William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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Thus, from ^-roots, Urmf wave, -kiirml action, BUSami f. tube; from
others, j&mi relation, bhtlmi or bhtlmi f. earth, lakfmi sign ; also prob-
ably raQmi line, ray ; and the adjective krudhmi (? BY., once).

1168. Wl man. The numerous derivatives made with
this suffix are almost only action-nouns. The great majority
of them are neuter, and accented on the root-syllable; a
much smaller number are masculine, and accented on the
suffix. The few agen1>-words are, if nouns, masculine, and
have the latter accent: in several instances, a neuter and
a masculine, of the one and the other value and accent,
stand side by side. The root has in general the gu^^a-

1. a. Examples of regularly formed neuters are: kArman action,
j&ipnan birth, naman name, vArtman track, v69man dwelling, h6man
sacrifice, -dy6tman splendor.

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lies—] XVII. Primary Derivation. 438

b. Examples of masciillne abstracts are: om&n/oror, ojm&n Hreng(k
Jem&n conquest^ Bvftdm&n Btceetness^ hem&n impulse.

o. Corresponding nenter action-nouns and masculine agent-nouns are:
br&hman worship and brahm&n priesi ; daman gift and dSiii4n giver;
dh&miaii rule and dharm&n orderer; s^dman seat and Badm&n sitter.
But 6Tti3;n friend stands in the contrary relation to om&n m. favor. Tery
few other agent-nonns occur ; and all, except brahmdn, are of rare occurrence.

d. On the other hand, Jeman and varfman and sv&dman (and
variman) have the difference of gender and accent without a correspondinf
difference of meaning.'

e. The noun &9inan stanet though masculine, is accented on the
radical syllable; and two or three other questionable cases of the same kind

f. The derivatives in man used as inflnitives (974) have for the most
part the accent of neuters : the only exception Is vldm&ne.

g. A few words, of either class, have an irregular root^form: thus,
udman, ufm&n or ufman, bhtlbnan earth, bhum&n abundance, ayfi-
man, BUn&n, bhujm&n, vldm&n, 9{kman, 9aBman, Bidhman; and
kar^man, bharman, 9akman.

h. DerlvatLves in man from roots with prefixes are not numerous.
They are usually accented on the prefix, whether action-nouns or adJectiTes:
thus, pT&hYiBjrmaJi forthhringing, pr&yftman departure; inuvairtman
following after: the exceptions, vljaman, prativartm&n, visarm&n,
are perhaps of possessive formation.

2. i. The same suffix, though only with its abstract-making valae,
has in a number of cases before it a union- vowel, i or 1; and im^
comes to be used as a secondary suffix, forming abstract nouns fma»-
culine) from a considerable number of adjecdves.

j. The neuters in iman and iman are primary formations, belonging
almost only to the older language: thus, j&niman» dhariman (M.), v&ri-
man (beside varlm&n, as noticed above); and d&riman» dh^rfman,
p&riman (and p&reman SY., once), bh^runan, v&riman, s^rfman,
Bt&rlman» B&vlman, and h&vlman. Those in iman are hardly met
with outside the Rig-Veda.

k. The masculines in im&n are in the oldest language less frequent
than the neuters just described: they are t&niman(?), jarim&n, prathi-
m&n, mahim&n» varim4n (beside the equivalent v&rimcm and vAii-
man), varf im&n (beside the equivalent v&r^man and varfm^n), hari-
m&n, and drftghimdn (VS.) beside drfighm&n (V.B.). Some of these,
as well as of the derivatiyes in simple man, attach themselyes in meaniBf.
or in form also, to adjectives, to which they seem the accompanying ab-
stracts: compare the similar treatment of the primary comparatiYes ami
superlatives (above, 468): such are pftpm&n (to pftp&» piplynB etc);
dr&ghm&n etc. (to dirghi, draghfyas, etc.); Tiriman etc. (to nxu.

