter meaning: examples are
as throw, nah bind, pa^ see, pad go, ^li^ clasp.

d. A number of roots, of various meaning, and of somewhat doubtful
character and relations, having present-stems ending in ya, are by the native
grammarians written with final diphthongs, fti or e or o. Thus:

e. Boots reckoned as ending in fti and belonging to the a- (or bhu-)
class, as g&i sing (gayati etc.). As these show abundantly, and for the
most part exclusively, ft^forms oQtside the present-system, there seems to
be no good reason why they should not rather be regarded as &-roots of
the ya-class. They are k^ft bum, g& sing, gift be weary, trS save, dhyft
think, pyft Jill up, mlft relax, rft bark, vfi be blown, 9y& coagulate, 9rft
boil, Btyft stiffen. Some of them are evident extensions of simpler roots
by the addition of ft. The secondary roots tfty stretch (beside tan), and
Ofty observe (beside el) appear to be of elmilar character.

f. Roots reckoned as ending in e and belonging to the a- (or bh&O
class, as dhe suck (dh&yati etc.). These, too, have ft-forms, and some-
times i-forms, outside the present system, and are best regarded as ft-roots,
either with ft weakened to a before the class-sign of this class, or with ft

Whitney, Grammar. 8. ed. 18

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761—] IX. PRBSBNT-SY8TBM. 274

weakened to i or 1 and inflected according to the a-olaas. Tliey are dlift
suek, ma exchange, vft weave, vyft efwehp, ]iv& call (secondary, from
h^). As of kindred form may be mentioned day share and vyay expend
(probably denominative of vyaya).

g. A few roots artificially written with final o and reckoned to the
ya-class, with radical Towel lost before the class-sign: thns, do out, bind,
pros, dy&ti etc. These, as having an accented & in the sign, have
plainly no right to be put in this class ; and they are better referred to the
^ckss (see above, 768 o). Outside the present-system they show S- and
i-forms; and in that system the ya is often resolved into la in the oldest

762. The ya-class is the only one thus far described which shows
any tendency toward a restriction to a certain variety of meaning. In this
tendency, as well as in the form of its sign, it appears related with the
class of distinctly defined meaning which is next to be taken up — the
passive, with y&-s{gn. Though very far from being as widely used as the
latter beside other present-systems, it is in some cases an intransitive
conjugation by the side of a transitive of some other class.

IrregtQarities of the ya-olass.

763. The roots of this class ending in am lengthen their vowel
in fonning the present-stem: they are klam, tam, dam» bhram, ^am
he quiet, ^ram: for example, timyati, 9rimyati. From kfam, how-
ever, only k^amyate occurs; and 9am labor makes ^amyati (B.).

764. The root mad has the same lengthening: thus, midyati.

766. The roots in iv — namely, div, siv, ariv or ^riv, and
9thiv (from which no forms of this class are quotable) — are written
by the grammarians with fv, and a similar lengthening in the present-
system is prescribed for them.

a. They appear to be properly din etc., since their vocalized final
in other forms is always tX; dIv is by this proved to have nothing to do
with the assumed root div shine, which changes to dyn (801 d): compare

766. From the roots jf and tf (also written as jur and tir or tor)
come the stems Jl^a and tfa^a, and Jdrya and ttlrya (the last two only
in BY.); from p^ comes ptbya.

767. The root vyadh is abbreviated to vidh: thus, vidhyati. And
any root which in other forms has a penultimate nasal loses it here: thus,
df hya from dfhh or d^h •, bhra^ya from bhraft^ or bhra9 ; rajya from
raSJ or raj.

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275 Accented y&-CLASS {Passive). [—771

IX. Accented y&-clas8: Passive conjugation.

768. A certain form of piesent-stem, inflected with middle
endings, is used only in a passive sense, and is formed
from all roots for which there is occasion to make a passive
conjugation. Its sign is an accented U yd added to the
root: thus, "^^ hany& from y^ han slay, MIUJ Spyd
from y^[m Sp obtain, JRSr gthj& from yJl^ giph (or grab)
seize: and so on, without any reference to the class accord-
ing to which the active and middle forms are made.

