William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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the root in forming the tense-stem.

b. This sibilant has no analogues among the class- signs of the present-
system; hut it is to be compared with that which appears (and likewise
with or without the same nnion-vowel i) in the stems of the future tense-
system (932 £F.) and of the desiderative conjugation (1027 ft.).

o. To the root thus increased the augment is prefixed

and the secondary endings are added.

876. In the case of a few roots, the sibilant tense-stem
(always ending in ^ k?) is further increased by an ^ a,
and the inflection is nearly like that of an imperfect of the
second or a-conjugation.

876. a. In the vast majority of cases, the sibilant is
the final of the tense-stem, and the inflection is like that
of an imperfect of the first or non-a-conjugation.

b. And these, again, fall into two nearly equal and
strongly marked classes, according as the sibilant is added
immediately to the final of the root, or with an auxiliary
vowel 5 i, making the tense-sign ^ i?. Finally, before this
^ 19 the root is in a very small number of cases increased
by a H 8, making the whole addition f^^ si^.



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•877—] XI. A0RIST-8T8TBM8. 314

877« We have, then, the following olassifioation for the
▼arieties of sibilant-aorist:

A. With endings added directly to the sibilant:

4. with ^ B simply after the root: s-aorist;'

5. with ^ i before the ^ s: i^aorist;

6. the same, with H b at end of root: sif-aorist.

B. With ^ a added to the sibilant before the endings:

7. with sibilant and ^ a: 8a-aorist.

a. Aa regtrds the distinction between tlie fonrth and fifth fonnt, it
may be said in a geneial way that those roots incline to take the auxiliary
i in the aorist which take it also in other formations; but it is impossible
to lay down any strict rules as to this accordance. Compare 908.

4. The B-aoriBt.

878. The tense-stem of this aorist is made by adding
n B to the augmented root, of which also the vowel is usu-
ally strengthened.

879. The general rules as to the strengthening of the
Toot-Yowel are these:

a. A final vowel (including f; p) has the vrddhi-change
in the active, and (excepting I? p) gu^a in the middle: thus,
£rom v^ lecuij active stem C^cr anfti^, middle stem lEJ^cr ane^;
from y^ 9ru hearj W^t^ti^fT^u^ and i5rQt^a9ro9; £rom
ySR Tlx make, HM^ akSr^ and W^ aky^.

b. A medial vowel has the vrddhi-change in the active,
and remains unaltered in the middle: thus, from V^^ chand
seem^ active stem M^IHI aochftntB, middle stem «ic^rH^
acchantB; from f/i^H ric leave, ^^ arBik^ and ^f^^f^arikf;
from yi^ rudh obstruct, *<^rW arftuts and ti^rtj^arutB;
from yj^ B^J pour out, MUM asrSk^ and ^^ as^k^.

880. a. The endings are the usual secondary ones, with
3H UB (not 3ER an) in 3d pi. act., and W{ ata (not gw anta)
in dd pi. mid.



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315 Sibilant Aorist: 4. b-aorist. [—888

b. But before ^b and H^t of 2d and 3d sing. act. is in
the later language always inserted an ^ I, making the end-
ings ^ IB and ^It.

o. This insertion is unknown in the OArUest language (of the RT.) :
see below, 888.

881. a. Before endings beginning with t or th, the teDse-sign b
is (888 o-e) omitted after the final consonant of a root — unless this
be r, or n or m (converted to anusvara).

b. The same omission is of course made before dhvam after a con-
sonant; and after a towel the sibilant is either omitted or assimilated (the
eqnlTalenee of dhv and ddhT in the theories of the grammarians and the
practice of the manuscripts makes it impossible to say which : 888) ; and
then the ending becomes ^bvam, prorided the sibiUnt, if retained, would
have been ijf (8860): thus, asto^hvam and avf^vam (beside aatof-
ata and av^^ata); dr4}li\ram {ydjp regard: QB., once), which is to
dfthfiB (2d sing.) as avrfbTam and aiq^ata to avri and av^hftB; and
Icpjlhvam (M.).