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439 Stems in man, van, vana* vani, vanu. [ — 1170

v&riyaB, etc.); pr&thiman (to p^ii, pr&thlgtha); harim&Ti (to hkei
or h&rita); v&rfman etc. (to v&rfiyas etc.); svadman etc. (to sv&dd,
svadlyaSy etc.). Then in the Brihmana language are found ftiither ex-
amples: thus, dhttmrimin (T8. K.), dra^him&n (MS. K.: to dr(}li&,
dr&4hiya8, etc.), aijiin&n (QB.; and Ai;t1nian n. bii), sthem&n, 8th4-
viman (n. big piece\ taru^iman (K.), paro^iman (AB.), abaliman
(GhU.), lohitlman (KB.); and still later such as laghiman, Iq^^iman, /

pUn^iman, madhnrtman* 909iman, etc., etc.

1169. opT van. By this suffix are made almost only
agent-words^ adj get iyes ^nd jiouns, the latter chiefly m;
culines. The root is unstiengthened, and to a short final'
vowel is added a cT t before the suffix. The accent is almost
always on the root, both in the simple words and in their

a. The insertion of t is an intimation that the words of this form are
originally made by the addition of an to derivatives in u and tu; yet
van has the present yalue of an integral snfAx in the language, and must
be treated as such.

b. Examples of the usual formation are: maso. y^van offering^
driibvan harming^ 9&kvan capable^ -rikvan leaving^ -jltvan conquering^
sutvan pressing^ kftvan active, -g&tvan (like -gat, -gatya) going, sil-
van {yBSJi) warrior; neut. pkrvaxi Joint, dhknvsjo. bow. Irregular, with
strengthened root, are &rvan courser, -yftvan (? AV.) driving off; and,
with accent on the suffix, d|v&n (? VS.) and vidv&n (? AV.).

o. Examples from roots with prefixes (which are not rare) are: atitvan
excelling, upah&svan reviler, sambhftvan collecting; and perhaps viv&s-
van shining: abhisatvan is a compound with goyeming preposition (1310).
For the compounds with other elements, which, except In special cases,
have the same accent, see below, 1277.

d. The stems mafiv&n robber and sanitvan (each BV., once) are the
only ones with a union-TOwel, and are perhaps better regarded as second-
ary deriyatires — of which a few are made with this suffix: see below,
1284. From a reduplicated root are made r&rftvan and oikitv&n (and
possibly viv&svan).

6. Action-nouns made with the sufilx van are only the infinitiyal words
mentioned at 974 — unless bhurv&i^ (RV., once) is to be added, as
locatiye of bhurv&n.

f. The feminines corresponding to adjectives in van are not
made (apparently) directly from this suffix, but from vara, and end
in vari; see below, 1171b.

1170. cR vana^ crfSf vani, sg vanu. The very few words

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1170—] XVII. Frikart Derivation. 440

made with these suffixes may best be noticed h^e, in con-
nection with ^ van (of which the others are probably sec-
ondary extensions).

a. With vana are made vagvani talkative^ satvani warrior (betSde
8&tvan, aboye); and, from a reduplicated root, 9a9iikvan4 shining,

b. With van! are made from simple roots tnrv&^i exeeUingy and
bhurv&i^l restless, and, from redbplicated roots, Qii^ukv&ni shining, da-
dli|^T&]^ daring, tatarv&i^ striving after, and jugurv&^i praising;
arhari9v&^ is obscure.

o. With vanu is made only vagvanu tone, noise,

1171. cl^ vara. With this suffix are made a few deriv-
atives, of all genders, having for the most part the value
of agent-nouns and adjectives. Much more common are the
feminine steins in of^ varl, which, from the earliest period^
serve as corresponding feminines to the masculine stems in
5R van.

a. A few masculine adjectiyes In var& occur, formally aooordant (ex-
cept in accent) with the feminines: thus, itvard going, -advara eating:
and BO, further, in the older language, igvar&, -jftvara* ph&rvara,
bhttrvari, bli&Bvar&, vyadhvar^ (?), -sadvara, sth&vari, and doubt-
less with them belongs vldval&; later, -kaavara» gatvara, ghasvara
(also ghasmara), -Jitvara» na^vara* pivara, madvara* -ei^tvara;
ttom a reduplicated root, yfiySvar& (B. and later). Many of these have
feminines in ft.