769. The form of the root to which the passive-sign is added
is (since the accent is on the sign) the weak one : thus, a pennltimate
nasal is dropped, and any abbreviation which is made in the weak
forms of the perfect (794), in the aorist optative (922 b), or before
ta of the passive participle (954), is made also in the passive present-
system: thus, ajy& from ]/aSij, badhy4 from ybeaxdh., uoy& from
V'vao, ijy& from }/yaJ.

770. On the other hand, a final vowel of a root is in general
liable to the same changes as in other parts of the verbal system
where it is followed by y: thus —

a. Final i and u are lengthened: thus, miy& from )/mi; suyi
from ysu;

b. Final & is usually changed to i: thus, dly& from |/d&; layk
from yh&: but JliSy& from }/Jfi&, and so khyftyi, kh&y&» mn&y&, etc.;

o. Final f is in general changed to ri: thus, kriy& from Vkf;
but if preceded by two consonants (and also, it is claimed, in the root
r), it has instead the gm^-strengthening: thus, smaryi from }/8m|^
(the only quotable case); — and in those roots which show a change
of p to ir and or (so-called f -verbs: see 242), that change is made
here also, and the vowel is lengthened: thus, 9iry& from 1/9?; pnry&
from y-pj.

771. The inflection of the passive-stem is precisely like
that of the other a-stems ; it differs only in accent from that
of the class last given. It may he here presented, therefore,
in the same abbreviated form:

a. Example of inflection: root m kr make; passive-
stem ^Tir kriyd:


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771—] IX. PBESBNT-SYflTBM. 276

1. Present Indicative.





etc. etc. etc.

2. Present Subjunotiye.

h* The forms noticed as ocenrriDg in the older language are alone

here instanced:

s. d. p.

1 kriyfti kriyamah&i

2 kriy^tdhvfti

c» The Bd pi. ending antftl is found once (ucyantfti K.).
8. Present Optative.

ycrtjSyeT' kPtyhrt^ kriy6mahi
etc. etc. ^N etc

d. No fonns of the p&ssiye optatiye chaniSi^ o<^^ ^^ ^^' O' A.V.;
they are found, howevei, in the Brahmanas. OhU.^ once dhmftyita^

4. Present Imperative.

kriy&sva kriydthfiau kriy&dhvam \

etc. etc. etc. \

6. Present Participle.

e. This is made with the suffix TfR mSna : thus, f^iimm

f. In use, this participle is well distinguished fh>m the other passiTe
participle by its distinetiTely present meaning : thus, k^^ done, hut kriyd-
mb^a in process of doing, or being done.

6. Imperfect.

&kriye ikriy&vahi dkriyfimahi
etc. etc. etc.

g. The passive-sign is never resolved into ia in the Veda.

772. The roots tan and khan usnally form their passives from
parallel roots in ft: thus, t&y&te, kh&ydte (but also tanyate, khan-

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

277 So-called Tbnth or out-class. [—775

yate) ; and dham, in like maimer, makes either dhamyate or dhmfty&te.
Tbe conrespondiDg form to VJan, namely Jayate (above, 761 b), is
apparently a transfer to the preceding class.

773. By their form, mriy&te dies, and dhriy^te maintains itself,
is steadfast, are passives from the roots m^ die and dhf hold; although
neither is used in a proper passive sense, and m^ is not transitive
except in the derivative form m^^ (above, 731). With them are to
be compared the stems &-driy& heed and ft-priy& be busy, which are
perhaps peculiar adaptations of meaning of passives from the roots
df pierce and px fi^-

11^. Examples of the transfer of stems from the y4- or passire
class to the ya- or IntransltiTe class were giyen above (761 b); and it was
also pointed oat that actiTe instead of middle endings are occasionally, even
in the earlier laognage, assumed by forms properly passive; examples are
i dhmftyatl and Ty apro^yat (QB.), bhtiyati (MaiU.). In the epics,
however (as a part of their general confusion of active and middle forms:
529 a), active endings are by no means infrequently taken by the pusive:
thus, ^akyati, ^rQyanti, bhriyantu, ijyant-, etc.