0. According to the grammarians, the omission of 8 before t and th
takes place also after a short vowel (the case can occur only in the 2d and
3d sing, mid.); but we have seen above (834a) that this is to be viewed
rather as a substitution in those persons of the forms of the root*aorist.
T^dther in the earlier nor in the later language, however, does any example
occur of an aorist-form with b retained after a short vowel before these
endings.

d. After the final sonant aspirate of a root, the sibilaut before the
same endings is said by the Hindu grammarians to disappear altogether, the
oombination of the aspirate with the th or t of the ending being then
made according to the ordinary rule for snch cases (160): thus, from the
stem arSutB, for arftudh-B, is made arftuddha, as if from arftudh -f- ta
direetiy. No example of such a form is quotable from the literature; but
the combination is established by the occurrence of other similar cases
(888 f). In the middle, in like manner, arutB+ta becomes amddha,
as if from arudh+ta; but all such forms admit also of being understood
as of the root-aorist. Those that have been found to occur were given
above (884 d); probably they belong at least in part to this aorist

e. From the three nasal roots gam, tan, man are made the 2d and
3d sing. mid. persons agathfiB and agata» atathfiii and atata, and amata
(amathftB not quotable), reckoned by the native grammarians as B-aodst
forms, made, after loss of their final root-nasal, with loss also of the sibilant
after a short vowel. They are doubtless better referred to the root-aorist. But
JB. has a corresponding 1st sing, atasi from f^tan.

882. As examples of the inflection of this variety of



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88&— ]



XI. A0RIST-8YSTEM8.



316



sibilant aorist we may take the roots 4f nl lead^ and f^^
chid cut of. Thus:

active.



d.



middle,
d.



p.



1 ^TSTi^^ #J^ ^m W^ ^^V^ ^Rocff^
infti^am infti^va inEi^ma Ane^i ine^vahi inefmahi

inai^lB infti^tam dnai^fa Ane^tli&s ^ne^ftthftm &ne^vam
3 ^^iftfT M^^W *I^NH 5R? MHNIHIM *fiNH
inai^it Anfti^tftm dnai^us ine^fa ine^fttftm &ne^ta

active.
8. d.

&cch fit team dcch&itsva dcchaitsma

dcchftitsiB dcchfiittain doohftitta

2 Sl^r^ficT^ y^rilH^ MT:*^rHH^
icohsitslt &cchaittftm icchaitsias

middle.

dochitsi dcchitflvahi icohitsmahi

&ochitth&8 &ochit8&thftm &oohiddlivam

3 Mf^rl M^rHIHIH^ MJ^r^H
dcohitta &oohit8&tam doohitsata

a. From )/rudh obstruct^ the 2d and 3d du. and 2d pi. act. and
the 2d and 3d sing. mid. wonid be irfiuddham, drfiuddlifixn,
irauddha, &raddlift8, &ruddha; from yspj pour ouiy &Brftf(ani,
&8ra§(&m» asra^ta, asf^thas, a8^(c^; from ydj^q see, idrfi^^am etc.
(as from s^j;. But from yk^ ^^ ^he same persons in the active are
&karftam> ikftr^tftm, ^kftrffa; from ytan stretch they are dtftAatam,
dtfifLBtftm, dtSiista. '

888. The omiBsion of s in the active persons (&ooh&ittam» &coli&it-
t&m» &eoh&itta) is a case of very rare occurrence ; all the quotable exam-
ples were given above (233 e). As to the like omission in midtle persons,
see 881. The GhU. has twice &v&3tam for av&tB-tam (^yvts dwell):
this may be viewed as another case of total disappearance of the sibilant,
and consequent restoration of the final radical to its original form.



