William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

. (page 45 of 59)
Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 45 of 59)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


o. A few words of this class are of irregular formation: [thns, without
strengthening of the root, juvae quickness (beside j&vas), urae breast,
mfdhae contempt; and Iras- (irasy-) and vlpas-, and the adverbs tir&a,
mith&Sy huras-y also ^fras head, are to be compared; — with v^ddhi-
strengthening, -vaoas, vaeas, vahas, -svadas, and, of donbtfal connect-
ions, pajas, p^thae, and -hftyas; — perhaps with an aoristio b, h^fas
missile \ — pivas contains a v apparently not radical.

d. After final & of a root is nsnally inserted y before the suffix
(258) : thus, dhayas, -gayas. But there are in the oldest language appar-
ent remains of a formation in which as was added directly to radical &
thus, bhas and -d&s (often to be pronounced as two syllables), Jfias,
mas; and -dhas and -das, from the roots dhft and dft.

2. 6. The instances in which an agent-noun is differentiated by its
accent from an action-noun are: &pas work, and ap&s active; y&QSB
beauty^ and ya9&s beauteous', t&ras quickness, and tar&s (VS., once)
quick) t&vas strength, and tav&s strong-, duvas worship, and davis
lively {X^-, m&has greatness, and mah&s great) between r&kfas n. and



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



429 Stems in ana, as, tas, nas, sas. [—1152

rakfis m., both meaning demons and between ty&jas n. abandonment {^^
and tyaj&B m. descendeni{f), the antithesis is much less clear.

f. AdjectlTes in &8 without correBponding abstracts are: to^&s he-
siomng, yaj&s offering, vedh&s pious, probably ahan&s heady, and a few
other words of isolated occurence, as veQ&s, dlivar&8. From a denomina-
tive stem is made m^ayis wild animal (RV., once).

g. Bat there are also a yery few cases of abstract nonns, not neater,
accented on the ending: thus, jar&s old age, bhiy&s /ear; and doubtless
also hav&s call, and tve^&s impulse. The femine xl^&B daum, and do^&s
night, might belong either here or under the last preceding head.

h« Apparently containing a suffix as are the noun up&8 lap, and
certain proper names: ingiras, nodh&8, bhalan&s, aroanan&s, nad-
ketas. The feminine apsar&s nymph is of doubtful derivation.

i. The irregular formation of some of the words of this division will
be noticed, without special remark.

3. j. The infinitives made by the suffix as have been explained
above (973): they show various treatment of the root, and various
accent (which last may perhaps mark a difference of gender, like that
between sdhas and Jar&s).

4. k. The formation of derivatives in as ftom roots compounded with
prefixes is very restricted — if, indeed, it is to be admitted at all. No infin-
itive in as occurs with a prefix; nor any action-noun; and the adjective
combinations are in some instances evidently, and in most others apparently,
possessive compounds of the noun with the prefix used adjectively: the
most probable exceptions are -ny6ka8 and vffpardhas. As in these
examples, the accent is always on the prefix.

1. Certain Yedic stems in ar may be noticed here, as more or less
exchanging with stems in as, and apparently related with such. They were
reported above, at 168 a.

In connection with this, the most common and important suffix
ending in s, may be best treated the others, kindred in office and
•possibly also in ongin, which end in the same sibilant.

1162. cTH^tas, ?m nas, W{ saa. With these suffixes are
made an extremely small number of action-nouns. Thus:

a. With tas are made r6ta8 seed, and srotas stream,

b. With nas are made &pna8 acquisition, ir^as wave, -bh&r^as
offering, T6k^as riches; and in dr&vinas wealth, and p&ri^as fulness
is apparently to be seen the same suffix, with prefixed elements having the
present value of union-vowels. Probably the same is true of d&mimas
house-friend, and fjtinas (RV.) n. pr., U9&na8 (or -na) n. pr.

o. With sas is perhaps made v&psas heautg; and t&r^fas may be
mentioned with it (rather tarus-a?).