The Bo-oalled Tenth or our-Class.

775. As was noticed above (607), the Hindu grammarians *- and,
after their example, most European also — recognize yet another
conjugation-class, coordinate with those already described; its stems
show the class-sign 4ya, added to a generally strengthened root (for
details as to the strengthening, see 1042). Though this is no proper
class, but a secondary or derivative conjugation (its stems are partly
of causative formation, partly denominative with altered accent) an
abbreviated example of its forms may, for the sake of accordance
with other grammars, be added here.

a. Example: root oint think, meditate) stem cint&ya:



Pros. Indie.















b. The inflection, of course, is the same with that of other forms ftom
»-stems (788 a).

c. The middle participle, in the later language, is more often made
with ftna instead of xnftna: thus, ointayftna: see 1048 f.

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776—] IX. Pbbsbnt-system. 278

Uses of the Present and Imperfect.

776. The uses of the mode-forms of the present-system have
been already briefly treated in the preceding chapter (572 ff.). The
tense-uses of the two indicative tenses, present and imperfect, call
here for only a word or two of explanation.

777. The present has, besides its strictly present use, the same
subsidiary uses which belong in general to the tense: namely, the
expression of habitual action, of future action, and of past action in
lively narration.

a. Examples of ftitare meaning are: im&xh odd vii ixnd elnv&te
t&ta ev& no 'bhfbhavanti ((B.) verify if these build this up^ then they
will etraightway get the better of us; agnir fttmabhavaih pr&dftd yatara
vS&chati nfti^adha^ (MBh.) Agni gave hie own presence wherever the
Nishadhan should desire ; svfigataih te 'stu kiih karomi tav» (R.) wd-
come to thee; what shaU I do for theef

b. Examples of past meaning are : tittarft stir idharal^ putri ftsid
danti]{^ ^aye sah&vatsft n& dhenn]{^ (R^O ^^ mother was over, the son
under; there Danu lies, like a cow with her calf; prahananti oa tftxh
kecid abhyasuyanti c& 'pare akurvata day&iii kecit (MBh.) some
ridicule her, some revile her, some pitied her \ tato yasya vaoan&t tatrft
'valambitfts taiii sarve tiraakurvanti (H.) thereupon they all fall to
reproaching him by whose advice they had alighted there,

778. In connection with certain particles, the present has rather
more definitely the value of a past tense. Thus:

a. With puri formerfy: thus, saptar^in u ha sma vfii puri
rk^A fty deakfate (QB.) the seven sages, namely, are of old called the
bears; tanm&tram api oen mahyaiii na dad&ti purft bhavfin (MBb.)
if you have never before given me even an atom.

b. With the asseTeratlve particle sma: thus, i^rkmei^eL ha sma vfti
t&d deva Jayanti y&d e^^Sih J&yyam aad r^aya^ ca (QB.) in truth,
both gods and sages were wont to win by penance what was to be won ;
&Yi^%afy kalinft dytite Jiyate sma nalas tadft (MBh.) then Nala, being
possessed by Kali, was beaten in play,

o. No example of this last construction is found in either BY. or AY.,
or elsewhere in the metrical parts of the Yeda. In the Brahmanas, only
habitual action is expressed by it. At all periods of the language, the use-
of sma with a Terb as pure asseverative particle, with no effect on the
tense-meaning, is yery common; and the examples later are hardly to be
distinguished from the present of lively narration — of which the whole
construction is doubtless a form.