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317 Sibilant Aorist: 4. s-aorist. [—888

884. Certain roots id ft weaken the a in middle inflection to i
(as also in the root-aorist: above, 884 a): these are said to be sthft,
dS, and dhft; in the older language have been noted Adi^i and adii^ta
from ydft give (and adifi perhaps once from ydSL bindjy adhi^i and
adhiij^ta (with the optative dhi^iya) from ydhSL put, and asthi^ta;
also agi9$hft8 and agitata from ygft go (with adhi).

a. The middle inflection of the aorist of ydft would be, then,
according to the grammarians: ddi^i, idithfts, idita; ^difvahi,
iLdi^th&m, Mi^fttftm; idi^mahi, ddi^hvam, idi^ata.

885. Roots ending in changeable x (so-called roots in f: 242) are
said by the grammarians to convert this vowel to ir in middle forms : thos,
asUr^i, astirf (lifts etc. (from V^stf); of such forms, however, has been
found in the older language only akinjata, PB.

886. The s-aorist is made in the older language from about a
hundred and forty roots (in RV., from about seventy; in AV., from
about fifty, of which fifteen are additional to those in RV.); and the
epic and classical literature adds but a very small number. It has in
the Veda certain peculiarities of stem- formation and inflection, and
also the full series of modes — of which the optative middle is re-
tained also later as a part of the ^precative'^ (but see 925 b).

887. Irregularities of stem-formation are as follows:

a. The strengthening of the root-syllable is now and then irregularly
made or omitted: thus, ayok^it (AB.), ohetais (B.S.; also occurs in
HBh., which has further yotsis), rotus (KU.) ; amatsuB (RV.) ,* ayftiiisl
and arfiutsi (AB.), aaSk^l etc. (Y.B. : }/8ah), mfti&sta (AV.) and mft&Btftm
(TA.); lopnya (U.); and MBh. has drogdhas. From ysai is made
sft&kfit (U. etc.), and from ]/maJj, amftfikfit (not quotable). The form
ayu&kfmahi (BhP.J is doubtless a false reading.

b. A radical final nasal is lost in agasmahi (I^V.) and gasfttham
(TA.) from ]/gam, and in the optatives masiya and vasimahi (RV.)
from |/man and van.

o. The roots h% dhfl, and nu have a instead of o in the middle:
thus, aliiii^ta, adhti^ata, antl^i and ana^fitftm and anii^ata; y^dhiir
(or dhflrv) makes adhOr^ata.

d. 9B. has once atrftsatSm for atrastSm (>^tra).

888. The principal peculiarity of the older language in regard
to inflection is the frequent absence of i in the endings of 2d and
3d sing, act., and the consequent loss of the consonant-ending, and
sometimes of root-finals (150). The forms without i are the only ones
found in RV. and K., and they outnumber the others in AV. and
TS.; in the Brahmanas they grow rarer (only one, adr&k, occurs in
GB.; one, ayftf, in KB.; and two, adrftk and ayftf, in QB.; PB. has
none).



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889—] XI. AORIST-STSTEMS. 318

889. If the root ends In a vowel, only the consonant of the ending
is necessarily lost: thas, aprfta (for hoth aprSs-s and aprfts-t) from y^rft;
and in like manner alifts from |/hft; — ajfiis (for ajilf-t) from yji; and
in like manner acftis from yd, and nfiis (angmentless) ftom y'ni; — and
yftus (for ayftim-t) from yjn.

a. But (as in other like cases : 665 a) the ending is sometimes preser-
Ted at the expense of the tense-sign; and we have in 3d sing, ijftit (be-
side ajftis and ajfti^It) from yji; and in like manner acftit, a9r8it9
ahftit, nftit (no examples have been noted except fjrom roots in i and i) :
compare aySs and srfts, 2d sing., 890 a.