Digitized by VjOOQ iC



1168—] XVIL Primary DBRirATiON. 430

115d. ^ is. With the suffix is is formed a small num-
ber [about a dozen) of nouns.

a. Tbey are in part nouns of action, bnt most are used concretely.
The radical syllable has the giujia-strengthening, and the accent Is on the
suffix (except in jy6tiB Itghty vy&thls, and ^mis raw meaf). ExampIeE
are: arois, rooie, and 900^ lights ohadis or chardfs cover, hsAh
straw, Taitls track, sarpfs butter, havis oblation^ dyotis Ughtj and
kravfs raw flesh. Avis-, pathis, bhrfijis-, and m&hifl- are iBoUted
variants of stems in as; and t^vis-, Quois^, and surabhls- appear in-
organically for tuvi etc in a few compounds or deriTatires.

1154. 3^ us. With this suffix are made a few words,

of various meaning, root-form, and accent.

a. They are words signifying both action and agent. A few hare
both meanings, without difference of accent: thus, t&ptts heat and hoi\
&raB wound and 8ore\ c&kfus brightness and seeing, eye\ v&pos wonder-
yW and wonder. The nouns are mostly neater, and accented on t^e root-
syllable: thus, ayus, t&ms, piorus, muhus (? only adverbial), mithns
(do.), y^us, 9aaus; exceptions are: in regard to accent, jan^ birth; 1b
regard to gender, minus num, and n&hus n. pr. Of adjectlTes, are
accented on the ending jayus, vanus, and dakiftos burning (whi^
appears to attach itself to the aorist-stem).

1156. ^ i. With this suffix are formed a large body
of derivatives, of all genders: adjectives and masculine
agent-nouns, feminine abstracts,, and a few neuters. They
show a various form of the root: strong, weak, and re-
duplicated. Their accent is also various. Many of diem
have meanings much specialized; and many (including most
of the neuters) are hardly to be connected with any root

elsewhere demonstrable.

1. a. The feminine action-nouns are of very various form: thus,
with weak root-form, rdoi brightness, tvf^i sheen, Iq^ ploughing^ nftf
dance] — with goi^strengthening (where possible), r6pi |?am, t^odkecsL^
vanf and sani gain; — with v^ddhi-strengthening, g^rahi seizure^ d]iz«i|i
course, &j{ race, from /duf comes dtl^i (compare dOi^yati, 104Sb>
The variety of accent, which seems reducible to no role, ia illustntad by
the examples given. The few inflnttlvely used words of this formatiea
(above, 875b) have a weak root-form, with accent on the ending.

2. b. The adjectives and masculine agent-^onns exhibit the sase
variety. Thus:

o. With unstrengthened root: Quei bright, bhtmi lively (yb]ixain\
gfbhi container.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



431 Stems in is, ub, i, i. [—1166

d. With unstrengthened loot (or root incapable of gui^a-change): mtl
enemy, in&td great, aroi beam, granthi knoi, ]cri<jli playing \ with v^ddhi-
luozement, kir^i, Jani» -dhftri, ^ari, 8fto{» sl&di, 8fthi» and a few words
of obscure connections: thus, drftpf mantle, r&^i heap, p&^l hand, etc.
The Isolated -ftna^ appears to come from the perfect-stem (788) of ye^.

e. With reduplicated root. This is in the older language a eonslder-
able class, of quite Tarious form. Thus: with weak or abbreviated root,
o&kri, j&gbri, ()/ghar), p&prl, s&sri, -mamrl, babhrf, vavri, j&gmi,
-jiijfii (VJan), -tatni, J&ghni, s&sni, su^vl, -^i^vi; and, with displace-
ment of final ft (or its weakening to the semblance of the suffix), dadf,
pap{, yay{ (with a case or two from yayl), -Jajfii, d&dhi; — from the
ur-form of roots in changeable f, J&guri, t&turi, p&pnrl (p^pnri ST.);
— with simple reduplication, ofkiti, yuyudhi, -yivioi; — with strength-
ened reduplication, -cacali, tatn>i» didh^i, v^vahi, sasahf, ttituji
and tutDji, ydyuvi, ytltyudhi; and jarbh&ri and b&mbhfirl. And
karkari lute and dundubhi drum have the aspect of belonging to the
same class, but are probably onomatopoetlc. The accent, it will be noticed,
is most often on the reduplication, but not seldom elsewhere (only once on
the root). It was noticed above (27 If) that these reduplicated derivatives
is i not seldom take an object in the aocusative, like a present participle.