779. The imperfect has remained unchanged in value through
the whole history of the language: it is the tense of narration; it
expresses simple past time, without any other implication.

a. Compare what is said later (end of chap. X. and chap. XI.) as to
the value of the other past tenses, the perfect and aorist

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279 Charactebisticb op the Perfect. [—782



780. The perfect-system in the later language, as has

been seen above (686), consists only of an indicative tense

and a participle — both of them in the two voices, active

and middle.

a. In the oldest language, the perfect has also its modes and
its angment-preterit, or pluperfect, or is not less fall in its apparatus
of forms than is the present-system (see 808 if.).

781. The formation of the perfect is essentially alike
in all verbs, differences among them being of only subord-
inate consequence, or having the charactei of irregularities.
The characteristics of the formation are these:

1. a stem made by reduplication of the root;

2. a distinction between stronger and weaker forms of
stem, the former being used (as in presents of the First
or non-a-conjugation] in the singular active, the latter in
all other persons;

3. endings in some respects peculiar, unlike those of
the present;

4. the frequent use, especially in the later language, of
a union-vowel ^ i between stem and endings.

782. Reduplication. In roots beginning with a con-
sonant, the reduplication which forms the perfect-stem is
of the same character with that which forms the present-
stem of the reduplicating conjugation-class (see 848) — but
with this exception, that radical ^ a and 5(T S and W t [or
^^ ar) have only ^ a, and never ^ i, as vowel of the re-
duplicating syllable: thus, from y^ py^/Z comes the present-
stem fn^ piPT, but the perfect-stem cjtf papr; from ym mS

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78a—] X. Perfect-system. 280

measure comes the present-stem fir^ mimS, but the perfect-
stem qiTT mamS; and so on.

a. IrregoUritieB of roots with initial consonants will be given below, 784.

783. For roots beginning with a vowel, the rules of
reduplication are these:

a. A root with initial ^ a before a single final consonant
repeats the ^ a, which then fuses with the radical vowel to ^&,
(throughout the whole inflection) : thus, ^[^ ftd from y^ ad
eat; and in like manner SEHsf Sj, ^Fl &n, ^^ITH Sb, ^(^ &h. The
root fl X forms likewise throughout 51?^ Sr (as if from ^ ar).

b. A root with ^ i or 3 u before a single final conso-
nant follows the same analogy, except in the strong forms
(sing, act.) ; here the vowel of the radical syllable has gu^,
becoming ^ e or ^^ o; and before this, the reduplicating
vowel maintains its independent form, and is separated from
the radical syllable by its own semivowel : thus, from y^
if comes ^l9 in weak forms, but ^Q^ lye? in strong; from
V3tJ uo, in like manner, come ZHT^tlc and 3^N uvoc. The
root ^ i, a single vowel, also falls under this rule, and forms
^ ly (y added before a vowel) and ^ iye.

c. Roots which begin with vowels long by nature or by
position do not in general make a perfect-system, but use
instead a periphrastic formation, in which the perfect tense
of an auxiliary verb is added to the accusative of a verbal
noun (see below, chap. XV.: 1070 ff.).

d. To this rule, howeyer, yftp obtain (probably originally ap: 1087 f)
constitutes an exception, making the constant perfect-stem &p (as if from
ap: above, a). Also are met with I<J6 (RV.) and i^ire from yi^ and
irir6 (V.) from yir,

e. For the peculiar reduplication ftn, belonging to certain roots with
initial vowels, see below, 788.

784. A nnmber of roots beginning with va and ending with a
single consonant, which in varioas of their verbal forms and deriv-
atives abbreviate the va to u, do it also in the perfect, and are
treated like roots with initial u (above, 788 b), except that they retain

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281 Reduplioation. [—786

the full form of root in the strong persons of the singular active.
Thus, from ]/vao speak come uo and uvac; from )/va8 dwell come
U9 and uvas; and so on.

a. The roots showing this abbreviation are vao, vap, vad, va^,
vas, vah; and vS weave is said to follow the same rule.

b. A single root beginning with ya, namely yaj offery has the
same contraction, forming the stems iyaj and ij.

o. Occasional exceptions are met with: as, vavftoa and vavalq^
(RV.)i vav&pa and vavftha and vavfthatus (E. and later); yej6 (V.).

