William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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(instead of buddhf and bhudhf). A single form (3d sing.) in tat is
found, namely ^ast&t. We And k^dhi also later (MBh. BhP.).

a. As to 2d persons singular in si from the simple root used in an
imperative sense, see above, 824.

Participles of the Root-aorist.

840. In the oldest language, of the RV., are found a number of
partieiples which must be reckoned as belonging to this formation.

a. In the active, they are extremely few: namely, kr4nt, oit&nt (?),
gm4ntv Bthant, bhid&nt, vfdh&nty dsratant- (only in composition)^
and probably irdh&nt. And BbP. has m^fant (but probably by error, for

b. In the middle, they are in RV. much more numerous. The accent
is usually on the final of the stem: thus, ar&]^, idh&n&, kr&n&, ju^fi^ft,
tf^fti^y nidSn^, pi^ftn^, p^cftn&y prathftn^, budhana, bhiyftna,
manan&, mandSni, yxij&ii&, mo&n&y vipftni, vr&n&, ur&n&, ^ubh-
&Q&, saofini, suv&n& or Bvan&, s^jani, 8p|*dh&n&, hiyani; — but
sometimes on the root-syllable: thus, oitftna, oyavftna, ruhSna, uhfina
(pres.?), v&a&na, ^umbhSna; — while a few show both accentuations

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(compare 619 d): thus, df^ftn^ and df^ana, dyatftn& and dyutftna,
yat&a& and ydtftna ; and cetftna and hraya^a occor only in composition.
A very few of these are found once or twice in other texts, namely citana*
dyat&na» ruhfi^a, vas&na, suvftna; and -kupftna occurs once in
Apast. (xiv. 28. 4).

841. All together, the roots exhibiting in the older language
forms which are with fair probability to be reckoned to the root-
aorist-system are about a hundred and thirty; over eighty of them
make such forms in the RV.

Passive Aorist third person sinsular.

842. A middle third person singular, of peculiar formation and
prevailingly passive meaning, is made from many verbs in the older
language, and has become a regular part of the passive conjugation,
being, according to the grammarians, to be substituted always for the
proper third person of any aorist middle that is used in a passive

843. This person is formed by adding ^ i to the root,
which takes also the augment, and is usually strengthened.

a. The ending i belongs elsewhere only to the first person; and this
third person apparently stands in the same relation to a first in i as do,
in the middle voice, the regular 3d sing, perfect, and also the frequent
Vedic 3d sing, present of the root-class (613), which are identical in form
Avith their respective first persons. That a fuller ending has been lost off
is extremely improbable; and hence, as an aorist formation from the simple
root, this is most properly treated here, in connection with the ordinary

844. Before the ending ^ i, a final vowel, and usually
also a medial ^ a before a single consonant, have the vrddhi-
strengthening ; other medial vowels have the gu^anstrengthen-
ing if capable of it (240); after final ^ S is added U y.

a. Examples (all of them quotable from the older language) are:
from roots ending in &, djii&yiy &dhftyl, &pS3ri; in other vowels, kqrhyi,
&8tftvi» &h&vi» &k&ri, &8t&ri; — from roots with medial i, a» 7, aoeti»
aoehedi» aqe^U &bodhi, imoci, &yoji, idai^i, asarji, varhi; from
roots with medial a strengthened, agami, &padi, ayftxoi, av&ci, v&pi,
&8ftdi (these arc all the earlier cases) ; with a unchanged, only ^ani (and
RV. has once jani), and, in heavy syllables, imyak^i, vandi, ^aAsi,
syandi; with medial ft, &bhrfiji, &r&dhi; — from roots with initial
vowel, ardhi (only case).

b. According to the grammarians, certain roots in am, and y'vadh,
retain the a unchanged : quotable are ajani (or ajftni), agami (or agimi),

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305 Simple Aorist: 2, a-AORiST. [— S46

asvani, avadhi* also araoi; and there are noted besides, from roots
sometimes showing a nasal, adaA^i, arambhi, arandhi, ajambhi»
abhafiji or abhl^i, alambhi (always, with prepositions) or alftbhi,
astambhi; (B. has asafiji

o. Angmentless forms, as in all other like cases, are met with, with
either indicative or subjanctive value: examples (besides the two or three
already given) are: dhAyi, ^rivi, bhftri, reci, v6di» rooi, J&ni, pidi,
sadi, ardhi. The accent, when present, is always on the root-syllable
(SY. dhSyf is doubtless a false reading).