f. Formations in 1 from the root compounded vrlth prefixes are not
at all numerous. They are accented usually on the suffix. Sxamples are:
fiyaji Tyftna^f^ rijaglmf, parftdadf, vi^asahl; but also iUani, fimuri,
▼{vavrL As compounded with other preceding words, the adjectives or
agent-nouns in i are not rare, and are regularly accented on the root: see
the n£xt diapter, 1276.

g. From ydhft comes a derivative -dhi, forming mftiy masculine
compounds, 'with the value both of an abstract and a concrete : thus, with
prefixes, antardhi, uddhf, nidhi, paridhi, etc. From )/da is made in
like manner ftdi beginning, and from )/8thft, pratii}t^ resistance. Opin-
ions are at variance as to whether such forms are to be regarded as made
with the suffix i, displacing the radical ft, or with weakening of ft to i.

3. h. Neuter nouns in i are few, and of obscure derivation: examples
are &k^i eye, isthi bene, d&dhi curds, etc.

1166. ^ T. Stems in ^ I (like those in sett ft, above,
1149] are for the most pait feminine adjectives, -correspond-
ing to masculines and neuters of other terminations.

a. Thus, feminines in i are made from a-stems (832, 834: and see
also the different suffixes), from i-stems (844, 346), from a-stems (344 b),
from f -stems (876 a), and from various consonant-stems (878 a).

b« But there are also a few stems in i wearing the "aspect of inde-
pendent derivatives. Examples are: dakfi, dehi, nadi, nftndl, p^fi.



Digitized by VjOOQ iC



1150—] XVII. Primary Derivation. 43^

vakfi (apparently with aoristio s), ve^I, 9aki, ^aoi, i}kmi, ^fnu, taa%
vftpi; they are either action-nouns or agent-nonns. In the later I&ngmacr
(as noticed at 344 a) there is very f^eqnent interchange of i- and .i-steai
and the forms from them.

0. In the eldest language there are even a few mascnlines in I. The;
were noticed, and their inflection illustrated, aboTe, at 355 b, 8&0.

1157. f?T ti. This suffix foims a large clk^ of fre-
quently used feminine nouns of action: and also a few
agent-nouns (masculine) and adjectives. The root has in
general the same form as before the suffix cT ta of the pass-
ive participle (962 ff.) — that is to say, a weak, and often
a weakened or abbreviated, form.

a. The accent ought, it would appear,' in analogy with tkat oi
the participle, to rest always upon the suffix; but in the recorded
condition of the language it does so only in a minority of cases:
namely, about fifty, against sixty cases of accent on the radical syl-
lable, and a hundred and forty of undetermined accent; a number of
words — iti, f ti, eitti, t^ti, pakti, puffi, bhuti, bh^ti, v^fi, ^akti,
9ruf ft, sf^fi, sthiti — have both accentuations.

1. b. Examples of the normal formation are: r&t{ gift, utf ou/,
ritf Jlow, stuti praise, bhakt{ division j viijtf service, kirtf fame, purtf
bestowal, mati thought, piti drink (V'pa; pple pita), dhaut{^^rea»i
()/dhav; pple dhauta); — and with accented root, g&ti motion, ^aifati
repose, df ti division iyd&; pple dit&), dff fi sight, if ti offering (yynj :
pple ift&), ukti speech (/vac: pple ukti), vfddhi increase.

C. The roots which form their participle in ita (866) do not hare
the i also before ti: thus, only gupti, d^ti. A few roots having their
participle in na instead of ta (957) form the abstract |noan also in ni
(below, 1158). And from the roots tan and ran occur tanti and r4nti,
beside the more regular tati and r&ti; also ihanti (once, VS.) beside
&hati. From the two roots d& give and dft divide, the derivatlTe in com-
position is sometimes -tti (for dS.ti, with loss of radical vowel: compare
the participle-form -tta, above, 955 f): thus, niravatti (K.), sampratti
((JB), piritti (TB.) v&sutti, bh&gatti, magh&tti (all RV.).

d« A few derivatives are made from rednplic^ted roots; their aeceot
is various: thus, oarlqptf, dldhiti and -dlditi, jigarti, and perhaps the
proper name yayati; also j&gdhi from i/jakf (233 f).

e. Derivatives from roots with prefixes are numerous, and have (as io
the case of the participles in ta, and the action-nouns in tu) the accent
on the prefix: examples are &numati, abhlti, ahuti, niirti, vylpti,
B&iiigati. The only exceptions noticed are asaktf and ftsutf, and abhi-



Digitized by VjOOQ iC



433 Stems in i, tl, nl. [—1168

^^ (beside abhifti). In other combinations than with prefixes, the accen-
tuation is in general the same: see the next chapter (1274).