b. The feminines in vari accord in treatment of the root and in
accent with the masculines in van to which they correspond: thus, y^j-
varl, -jitvari, sftvari, -^ivari, -y&varl, and so on (about twenty-flre
such formations in RY.); from a reduplicated root, -^i^varl.

o. A yery small number of neuters occur, with accent on the root:
thus, k&rvara deed, g&hvara (later also gabhvara) iAte^; and a femin-
ine or two, with accent on the penult: urv&r& afield, and urv&ri totr
(both of doubtful etymology).

We take up now the suffixes by which are made only stemj
having the value of agent-noans and adjectives; beginning with a
brief mention of the participial endings, which in general have beet
already saffioiently treated.

1172. €IH ant (or 3^ at). The office of this suffix, in
making present and future participles active, has been fully
explained above, in connection with the various tense-stems
and conjugation-stems (chaps, VIII.-XIV.], in combinatio&

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441 Stems ik vana etc., vara, ant, vft&s, mftna, ftna, ta. [—1 176

with which alone it is employed (not directly with the root,

unless this is also used as tense-stem).

a* A few words of like origin, but used m independent adjeotiyes,
were gifon at 460. With the same or a formally identical suffix are made
firom pronominal rooU {yant and kiyant (451, 617 a). And &dvayant
noi doubl&-t<mgued (BV., once), appears to contain a similar formation from
the numeral dvl — unless we are to assume a denominatlTe yerb-stem as

1178. gTIh vS&b (or ^ vas). For the (perfect active) par-
ticiples made with this suffix, see ahove, 802-6, and 458 ff.

a. A few words of irregular and questionable formation were noticed
at 402, abofe. Also, apparent transfers to a form as or Ufa. RV. yoca-
lizes the v once, in jujumin.

b. The oldest language (RV.) has a yery few words in vas, of doubt-
ful relations: fbhvas and ^ikvaa skilful (beside words in va and van),
and perhaps khidvaa (ylchftd). The neuter abstract v&rivas breadth,
room (belonging to uru broad, in the same nunner with v&riyaa and
vaxim&n), is quite isolated. MBb. makes a nominatiye pivftn, as if from
pivftfis instead of pivan.

1174. TTH mSna. The participles having this ending
are, as has been seen (584 b), present and future only, and
have the middle, or the derived passive, value belonging in
general to the stems to which the suffix is attached.

1175. SETH &na. The participles ending in ^TH Sua are

of middle and passive value, like those just noticed, and

either present, perfect, or (partly with the form ^TR sSna:

above, 897 b) aorist.

a. A few other words ending in the same manner in the old language
may be mentioned here. The RY. has the adjeotiyes t^av&na, bhfga-
vfti^a, v&savftna, drd]iva8an&, apparently made on the model of par-
ticipial stems. Also the proper names dpnavftna, pfthavftna, and cy&-
vftna and cy&vatftna. F&r9&na abyss is doubtful; rt^inft (RV., once)
is probably a false reading; apn&na is of doubtful character.

1176. cT ta. The use of this suffix in forming parti-
ciples directly from the root, or from a conjugational (not
a tense] stem, was explained above, 962-6. The participles
thus made are in part intransitive, but in great part passive

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1176—] XVII. Primary Derivation. 442

in value (like those made by the two preceding suffixes, but
in much larger measure, and more decidedly).

a. A few general adjecttves, or nouns with concrete meaning, are
adaptations of this participle. Examples are: tf^\k rough, 9itil etMj dp-
^hk (for df <}h& : 224 A)Jinn ; dCtti mesaenffer, stltd charioteer ; ftd rigM,
glxftk ghee, J&t& kindj dyat& gambling, nq^t& dance, jivit& Itfe^ oarita
behavior, smita smile. The adijective tigit& (RV.) sAorp shows anonulras
reversion of palatal to guttural before the 1 (216 d). V&vata dear li ■
single example ftom a reduplicated root

b. Doubtless after the example and model of participles from denomi-
native stems (of which, however, no instances are quotable from the Veda
— unless bhftmita BV.), derivatives in ita are in the later langna^ made
directly from noun and adjective-stems, having the meaning of etuhwed
with, affected by, made to be, and the like (compare the similar English
formation in ed, as homed, barefooted, bluecoatedy Examples are rathita
furnished with a chariot, duhkhita pained, knaumita flowered, dux-
balita weakened, nit^Baih^ayita indubitable, etc. etc.