846. These forms are made in RV. from forty roots, and all the other
earlier texts combined add only abont twenty to the number; from the
later language are quotable thirty or forty more; in the epics they are
nearly unknown. When they come from roots of neuter meaning, as gain»
pad, sad, bhrfij, r&dh, ruo, safij, they have (like the so-called passive
participle in ta: 952) a value equivalent to that of other middle forms;
in a case or two (RV. vii. 73. 3[?]; VS. xxviii. 16; TB. ii. 6. lO*) they
appear even to be used transitively.

2. The a-aorist.

846. a. This aorist is in the later language allowed to
be made from a large number of roots (near a hundred).
It is made in both voices, but is rare in the middle, most
of the roots forming their middle according to the s-class
(878 ff.) or the i^-class (898 ff.).

b. Its closest analogy is with the imperfect of the d-class
(751 ff.); its inflection is the same with that in all particulars;
and it takes in general a weak form of root — save the roots in
^ r (three or four only), which have the gui^a-strengthening.

o. As example of inflection may be taken the root
ftrf Bic pour. Thus:

active. middle.

8. d. p.

&8ice isicavahi &8io&mahi

sgrfeimH^ s^ft^rar^ glTRiiiq[^

Asioathas Asioethftm &8ieadhvam


isicata isioetfim dsicanta
Whitney, Orammar. 3. ed. 20


1 yf^TiM

d. p.

M\k\r\H MWt^IH


dsicava &8io&ma

2 *4f^Tj^

yfl<^HH mRHtIH


&8ieatain Asicata

&8ioatfim &8ioan

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847—1 XI. A0BI8T-SYSTBM8. 306

847. The a-aorUt makes in the BY. s small flgnre beside the looi-
aorist, being represented by less than half the latter's number of roots. It
becomes, however, more common later (It is the only form of aorist which
is made from more verbs In AY. than in BY.) ; and in Yeda and Brihma^a
together abont eighty roots exhibit the formation more or less fkdly. Of
these a large number (folly hall) are of the type of the roots which make
their present-system according to the &-class, having a vowel capable of
giu^-strengthening before a final consonant (754): thns, wi^ i, ohid,
bhicU nij, rio, ri^. Up, vid, 1919 (9^0), 2919, 9^9, 9li«, sio, sridh;
— with a* krudh, k^udh, guh, duf, dyut, droIi, puf, budh« bhuj»
muo, mruo» y^i* ^uo, md, mdh, muh, ruh, 9uc; — with x* fdh*
kft, gfdhy gf h, tn>» tfih ^^ <^» ^Vh dh^, n^pt, mrdh, m^ vft,
Vftlhy vj^ Bn>» IRT?* a small number end in vowels: thus, x* ^9 Sf
(which have the go^a-strengthening throughout), hi (? ahyat once in
AY.), and several in ft, apparent transfers from the root-class by the weak-
ening of their ft to a: thus, khyft, hvft, vyft, 9Vft, and dft and dhft;
and ftsthat, regarded by the granunarians as aorist to ^^as throw, is doabt-
less a like formation from /BthS. A few have a penultimate nasal in the
present and elsewhere, which in this aorist is lost: thus, bhraft9, taAs,
dhvaAs, sra&s, krand» randh. Of less classifiable character are a9,
kram, gam, ghaa* tarn, 9am, 9ram, tan, san, aad, ftp, das, yaa,
9ak, dagh. The roots pat, na9, vao form the tense-stems papta, ne9a,
vooa, of which the first is palpably and the other two are probably the
result of reduplication; but the language has lost the sense of their being
such, and makes other reduplicated aorists from the same roots (see be-
low, 864).

a. Many of these aorists are simply transfers of the root-aorist to an
a-infiection. Gonspicuous examples are akarat etc. and agamatntftc (in
the earliest period only akar and agan).