2. f. The adjectives and agent-nouns — which, as masculines, are to
be connected with these rather than with the feminine abstracts — are yery
few : thns, pAti putridy v&^t^ eager ^ dhtitl shaker ^ jfi&t{ relative, pattf
footmany p&ti master; and a few others, of more or less dubious character.
The accent is various, as in the other class.

3. g. A few words show Ae suffix ti preceded by various vowels,
union- or stem-vowels. The ordinary indermediate 1 of the ta-participle etc.
is seen in einiti, i^jl^ti, -grhiti (i, as usual with this root: 800b),
pathitiy bhaj^ti; and with them may be mentioned the adjective tiiU^
the proper names torvlti and dabhiti, and snlhiti and 8n6hiU, not-
withstanding their long finaL With ati are made a few derivatives, va-
riously accented: thus, the action-nouns afihatfy d^^ati, pakfatf, mith-
ati» vasatf, ram&ti, vrat&ti, am&ti and imati, -dhrajati; and the
agent-words arati, khalatf, vrk&ti, r&mati, dahati. In some of these
is to be seen with probability a stem-vowel, as also in j4nayati and
rasayati (and RY. has gopay&tya). The grammarians* method of re-
presenting a root by its 3d sing. pros, indie, declining this as a ti-stem,
begins in the older language: e. g. 6tivant (T6.), kfetivant (A6.),
yajati and Jnhoti and dad&ti (S.), nandatl (MBh.). The feminine
yuvati young, maiden is of isolated character.

h. In some of the words instanced In the last paragraph, ti is per-
haps applied as a secondary suffix. A kindred character belongs to it in
the numeral derivatives tiom pronominal roots, kAti, tAti, yAti, and from
numerals, as dahati, ylA^ati, ^aftfif etc., with pa&kti (from pAfioa);
in padftti; and in addh&ti, from the particle addha.

1158. f^ ni. This suffix agrees in general in its uses
and in the form of its derivatives vrith the preceding; but
it makes a very much smaller number of words, among
which the feminine abstracts are a minority.

a. As was noticed above (1157 c), a few verbs (ending in vowels)
makiog their passive participle in na instead of ta make their action-noun
in ni instead of ti. From .the older language are quotable jyani ir\fury,
Jfbngi heat, hSni abandonment (and the masculines fi^i^ and Jln^);
later occur glftni, -mlftni, sanni-.

b. Words of the other plass are: a^ni eating, -Ufi^ burning, v&hni
carrying t jdr^i singing, t(ln^ hasty, bhttngi excited, dhan^ sustaining
pre^i loving, v^r?^^ ^^^ ^f??^ virile; and with them may be mentioned
pf 9ni speckled,

o. In pre^i, y6ni, men{, ^r^^i, 9r69i is seen a strengthening of
the radical syllable, such as does not appear among the derivatives in ti.
d. Derivatives in ni from roots with prefixes do not appear to occur.
Whitney, Orankmar. 3. ed. 28



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



1168—] XVII. Primary Derivation. 434

e. In hrftddni and hlftduni we ha^e a prefixed u« In the woidi
ending In ani, the a has prohably the same value irlth that of ail (abore,
1167g); bat ani baa gained a more independent status, and may be ben
treated as a separate suffix.

1159. 3Elf^ ani. The words made by this suffix have
the same double value with those made by the preceding
suffixes. Their accent is various. Thus:

a. Feminine action-nouns, sometimes with concreted meaning : as, ifl^
impulse, f^ar&s}! injury, dyotani brightness, Iqfipai^ blow, a^toi mimU.
vartani track; and -ar9ani, udani-, Jara^i-.

b. Adjectives and other agent-words are: ar4nl Jire-stick, carani
movable, cak^ATyi enlightener, tar&^ quick, dham4ni pipe, cUivasAni
scattering, vakgATji strengthener, sarai^ track. Dharaj^ and one or tn
other late words are probably variants to stems in anL From a redu-
plicated root-form comes -paptani. From desiderativo stems are made
rorukf&^i, BifSs&ni, and (with prefix) a-9a9uk9&^. And a small
nnmber of words appear to attach themselves to an s-aorist stem: tfau^
par«}&]^ Bak9&^ oar^a^i.