785. A number of roots having ya after a first initial consonant
take i (from the y) instead of a in the reduplicating syllable: thus,
from }/Tyac comes vivyao; from ]/py& comes plpyft.

a. These roots aie vyac, vyath, vyadh, vyft, jyft, pyft, syand;
and, in the Veda, also tyaj, with oyu and djrut, which have the root-
Yowel u. Other sporadic cases occur.

b. A single root with va is treated in the same way: namely
Bvap, which forms su^vap.

o. These roots are for the most part abbreviated In the weak forms:
see below, 794.

786. A considerable number of roots have in the Veda a long
vowel in their reduplication.

a. Thus, of roots redaplieating with & : kan, k}p, gf dh, tn>» tp}»
dfht dh^, dhr9> nam» mah, n^j, ni^Q* vai^> radh, rabh, vafic, van,
va9, vas clothe j V&9, vrj> v^t, -v^dh, -V79, ^ad prevail, sah, skambh.
Some of these occur only in isolated cases; many have also forms with
short vowel. Most are Yedlc only; but dftdhara is common also in the
Brahmana language, and is even found later. As to jfifi^, see 1020 a.

b. Of roots reduplicating with 1 : the so-called roots (676) didhi and
didi, which make the perfect from the same stem with the present: thus,
diddtha, didaya; didhima, didhyua (also didhiyus, didiyus). But
pipi has pipye, pipsroB, etc., with short 1. In AV. occurs once jihi^a,
and in AB. (and AA.) bibh&ya.

o. Of roots reduplicating with u: tu, ju, and 9U (or 9Vfi).

787. A few roots beginning with the (derivative: 42) palatal mutes
and aspiration show a reversion to the more original guttural in the radical
syllable after the reduplication: thus, yd forms oiki; ]/oit forms cikit;
yji forms Jigi; j/hi forms jighi; |/lian forms Jaghan (and the same
reversions appear in other reduplicated forms of these roots; 216» 1). A
root dft proieet is said by the grammarians to form dig! ; but neither root
nor perfect is quotable.

788. A small number of roots with initial a or ip (ftr) show the
anomalous reduplication ftn in the perfect.

a* Thus (the forms occurring mainly in the older language only):

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788—] X. Pbrpect-sybtbm. 282

ya2ij or aj, which forms the prea. an&kti, has the perfeet ftnafija
and ftnaj6 etc. (with anajft and anajy&t);

yB.q attain (from which comes once in RV. an&^fimahfti), has the
weak forms ftna^ma etc. (with opt. ftna^y&m), ftna9e etc. (and LQS.
has ftna^adhve), and the strong forms ftn&ii^a and ftn&^a — along with
the regular S^a etc.;

)/|pdh (from which comes once p^dhat) has an^dhuB and ftn^dhe;

}/fO or arc has ftn^us and ftnfc6, and later Snaroa and ftnarous;

yarh has (in TS.) ftn^phuB;

an&ha (RV., once) has been referred to a root ah, elsewhere uuknown,
and explained as of this formation; but with altogether doubtful propriety.

b. The later grammar, then, sets up the rule that roots beginning
with a and ending with more than one consonant haye An as their regular
reduplication; and such perfects are taught from roots like akf, arj» and
afto or ao; but the only other quotable forms appear to be ftnarohat
(MBh.) and finar^at (TA.) ; which are accordingly reckoned as ^pluperfects".

789. One or two individual cases of irregularity are the following:

a. The extremely common root bhu be has the anomalous redu-
plication ba, forming the stem babhti; and, in the Veda, ysVL forms
in like manner sas^.

b. The root bhp bear has in the Teda the anomalous reduplication Ja
(as also in intensive: 1002); but RV. has once also the regular babhre, and
pple babhr&n&.