o. A few words ending in ta are accented on the radical syllable,
and their relation to the participial derivatives is very doubtful: such are
&Bta home, m&rta mortal, vata wind; and with them may be mentlooed
g&rta high seat, n&kta night, h&sta Jumd. Vrati is commonly viewed
as containing a suffix ta, but it doubtless comes from yvft (vrat-4, like
trad&, vrc^&) and means originally course,

d. Several adjectives denoting color end in ita, but are hardly con-
nectible with roots of kindred meaning: thus, palit& gray, &Bita bh^ck,
r6hita and I6hita red, h&rita green ; akin with them are 6ta variegaUtLi
Qyet& white. The feminines of these stems are in part irregular: thus,
6ni and 9y6ni; r6hi9i and lohini, and h&rugl (but the corresponding
masc. h&rii^La also occurs); and ^siknl* p&Uknl, and h&riknl.

e. A small number of adjectives in the older language ending in ata
are not to be separated flrom the participial words in ta, although their
specific meaning is in part gerundive. They are : paoat& cooked, dar^ati
and paQyata seen, to be seen, worth seeing] and so yi^at&, haiyat^
bharat&. The y of pa9yata and haryat& indicates pretty plainly that the
a also is that of a present tense-stem. Bajati silvery is of more obscure
relation to }/raj color; p&rvata mountain must be secondary.

1177. s? na (and ^ ina, 3^ una). The use of the sujESx

^ na in forming from certain roots participles equivalent to

those in cT ta, either alongside the latter or instead of them,

was explained above, at 957.

a. With the same suffix are made a number of general adjectives,
and of nouns of various gender (fern, in nft). The accent is on the soCax'

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443 Stems in ta, na, ina, una, u. [—1178

OT on the root. A few examples are : ufi^ hot, f^xmk fortunate, d^na
r€tvenous, ^tna white; maac, pra^n& question, yc^ft& offering, ghp^&
heat, v&rna color, BV&pna sleep; neut, pan^ toing, vktnB, jewel (?);
fem. tf^^ft thiret, yftofti supplication. But many of the stems ending in
na are not readily connectible with roots. An antithesis of accent is seen
ill k4r9a ear and kan^ eared.

b. The few words ending in ina are of doubtful connection, bat may
be mentioned here: thus, aminA violent, v^JinA crooked, dAkfina right,
dxkvij^ property , druhii^ay -Qrei^iJ^a* hariij& ; and kanlna may be added.

o. The words ending in una are of yaiions meaning and accent, like
those in ana: they are irjuna, kartu^a, -oetuna, tAruijia, dfiruigi&y
dliaru^a, naru]^ p{9una, mithunA» yatuna, vayuna, v&rui^ay 9a-
luna, and the feminine yam^ft; and bhrui^d may be added.

d. These are all the proper participial endings of the language.
The gerundives, later and earlier, are in the main evident secondary
formations, and will be treated under the head of secondary derivation.

We take up now the other suffixes forming agent-nouns and
adjectives, beginning with those which have more or less a parti-
cipial value.