890. a. If the root (in either its simple or strengthened form) ends
in a consonant, the tense-sign is lost with the ending. Thns, abhfir (tot
abhSri^t: beside abhftryim, abhfinftim) from ybhf] other like casea
are ahftr, and (from roots in ar) ak^ar, atsftr* asvftr, hvftr. Farther,
arftik (686 a: for arftik^-t) from yrio; like oases are a^vftit from
yqvit, and (from roots with medial u) adyftut from >^clyut, arftut from
l/rudh, and mftnk from ymuo. Further, from roots ending in the pala*
tals and h, aprSk horn j/p^o, asrSk from ysfj, abhfik from ybhaj,
adrfik from yd^, adhfik from ydah\ but, with a different change of
the final, ayftf from ]/yaJ, apr&t from Vpfoh, avftf from y^vali, and
asraf from Vsfj; and (above, 146 a) Brfts appears to stand twice in AT,
for srS^s from Vb{J; RT. has also twice ayas from yjBJ. Farther,
from roots ending in a nasal, atftn from >^tan, khftn from ykhan, ayftn
and anfin from yyyam. and nam (143 a).

b. If, again, the roots end in a doable consonant, the latter of the
two is lost along with tense- sign and ending: thus, aoohSn (for aoohftnts-t^
beside aochdntta and acohftntsuB) from yohand} and other liks cases
are akrftn, askSn, and aayfin.

891. A relic of this pecoliarity of the older inflection has been
preserved to the later language in the 2d sing. bh&iB, from yhhi.

Modes of the s-Aorist.

892. The indicatiye forms without augment are used in a sob«
junotiye sense, especially after ma prohibitiye, and are not uncommon.
Examples with accent, boweyer, are extremely rare; there has been
noted only tAAsI, middle; judging from this, the tone would be found
on the radical syllable. According to the Hindu grammarians, it may
be laid on either root or ending.

898. Proper subjunctiye forms are not rare in RV., but are
markedly less common in the later Vedic texts, and yery seldom met
with in the Brahmanas. They are regularly made with gn^a-strength'*
eoing of the radical yowel, in both active and middle, and with accent
on the root.



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319 Sibilant Aorist: 4. s-aorist. [— 895-

a. Tbe forms wHh primary endings are: in active, Bto^ft^i; dar^asi;.
ne^ati, par^ati, pftsati, matsati, yo^ati, vak^ati, sak^ati; d^thas,
dlifisathas, p&r^athas, vak^athas, var^athas; pSsatas, yaifasataa,
yakfatas, vak^tas; dhfisatha, neyatha^ pto^atha^ m^tsatha; —
in middle, naihsfti, m&&8fti; m^ftaase; kraifasate, trftsate, dar^ate,.
m&ftsate, yakij^te, rasate, vaftsate, aftkfate, hftsate; traaftthe (not
trftaftlthe, as we slionld rather expect); n&iiiBante, m&ABante : and,
with the filler ending In 3d sing., masftt&L

b. The forms with secondary endings are (active only): J^^as, v&kfas;
dir^at, n^^at, p&k^at, pto^at, pr^t, y&kij^t, y69at, v&Asat, T&ki^t^
vdi^aty sitsat, ohantaat, etc. (some twenty others); jrak^atfim; v^A-
Bima. w?tkyftina, Bto^fima; par^an, yaihaan, yo^an, rfLsan, vak^an,
^^^an, qrd^BXL. Of these, yak^t and vakfat are found not rarely ia
the BrShmanas; any others, hardly more than sporadically.

894. Of irregularities are to he noted the following:

a. The forms dfk^aae and p^k^fa^e (2d sing, mid.) lack the gtq^
strengthening.

b. Jefam* ato^am, and yofam (AY. yO^^am, with tt for o as in
ana^ta etc.) appear to he first persons formed under government of the
analogy of the second and third — unless they are relics of a state of
things anterior to the vrddhi-strengthening : in which case Je^ma is to
be compared with them (we should expect jfti^ma or Je^fima).