848. The inflection of this aorist is in general so regular that it will
be sufficient to give only examples of its Yedic forms. We may take as
model avidam, i^om |/vid Jind, of which the various persons and modes
are more frequent and in fuller variety than those of any other verb. Only
the forms actually quotable are instanced; those of which the examples
found are from other verbs than vid are bracketed. Thus:

active. middle.

B. d. p. s. d. p.

1 &vidam &vidftva ividftma &vide [&vidftvahl] dvidftmahi

2 &vida8 [ividata] [dvidathfta]

3 &vidat &vidan [avidata] [avidetftm] ividanta

a. The middle forms are rare in the earlier language, as in the later:
we have &hve etc, 4kbye etc., &vide (?) and avidanta, avooathfts
and avoo&vahl (and avidftmahe GB. and asio&mahe KB. are doubtless
to be amended to -mahi).

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307 Simple Aorist: 2. a-AORiST. [—863

b. Augmentless forms, with indicative or snbjODCtiYe yalue, are not
infrequent Exsmples, showing accent on the tense-sign, according to the
general analogies of the formation, are: mhAmy b^bm^ bhuj&t, vid&t,
aratSm, vooata* 9akaii; vidata and vy&ta (3d sing.), arftmahi,
^^imahi, vidAnta, budli&nta, mf^anta (for exceptions as regards
accent, see below, 853).

Modes of the a-aorist.

848. The subjunctive forms of this aorist are few; those which occur
are instanced below, in the method which was followed for the indicatiye:

1 [vidava] vidfima [vidftmahe]

2 {^^ vldftthfts vldfttha

3 vidtt [vidSt&iP]

a. The ending thana is found once, in ri^ftthana. Of middle forms
occur only ^{^tfti (AY.: but doubtless misreading for 9{9yfttfti) and
9^ftmahe (AY., for RY. 9i9amahi). The form eddathas seems an indic-
atiye, made f^m a secondary present*-8tem.

850. The optatives are few in the oldest language, but become more
frequent, and in the Brahmanas are not rare. Examples are: in active,
bhideyam, vid^yam* san^yam (TB. once sanem); vid68, games;
gamet» vooet; gametam; gam^ma, 9ak6ina, san6ma; vareta; in
middle, (only) videya; gamemahi, vanemahi: rohethfts etc. in the
epics must be viewed rather as present forms of the &-class.

a. A single middle precative form occurs, namely videffa (AY.,
once); it is so isolated that how much may be inferred from it is very

861. A complete series of active imperative forms are made i^om
y^sad (including sadatana, 2d pi.), and the middle sadantfim. Other
imperatives are very rare: namely, s&na, s&ra, raha» vid&; mh&tam,
▼id&tam; khy&ta. TS. has once v^dhatu (compare 740).

Participles of the a-aorist.

862. a. The active participles tn>^t» rffant or rlfant, vftlh&nty
9i9&nty 9U0&nty sddant, and (in participial compounds, 1309) k^nt-,
gahant-t vidant- (all RY.), are to be assigned with plausibility to this

b. Likewise the middle participles gnh&mftna, dh^^f&mfi^a, d&Sfli-^
mftna (?), nrt&m&na» 9uc&m&na, and perhaps vrdhftn&, sridhfind.

Irregularities of the a-aorist.

863. A few irregularities and peculiarities may be noticed here.
The roots in |*, which (847) show a strengthening like that of the


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present of the nnaccented a-Kilass, have likewise the accent upon the
radical syllable, like that class: thus, from yTf, &ranta (augmentless 3d
pi.), -B&rat and s&ra. The root sad follows the same rale: thus, s&da-
tam; and from ysaxL are foand s&nas and B&nat and s&nema and
8&na, beside san^yam and san6ma. It is questionable whether these
are not trae analogues of the bhu-class (unaccented a-class) present-system.
On the other hand, rdhat (beside nih&in» ruh^va, mh&tam), qi^at
and ^{^tfti (?), and rf^ant or rl^^ant are more isolated cases. In view
of such as these, the forms from the stem bhdva and ^ruva (836 o)
are perhaps to be referred hither. From |/vao, the optative is accented
voo^yam* voo^8» voo6ina» voo^yuB; elsewhere the aocent is on the root-
syllable: thus, v6oe, v6oat, v6oati, vooanta.