o. It is questionable whether the infinitives in ^ki}i (978) are to b<
put here, as accusatives of a formation in ani, or under the next suffix,
as locatives of a formation in an, from roots and stems increased by as
aoristio a

1160. 3ER an. Not many words are made with a suffix
of this form, and of these few are plainly to be connected
with roots. Certain rare neuters (along with the doubtful
infinitives) are nouns of action; the rest are masculine and
neuter agent-nouns. The accent is various.

a. The infinitives which admit of being referred to this suffix, as
locative cases, are those in ^kx^, of which the sibilant may be the AbaI
of a tense-stem. They are all given above (978).

b. The other action-nouns in an are mah&n greatness, rfij&a authority
(RV., once: compare rc^an; the accent-relation is the reverse of the usual
one), and g&mbhan depth (VS., once); and PB. has kfopi^ft once.

o. Agent-no nns (in part of doubtful connection) are: uk^&n os.
o&kfan eye, t&k^cm carpenter, dhvas&n proper name, pQ^&n n&me ^f
a god, miOJ&ii marrow, raj an king, vffan virile, bull, sdghan, snih^
(snuhan Apast); also -g^an, jm&n, -bhvan, -9van» with ^v&n, y^
van, y69an, and the stems ihan, t![cUian» etc. (430-4), filling up t^
inflection of other defective stems.

d. With prefixes occur pratidfvan and &tidivan, vibhviiii* ni-
kftman.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



435 Stems in ni, ani» an, tu, nu. [ — 1162

1161. ^ tu. The gieat mass of the words of this form-
ation are the infinitives — accusatives in the later lan-
guage, in the earlier likewise datives and ablative-genitives:
see above, 970 b, 972. But a few are also used independ-
ently, as action-nouns or with concreted meaning; and an
extremely small number, of somewhat questionable charac-
ter, appear to have the value of agent-words. They are of
all genders, but chiefly masculine. The root has the gui^a-
strengthening.

a. The infinitive words are accented on the radical syllable when
simple, and most of the others have the same accent; but a few have
the tone on the ending.

b. Examples are: of the regnlar fonnation, masc. data ahare^- J&tn-
hirtk, dbitu element^ t&ntu thread, m&ntu counsel, 6ta weft, sStu
receptacle, s^tu tie, Bbta pre»m*re', also kr&tu capacity, aod B4kta grite',
fern, v&stu morning'', neut. vastn thing, vaatu abode; — with accent
on the ending, aktu ray, Jant6 being, g&tu way and eong, yftti^ (P)
demon, hetu came, ket4 banner (all masc); — with unstiengthened root,
Xtd season, pitu drink, stitu birth, and apparently k^u (in kftvas
times); with v^ddhi-strengthening, vastn (a1>oye). Agent-nonns appear
to be dhitu drinkable and tro^^n jackal,

o. The inflnitiyes In tu have (968) often the nnion-yowel 1 before
the suffix, and this in a few cases is lengthened to L In other use occur
also -et&ritu and -dh&ritu (both with due), -h&vlta (with bu); tor-
ph&ritu seems of the same formation, bat is obscure.

d. In a few instances, the suffix tu appears to be added to a tense-
or conjugation-stem in a; thus, edhatd and vahat4; tamyatd and
tapyatd; and Bi^ftB&tu. The accent of the last is paralleled only by that
of Jivitu life, which is farther exceptional in showing a long ft; it is
Qsed sometimes in the manner of an inflnitiye.

1162. ^ nu. This suffix forms a comparatively small
body of words, generally masculine, and having both the
abstract and the concrete value.

a. The accent is nsnally on the ending, and the root unstrength-
ened. .

b. Thus: kfepnu jerk, bhftnii light (later sun), vagnu sound,
siinu son, danu (with irregular accent) m. f. demon, n. drop, dew; dhenii
f. cow ; — g^pdhnu hasty, tapnu burning, trasnu fearful, dhf^i^u bold;
— and vif^u Vishnu, and perhaps sthai^u pillar. Compare also suffix
tnuy 1196 a.

28*



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



1102—] XVII. Primary Derivation. 43^

o. This also (like tu) appears sometiiiies with a prefixed a: itm.
kfipai^a miasiUy krandanu and nadanii roaring, nabhanu (and -nl
t) fountain, vibhafiyand (only instance with prefix) breaking to pieetar
and perhaps the proper names dftsaxm and k^^u heloag here.