o. From roots in ft are made a few forms of problematic chsracter:
namely, ye^am (only case in BY.), khyei^am, Jfte^am, ge^am and
gefina, defma, ae^am and aet, athefam and Bthe^oa. Their value
is optative. The analogy of Je^am and Je^ma suggests the possibility of
their derivation from i-forms of the ft-roots; or the sibilant might be of
a precatiye character (thus, yft-i-B-am). That they really belong to the
i^-aorist appears highly improbable.

d. The RY. has a few difficult first persons middle in ae, which are
perhaps best noted here. They are: 1. from the simple root, kq^, hi^e
(and ohifeP), atof^; 2. from present-stems, aroaae, fiUaae, yajaae,
gftyije, gpfl^ and punl^^. They have the value of indicative present.
Compare below, 897 b.

895. Optative forms of this aorist are made in the middle only, and
they have in 2d and 3d sing, always the precative a before the endings.
Those found to occur in the older language are: di^Iya, dhi^Iya, bhak-
9ly&, maalya (for ma&aiya), mnk^iya, r&alya^ lopaiya, a&k^iya,
Bt]^9lya; ma&aiftl^ftB; darflf^ bhak^i^fa, ma&sl^ta, mf-k^i^ta;
bhakfTmahi, dhuk^im&hi, maAaim&hi, vaAalmi^ va8imahl»
Bak^TmAhi ; mafialrata. PB. has bhuk^i^iya, which should belong to
a ai^-aorist. The BY. form traaXthftm (for trftaiyftthftm or trftaftthftm)
is an isolated anomaly.

a. This optative makes a part of the accepted **precative'' of the later
language: see below, 928, 925b.



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896 — ] XI. AORIST-SYSTEMS. • 320

896. ImperatiTe persons from this aorist are extremely rare: we find
the 2d sing, act nefa and par^ and the 2d pi. yaihsata (from a-stems,
and showing rather, therefore, a treatment of the aorist-stem as a root),
and the 3d sing. mid. rfiaatam and pi. rftsant&m (of which the same
may he said).

Participles of the s-aorist.

897. a. Actiye participles are d&k^at or dhAk^at, and s&k^at
(hoth RV.).

b. If ^ase (ahove, 894 d) is to be reckoned as an s-aorist form,
fiijas&n& is an s-aorist participle; and of a kindred character, apparently,
are ar9a8&n&, 6has&na, jrayasftnA, dhiyasftn&, mandasfiii4, yama-
s&n&, rabha8&n&, vi^dlia8&n&, sahasftnA, 9avasft]i&, all in RT.; with
namas&n&, bhiy&sfina, in AY. . In RV. occurs also once dhlfamftiOLa,
apparently an a-form of an s-aorist of y^dhi.

5. The i^-aorist.

898. The tense-stem of this aorist adds the genera]
tense-sign H b by help of a prefixed auxiliary vowel ^ i,
making ^ if^ to the root, which is usually strengthened,
and which has the augment.

899. The rules as to the strengthening of the root are
as follows:

a. A final vowel has v^ddhi in the active, and gu^a in
the middle: thus, ^i||f^e4 apSvi^ and ^smf^CT apavif from
y^ ptl cleanse; ^rT^fj^t atftrif, act., from VrT tx pass\ H^\[im
a9ayi9, mid., from y^ 9! lie.

b. A medial vowel has gui^a, if capable of it, in both
voices: thus, M^RlN ale9i9, act. and mid., from vi^T5T 119
tear] *3i(\\im arooif from y^ rue shine) ^^J^^ avar^i^
from y^^ YX9 ^«»w J l>wt Msi1lc«hi ajivi^ from Vsft^ jXv live.

o. Medial ^ a is sometimes lengthened in the active;
but it more usually remains unchanged in both voices.

d. The roots in the older Ungnage which show the lengthening are
kan» tan, ran, stan, svan, han, vraj, sad, mad, car, t^ar, svar,
jval, das, tras. From ran, san, kram, vad, rakf, and sah occur forms
of both kiiid^. From )/math or mantjti are made the two stems matlii^
and mantnit^.