864. a. The stem voo has in Yedic use well-nigh assumed the
yalue of a root; its forms are very various and of frequent use, in RV.
especially far outnumbering in occurrences all other forms from yvao.
Besides those already given, we find voc& (Ist sing, impv.) and vooftti«
voo&vahfti; voces* vooeya, vooemahi; vooat&t (2d sing.), vooatii,
vooatam, vooata.

b. Of the stem ne9a only ne9at occurs.

o. The root Qfts (as in some of its present forms: 689) is weakened
to ^if, and makes a^i^am.

865. Isolated forms which have more or less completely the
aspect of indicative presents nre made in the oldest language from
some roots beside the aorist-systems of the first two classes. It must
be left for maturer research to determine how far they may be relics
of original presents, and bow far recent productions, made in the way
of conyersion of the aorist-stem.to a root in value.

a. Surh forms are the following: from |/k:p make, k&r^l, k^thas.
Iqptha, kf^e; from v^gam, gath&; from yoi gather, ceti; firom ydft
give, dati, d&ta; from |/dhft put, dbftti; from |/pft drink, pftthis,
p&nti; from }/bb^, bharti; from y^muc, muo&nti; from /mdh, rudh-
jnaa (?); from v'vyt, vartti.

II. (3) Reduplicated Aorisi

856. The leduplicated aoiist is different fTom the other
foims of aoiist in that it has come to be attached in almost
all cases to the derivative (causative etc.) conjugation in
CRT iya, as the aoiist of that conjugation, and is theiefoie
liable to be made from all loots which have such a conju-
gation, beside the aoiist or aoiists which belong to theii
primary conjugation. Since, however, the connection of

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309 3- Reduplicated Aorist. [—859

the two is not a formal one (the aorist being made directly
from the root, and not from the causative stem), but rather
a matter of established association, owing to kinship of
meaning, the formation and inflection of this kind of aorist
is best treated here, along with the others.

* 857. Its characteristic is a reduplication of the radical
syllable, by which it is assimilated, on the one hand, to
the imperfect of the reduplicating class (656 fi*.), and, on the
other hand, to the so-called pluperfect (817 fi*.). But the
aorist reduplication has taken on a -quite peculiar character,
with few traces left even in the Veda of a different con-
dition which may have preceded this.

858. a. As regards, indeed, the consonant of the re-
duplication, it follows the general rules already given (500).
And the quality of the reduplicated vowel is in general as
in the formations already treated: it needs only to be noted
that an a-vowel and x {ot ar) are usually (for exceptions,
see below, 860) repeated by an i-vowel — as they are, to a
considerable extent, in the reduplicated present also (660).

b. But in regard to quantity, this aorist aims always at
establishing a diversity between the reduplicating and radical
syllables, making the one heavy and the other light. And
the preference is very markedly for a heavy reduplication
and a light root-syllable — which relation is brought about
wherever the conditions allow. Thus:

859. If the root is a light syllable ;having a short
vowel followed by a single consonant), the reduplication is
made heavy.

a. And this, usually by lengthening the reduplicating vowel, with
i for radical a or r or 1 (in the single root containing that vowel):
thus, arlri^amy adfldu^am, aj^janam, avivrdham, aclk}pam. The
great majority of reduplicated aorists are of this form.

b. If, however, the root begins with two consonants, so that the
reduplicating syllable will be heavy whatever the quantity of its vowel.

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869—] XI. AoaiST-STSTBMS. 310

the vowel remains short: thus, aoUmipam, aoukradham, atitrwMun*

860. If the root is a heavy syllable (having a long
vowel| or a short before two consonants], the vowel of the
reduplication is short: and in this case 9 a or lEVT ft, and
f? J (if it occurs), are reduplicated by set a.

a. Thus, adidlkfam, abubhftfam (not quotable), adadakfam,
adadUvam* atataftnm. And, in the cases in which a root should
both begin and end with two consonants, both syllables would be
necessarily heavy, notwithstanding the short vowel in the former:
thus, apapraooham, aoaskandam (but no such forms are found in use).

b. A meditl x !• allowed by the grsmmariuif to retain the itreDgthen-
log of the causatlye stem, together with, of coorse, rednplieation by a: thus,
aoakar^t» avavartat (beside aoOqp^t, aviv^^t); but no such forme
have been met with in use.

o. These aorists are not distinguishable in form from the so-called
pluperfects (817 If.).