0. The root ^fhiv spetc forms either tiffhlv (^B. et al.) or (i^^tv
(not quotable).

d, Vivakvan (RV., once) is doubtless participle of /vac, with
irregular reduplication (as in the present, 660).

790. Absence of reduplication is met with in some cases. Thus:

a. The root vid know has, from the earliest period to the latest,
a perfect without reduplication, bat otherwise regularly made and
inflected: thus, vMa, v^ttha, etc., pple vidvafiB. It has the mean-
ing of a present. The root vid ^nd forms the regular vlv^da.

b. A few other apparently perfect forms lacking a reduplication are
found in RV. : they are talqfathuB and takfus, yam&tua, Bkainbli&thuB
and skambhuB, nindima (for ninidimaP), dhi^e and dhire (P \ dhft),
and vidrd and arhire (? see 013). And AV. SV. have oetatUB. The
participial words dO^vafts, ini^bvafLS, sfthviiis are common in the oldest
language; and RV. has once jftnui^aB (|/jii&), and khidvaa (voc), perhaps
for oikhidvas.

c. A few sporadic cases also are quotable from the later language,
especially from the epics: thus, kar^atus, oei^%A and ceftatus, bhr&-
jatuB, sarpa, 9aft8U8 and ^aiisire, dhvafLsire, sraiiaire, Jalpire,
edhire; also the pples ^aiisivftfiB and dar9ivftiiB, the latter being not

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283 Strong and Weak Stem-forms. [—793

791. For an anomaloas case or two of reduplicated piepOBition, see
below, 1067 f.

792. Strong and weak stem-forms. In the three
persons of the singular active, the root-syllable is accented,
and exhibits usually a stronger form than in the rest of the
tense-inflection. The difference is effected partly by strength-
ening the root in the three persons referred to, partly by
weakening it in the others, partly by doing both.

793. As regards the strengthening:

a. A final Towel takes either the gui^ or vrddhi change
in Is^ sing, act., gujgia in 2d, and vrddhi in 3d: thus, from
y^ bhi, Ist liR bibhi or iip^ bibhSi; 2d fsR bibhi; 3d
fi^ bibhSi; from >/oR ky, Ist Wf\^ oakAr or ^RiTJ* oakir,
2d rjc^^ oakdr, 3d Wf^ cakSr.

b. But the fL of yhhft remains unchanged, and adds v before a
vowel-ending: thus, babh^va etc.

o. Medial ^ a before a single final consonant follows

the analogy of a final vowel, and is lengthened or vriddhied

in the 3d sing., and optionally in the first: thus, from yW^

tap, Ist rr?n tatdp or rTcTFT tatSp, 2d rr?n tatdp, 3d cRTR

"S. "V ">w "V


d. In the eailier language, however, the weaker of the two forms
allowed hy these rules in the first person is almost exclusively in use : thus,
ist only bibh&ya, tat&pa; 8d bibhaya, tatapa. Excepttons are csikara
and jagraha (doubtful reading) in AY., cakftra in AfS. and BAU. (gB.
cakara), Jigfiya in AQS., as first persons.

e. A medial short vowel has in all three persons alike
the gui^a-strengthening (where this is possible: 240): thus,
from y^ druh comes ^^^ dudroh; from }4^ VI9 comes
(efo|:(i vivi9 > fif^°^ V^RfT kyt comes ^^eRff oakart.

f. An initial short vowel before a single final conBonant is to be
treated like a medial, bnt the quotable examples are very few: namely,
iye^a from yi^ seeh^ uvoeitha and uvoca from /uc, uvo^a firom
yn^. As to roots 1 and r, whose vowels are both initial and final,
see above, 788 a, b.

g. These rules are said by the grammarians to apply to the 2d sing.
Always when it has simple tha as ending; if it has itha (below, 797 d),

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793—] X. Perfect-system. 284

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 29 of 59)