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321 Sibilant Aorist: 5. I^-aorist. [—903

900. a. Of exceptiona may be noted: >^mfj has (as elsewbere: 687)
vrddhi iDstead of gtu^a : thas, amftrjii^am ; ystf has aatariSi and ^^9^
has a^arXt (also a9arftit in AY.), with gu^ in active.

b. The root grabh or grah has (as in fntare etc., below, 936 e, 966)
long 1 instead of i before the sibilant: thus, agrabhi^ma, agrahi^ta,
agrabhiij^ta* The roots in changeable x (so-called roots in f: 242), and
yvx are ssid by the grammarians to do the same optionally; but no forms
with long I from such roots have been fonnd quotable. A Sutra (PGS.)
has once anayi^ta from yni (doubtless a false reading).

901. The endings are as in the preceding formation

(3n UB and ^SlrT &ta in 3d pi.). But in 2d and 3d sing.,

the combinations i^-s and if-t aie from the earliest period

of the language contracted into ^ Is and ^ It.

a. The 2d pi. mid. shoald end always in i(pivam (or i^^vam,
from if-dhvam : 226) ; and this is in fact the form in the only exam-
ples quotable, namely f^aal^vam, arti<}livam, ftindhi^livam* ve-
pi^hvam; as to the roles of the native grammarians respecting the
matter, see 226 o.

902. As examples of the inflection of the i^-aorist may

be taken the roots ^ pil cleanse^ and ^ budh toake. Thus:

actiye. middle,

s. d. p. s. d. p.

1 dblMI&NH^ mt^ m\U^ MMJ^fM MMf^yl^ MMJ^mf^
ip&vlfam ip&vi^va dpftvi^ma ipavi^i dpavi^vabi dpavi^mahi

4p&viB dpfivi^tam ipfivi^t^ ipavi^thfts ipavl^ftthfim &pavi(pivam

&p&vit dpftvi^t&m ipftvi^us dpavi^fa dpavi^fttSm ipavl^ata

1 gsS^fe^rj^ 5Rt1?l^ ^^tfqsq q^HtJif^ q^tl^I^rf^ *^<Mlliy^i^

toodhifam dbodhi^va ibodhi^ma dbodhi^i dbodhi^vahi dbodhi^mahi
etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.

903. The number of roots from which forms of this aorist have
been noted in the older language is nearly a hundred and fifty (in
RV., about eighty; in AV., more than thirty, of which a dozen are
additional to those in BVOi the later texts add less than twenty.
Among these are no roots in ft; but otherwise they are of every
variety of form (rarest in final i and I). Active and middle persons
are freely made, but sparingly from the same root; only about fifteen

Whitnej, Chrammar. 3. ed. 21



2



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908—] XI. AOBIST-SYSTEMS. 322

roots baye both active and middle forms in the older language, and
of these a part only exceptionally in the one voice or the other.

a. No rale appears to govern the choice of nsage between the
if- and the B-aorist ; and in no small number of cases the same root
shows forms of both classes.

904. Irregularities axe to be noticed as follows:

a. The contracted forms akramun, agrabhXxn, and avadhlm (with
augmentlesB v&dhim) are found in Ist sing. act.

b. For &9arit occurs in AT. ^^arftit; also (in a part of the manuscripta)
9ar5i0 for 9ariB; agrah&ifam is found in AB. (also the monstroos form
ajagrabhftifam : tee 801 i). AJayit, with short i in the ending, occurs
in TS.

o. AY. has once nudi^thSa, without gui^a.

d. The forms atfirima (RV.), avftdiran (AT.), and b&dhithfts
(TA.), though they lack the sibilant, are perhaps to be referred to ibis
aorist: compare avit^, 908. A few similar cases occur in the epics, and
are of like doubtfal character: thus, J&nithfts, mftdithfta, vartithfis,
9ankithft8, and (the causative: 1048) aghfttayithfis. AgrbitSm and
g{>hithft8 and gfhita, if not false readings for g^rh^i-, are probably
irregular present-formations.