861. a. In order, however, to bring about the favored relation
of heavy reduplication and light radical syllable, a heavy root is
sometimes made light: either by shortening its vowel, as in ailradhmm
from yMdh, aviva^am from /vft^, a^adham from i^Bftdh, lyjiyivam
from yjiv, adldipam (K. and later: RV. has didlpao) from ydip,
ablbhi^am from ybhi^ asfUiucam from y^sfic; or by dropping a
penultimate nasal, as in acikradam from ykrand, asifyadam from

b. In those cases in which (1047) an aorist is formed directly
from a causal stem in ftp, the ft is abbreviated to 1: thus, ati^thip-
am etc, ajijfiipat (but KS8. ajijfiapat), Jihipas, aJUipata (but VS.
ajUapata); but from 9rap comes a^i^rapftma (QB.).

862. Examples of this aorist from roots with initial vowel are very
rare; the older language has only ftmamat (or amamat) ftom yanit
ftpipan (9B.: BAU. ftpipipat) Arom yKp, and arpipam (angmentless)
from the caasatiye stem arp of >^f ^In which latter the root is exoees-
ively abbreviated. The grammarians gi?e other similar formations, as ftroi-
cam from yaro, ftabtfUam ^m fabj, Srjiham firom |/arh, fticikfam
ttom yXkt^f ftrdidbam from y^dh. Compare the similar reduplication in
desideratiTO stems: 1029 b.

868. Of special irregularities may be mentioned:
a. From y'dyut is made (V.B.) the stem didyuta, taking its redu-
plicating Yowel from the radical semlToweL From fgup, instead of JOgn-
pa (B.S.), JB. has Jugttpa, and some texts (BS.) haye Jngupa; and
Jihvara (B.) U met with beside the regular Jihvara (Y.B.). In oaeoha-

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311 3. Bbduplioatbd Aobibt. [—867

da (Nir.), Mid the more or lese doubtful papr&tha and ^aQvaoi and
sasTiVja (BY.) we bsye a instesd of i in the redapllcation.

b. In support of their false Yiew of this aorlst as made from the
cansatlTe stem instead of directly from the root, the natiTO grammarians
teach that roots ending in an u-TOwel may reduplicate with i, as represent-
ing the ft of the strengthened stem: thus, blbhava from bhftv-aya, u
well as bftbhuva from bhfL No example of sach a formation, howoTer,
is met with except &piplavam (^., once); against it we find dadmTa»
bfibhuva» rCbniva, 9a9mTa, and others.

o. As to apaptam» avooam* and ane^am* see aboTe, 847.

864. The inflection of the reduplicated aoritt is like
that of an imperfect of the second general conjugation: that
is to say, it has ^er a as final stem-vowel, with all the pe-
culiarities which the presence of that vowel conditions (788 a).
Thus, from |/SR jan give birth (stem jljana):

active. middle.

s. d. p. s. d. p.

i^jQanam ^IJanftva ^Qanftma iiJXIane ^Uanftvahi ^Uanftmahi
2 WislHH ^ NsfWlHHH^ ^IsfteRrT MsflslH^iW^ fcblisi^q i H ^ MsflsHfelH^
^Qanas i^jQanatam ^Ricuiata ^Qanathfts ^iU^uiethftm ^anadhvam

iJQanat ^fflanatftm ^Qanan ^ijanata ^Qanetftm ^Qananta

885. The middle forms are rare in the older language (the 3d
pi. is decidedly the most common of tbem, being made from eleven
roots; the 3d s. from seven); but all, both active and middle, are
quotable except Ist and 2d du. middle and Ist du. active.

a. Atitape appesrs to he once used (RV.) as 3d sing., with passiye

866. A final ^ has the gui^-strengthening before the endings:
thus, acAaraty apiparam, atltaras, dldaras* adidharat, amimarat,
Avivaran, Jihvaras. Of similar strengthened forms from I and u-roots
are found apiprayan (TS.), ablbhayanta (RV.), apiplavam (QB.),
jumcyavat (K.), a9U9ravat (MS.), ato^favam (RV.). Not many roots
ending in other vowels than x make this aorist: see below, 868.