1163. ^ tha. The words made with this suffix are
almost without exception action-nouns (though some hare
assumed a concrete value). They are of all genders. Hie
root is of a weak (or even weakened) form, and the aoom
usually on the suffix.

a. Thus: masc, -itha going, irtha goal, -kftha making, gStiii
song, pakthd n. pr., bh^^tbi offering, -y&tha road, -^itha fying dbtrn.
9otha swelling, siktha sediment; and, of less dear connectiona, yn&i
herd, r&tha chariot; — neat., ukihi sajfing, iSrthk ford, nithk settf.
rikihk heritage, and apparently P|i}t^ back; — tern, (with &), gathi
song, nithft wag. Radical & la weakened to I in gltha song and -pitha
drink and -pitha protection; a final nasal Is lost in -gatha going an^
h&tha slaying. In vijigithi (QB*; bat BAU -Ita) is apparently seen i
formation from a reduplication of y]i, vidorums.

b. A few examples of combination with prefixes ocenr, with accent
on the final: thus, nlr^^thd destntction, Baihgath& union, etc

o. Still more common in the older language is a fbrm of this suffix
to which has become prefixed an k, which is probably of thematic origin,
thongh become a unlon-yowel. Thns: -an&tlia breathing, ay&thA fooi.
oar&tha mobility, tvof&tha vehemence, and so protli&tha» yid4tha, ra-
v&tha, vakf&tha, ao&tha» vid&tha, ^aAaatha, ^ap&tha, ^ay4tha,
9vay&tha, 9vaB&tha, sao&tha, stan&tha, Btav&tha, 8rav4tha» and,
with weak root-form, mv&tha; the later language adds karatha, taratlift,
9amatha» savatha. With a prefix, the accent is thrown forward upoa
the final: thus, ftvasathi abode, pravasathi absence; but prfta|^4tiiA
breath is treated as if prin were an integral root

d. Isolated combinations of tha with other preceding vowels occur:
thus, v&ratha protection, J&rutha wasting(^'i) ; and mati&tha (>^man f\

1164. ^ thu. This suffix (like ST tha, above) has an ^9 ^

attached to it, and, in the very few derivatives whidi it

makes, appears only as ^ ithu.

a. The only Yedic exaifiples are ej&thu quaking, vap&thu trembly,
stan&thu roaring. Later cases are nand&thu (TS.), nadathu (U.>
Imavathu (8.), davathu* bhraA9athu, mi^iJathUy vamathu, Qvayathu,
BphiUjathu.

1166« ^ yu. With this suffix are made a very few nouns^



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



437 Stems in nu, tha» tha» yo, ma, mi» man. [ — 1168

both of agent and of action, with unstrengthened root and
^various accent. Thus:

a. Abstracts (masc.) are manyu wrath, jxuptju death (with t added
-feo the short final of the root).

b. Adjectives etc. are dmhyu n. pr., bhujyu pliable, mueyu (6B.
i. 1. 7), 9andhyu pure, yijyu pious, sihyu strong, d&syu enemy; and,
-v^ith vrddbl-strengthening, j&yu victorious,

0. For other derivatiyes ending in yu, see the suffix u, below, 1 178 h» 1.

1166. ^ ma. The action-nouns made by this suffix are
almost all masculine; and they are of various loot-form and
accent, as are also the agent-nouns and adjectives.

a. Examples of action-noans are: ajmd course, gharm& heat, ema
jirogress, bhama brightness, skmiAjlow, 8t6ma song of praise.

b. Examples of agent-nonns etc. are: tigmA sharp, bhlmA terrible,
^agniA mighty, idhxnjk fuel, yudhmA warrior. A single instance from
a reduplicated root is tutumA powerful. Sarimft f., with a before the
suffix, is of doubtful connection.

c. A number of stems in ma have stems in man beside them, and
appear, at least in part, to be transfers from the an- to the a-declension.
Sarch are ajma» oma, ema» arma» t6kma, darm&, dh&rma, narmi,
yama» yugma, vema, 9ai|ma» B6ma» sArma, h6ma,

1167. FT mi. A very small number of nouns, masculine and
feminine, formed with mi, may be conveniently noticed here.



Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 45 of 59)