Modes of the i^-aorist.

906. As usual) augmentless indicative forms of this aorist are more
common than proper subjunctiyes. Examples, of all the persons found to
occur (and including all the accented words), are, in the active: 9U8i9ain,
v&dhlm; mithls, v&dhis, yavia, B^vis; dvlt, jtbrvit, m&thit, v&dh-
it, ve9lt; mardhi^tam, dofiftam, hij^ft^^m; aviffftm, J&iLi^t&>>>t
b&dhi^t&m; 9ranii9ma, v&di^ma; vadhi^fa and vadhi^fana, math-
i^fana, hifksi^ta; hvarifus, grabi^us; — in the middle: rftdhifi;
Jini^thftB, marfifthfts, vyathii^thfis ; kr&mi^ta, J&ni^ta, p&vif(c^
pr&thi^ta, m&ndi^ta; vyathi^mahl. The accent is on the root-syllable
(tftri^UB, AY. once, is doubtless an error).

906. a. Of subjunctive forms with primary endings occur only the
1st sing. act. davi^ft]^, and the ist pi. mid. (with unstrengthened e)
yftei^ftmalie and sani^Smalie.

b. Forms with secondary endings are almost limited to 2d and 3d
sing. act. There are found: avl^as, kani^as, tSriinaa, rakfifas, -vAdh-
i^as, viJtdl^as, vd^l^as, 9aA8l9a8; k^^at, jambhl^at, J69l^t,
tak^l^at, tftrifat, sindijat, parl^at, b6dhi9at, m&rdlil^at, y&clfat.
yodhl^at, rak^i^at, ranifat, vyathi^at, 9aii8i9at, sanl^at, sfivl^t.
They are made, it will be noticed, with entire regularity, by adding a to the
tense-stem in i^ before the endings. The only other persons found to occur
are the 3d pi. act. sani^an and mid. s&nl^anta (and TS. has vanl^anta.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



323 Sibilant Aorist: 5. if-AORiST. [—911

for the problemitie vaiitu|anta of RY.)* wMoh are also ieg«UT. Bhavi^&t
(AB. onoe) is a solitary example of a form with doable mode-sign ; o4Di9-
(hat (RY. ; SY. Instead J&Til^hat) seems hopelessly corrupt. The radical
syllable always has the accent, and its Yowel usnally accords with that of
the indicatiye: but we haye saa* in the subjanctl^e agftinst asSn^am
(as to cay- and ran-, see below, 908).

907. The middle optatiye of this aorist also forms a part of the ac-
cepted ^^recative'' of the later language (923* 926 b). It is yery rare at
all periods, being made in RY. from only flye roots, and in AY. from two
of the same and from three additional ones (six of the eight have other
if-forms); and the remaining texts add, so far as noticed, only four other
roots. All the forms found to occur are as follows: Jani^Iya, indhiflya,
edhifXy^, ruci^a and roci^iyay gmi^iya; modi^ifthas ; jani^i^ta;
vani^i^ta; sahiflvahi; idhi^imahi, edbifim&hl, Janl^lmahi, tftri^-
mahi, mandifimahi, vandi^Im^hi, vardhi^Im&hi, sahi^imahl and
Bfihi^im&hi. The accent is on the ending, and this would lead us to ex^
pect a weak form of root throughout; but the usage in this respect appears^
to be various, and the oases are too few to allow of setting up any rule.
The forms Jani^eyam and -ya, from a secondary a-stem, occur In E.

908. Of imperative forms, we have from y^av a series: namely,
avi4<}hi, avi^tu, avift^^* avit4 (if this, as seems probable, stands
anomalously for a,vi^\k) and avi^t&na; two of these are of unmistakably
imperative form. Other forms occur only in 2d du. and 2d pi., and are
accordingly such as might also be subjunctives used imperatively (which
is further made probable for two of them by their accentuation on the



Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 33 of 59)