867. Forms of the infleetion without union-vowel are occasionally
met with: namely, from roots ending in consonants, sl^vap (2d sing.,
angmentlesf) from y'svap, and aQl9nat from f^^nath; from roots in x
or ar» didhar ('2d slug.), and ajigar (2d and 3d sing.); for roots in i-
and U-Towels, see 868. Of 3d pi. in us are found almost only « form

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or two from i- and a-rootv, ^nrith gm^& before the ending: thus, a9i9r&yii8,
&ouoyavu0y a^u^ravus, asu^avus; but also abibhajus (9B.)i ^^
nina9ii8 (MBh.).

868. Id the later language, a few roots are said by the gram-
marians to make this aorist as a part of their primary conjugation:
they are Qxi and 9vi» dru and sru, kam, and dhft suck (9vi and dh&

a. In the older language are found from |/9ri a9i9ret and a9i9rayii8
(noticed in the preceding paragraph) and a9i9riyat (^B.); from ydra,
adadrot and adudruvat (TB. : not used as aorist) ; from V'sru* asuarot
and (augmentless) siiaroB and sasrot; from }/kain, acikainetftm and
-manta (B.S.). Of forms analogous with these occur a number from roota
in u or d: thus, anunot and nunot from V'nu*, jmyot from ^yu
separate] diidhot from |/dhu; apupot from ypVL\ tQtos and tutot from
ytVL] a8iqM>t from y^su; — and on<^ or two from roots in i or I: thus,
Bifet from ysi (or sft) bind] amimet from f^mft bellow ] apipres (with
apiprayan, noticed above) from f^pri (and the ''imperfects" from didhi
etc., 676, are of oorre8XK)nding form). And from f^cyu are made, with
union-vowel I, aoucyavlt and acuoyavitazia. Few of these forms possess
a necessarily causative or a decidedly aoristic value, and it is very doubtful
whether they should not be assigned to the perfect-system.

b. From the later language are quotable only a9i9riyat etc. (3d i^l.,
-yan or -yus) and adudruvat.

Modes of the Beduplicated Aorist.

869. a. As in other preterit formations, the augmentless indicative
persons of this aorist are used subjuuctively, and they are very much
more frequent than true subjunctives.

b. Of the latter are found only rlradhft '{ist sing.); titapftsi;
oik}pftti and si^adh&ti, and pi8p^9ati (as if corresponding to an indic-
ative apiapfk, like a9i9nat); and perhaps the Ist sing. mid. 9a9vao&f.

c. The augmentless indicative forms are accented in general on the
reduplication: thus, didharaB» Iiina9a8; jiijaiiat, piparat; jijanan;
also sffvap; bat, on the other hand, we have also pip&rat, 9i9r4thaa
and 9i9n&that, and dudr&vat and tuf(&vat (which may perhaps belong
to the perfect: compare 810). According to the native grammarians, th&
accent rests either on the radical syllable or on the one that follows it.

870. Optative forms are even rarer. The least qaestionable case is
the middle ^precative" rirlfi^ta (ririfi^ta has been ranked above with
sftsahi^tA, as a perfect: 812 b). Oucyuvimahl and ouoyavlrata be-
long either here or to the perfect-system.

871. Of imperatives, we have the indubitable forms papurantu and
9i9rathanta. An! Jig^pt&m and Jig^^ and dldhftam and didhftd,

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

313 Sibilant Aorist. [—876

and Jajast&m (all RY. only), and perhaps BUfud&ta (AV.), are to be
referred hither, as corresponding to the indicatives (without nnion-Towel)
ajiigar and adidhar: their short reduplicating vowel and their accent
assimilate them closely to the reduplicated imperfects (666 ft.), with which
we are psohably to regard this aorist as altimately related.

872. No participle is found belonging to the reduplicated aorist.

873. The number of roots from which this aorist is met with
in the earlier language is about a hundred and twenty. In the later
Sanskrit it is unusual; in the series of later texts mentioned above
(826) it occurs only twice ; and it has been found quotable from hardly
fifty roots in the whole epic and classical literature.

III. Sigmatic or Sibilant Aorist.

874. a. The common tense-sign of all the varieties of

this aorist id a H 8 (convertible to Cf 9: 180) which is added to

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 32 of 59)