1178. 3 u. With this suffix are made a considerable
body of derivatives, of very various character — adjectives,
and agent-nouns of all genders, with different treatment of
the root, and with different accent. It is especially used
with certain conjugational stems, desiderative (particularly
later) and denominative (mainly earlier), making adjectives
with the value of present participles; and in such use it
wins in part the aspect of a secondary suffix.

a. The root has oftenest a weak (or weakened) form; but it is
sometimes vriddhied ; least often (when capable of guna), it has the
guna-strengthening — all without any apparent connection with either
accont or meaning or gender. After final radical & is usually added
y (268) before the suffix. A few derivatives are made from the re-
duplicated root. But many words ending in u are not readily, or not
at all, connectible with roots; examples will be given especially of
those that have an obvious etymology.

b. Examples of ordinary adjectiyes are: uru wide, ^Ju straight, pfthu
broad, m^du soft, sftdhu good, svftdii sweet, t&pu hot, v48U good; jftyu
conquering, dftru bursting; 9ayu lying, r6ku empty; dhayu thirsty, pftyii
protecting. Final & appears to he lost hefore the suffix in -sthu (sui^^u,
anni^t^u), and perhaps in yu, -gu (agrefi^u), and -khu (ftkhu).

c. Examples of nouns are: masc, a&9u ray, ripu deceiver, v&yu

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1178—] XVU. Primary Dbrivation. 444

windf &8a life, m&nu man, Manu ; fern., ii^u (aUo masc.) arroto, sindibji
(also maso.) river, tanti or tanu 60%; neut., k^u food.

d. Derivatives from reduplicated roots are: cikita, j&gmii, jigyu^
JijiiUt Bif^Uy -tatnu (unless this is made with nu or tnu), didja (f),
dadru, y&yu or yayii and y{yu (with final ft lost), p{pra (proper name),
-didhayn; and titaii, babhru, -ram (ar&m), malimlu (?) have the
aspect of being similar formations.

e. A few derivatives are made from roots with prefixes, with various
accentuation : for example, up&yi& on-eoming, pramayd going to destruc'
Hon, vikllnda a certain disease, abh!9U rein (director), B&xhvasu dweU-
ing together.

f. From tense-stems, apparently, are made tanyu thundering, bhindu
splitting, 'Viadn finding, and (with aoristic s) d&k^u and dh&kfu (all RY.).

g. Participial adjectives in u from desiderative ^roots" (sterna with
loss of their final a) are sufficiently numerous in the ancient language (BY.
has more than a dozen of them, AY. not quite so many) to show that the
formation was already a regular one, extensible at will; and later such
adjectives may be made from every desiderative. Examples (older) are:
ditBUy dipsu, cikitBU, titik^u, pipi^u, mumuki^d, iyakf u, ^i^lik-
^u; with prefix, abhidipBU; with anomalous accent, didflqfu. These ad-
jectives, both earlier and later, may take an object in the accusative (271 a).

h. A few similar adjectives are made in the older language from caus-
atives: thus, dhftrayu (pereiateni), bhSjayii, bh&vayu, maAhayu, man*
dayu, Qramayu; and m^gaya from the caus.-denom. m^&ya.

i. Much more numerous, however, are such formations from the more
proper denominatives, especially in the oldest language (BY. has toward
eighty of them; AY. only a quarter as many, including six or eight which
are not found in BY. ; and they are still rarer in the Brahmanas, and
hardly met with later). In a majority of cases, personal verbal forms from
the same denominative stem are in use: thus, for example, to ashtl^yu*
ar&tlyu, rjuyu, oara^iyu, manasyu, Bani^yu, uru^yu, aaparyu; in
others, only the present participle in y&nt, or the abstract noun in yi
(1149 d), or nothing at all. A few are made upon denominative stems from
pronouns: thus, tv&yu (beside tv&y&nt and tvEyi% yuvayu or yuvftyu,
aBmayii, Bvayii, and the more anomalous ahaihyu and kiihyd. Espe-
cially where no other denominative forms accompany the adjective, this has
often the aspect of being made directly from the noun with the suffix yu,
either with a meaning of seeking or desiring, or with a more general adjec-
tive sense : thus, yavayu seeking grain, var&hay^ boar-htmting, Btanasyu
desiring the breast; un^ftyu woolen, yuvsjiyiL youthful, bhimayu terrible.
And so the '^secondary suffix yu" wins a degree of standing and application
as one forming derivative adjectives (as in ahaihyu and kiihyii, above,
and doubtless some others, even of the BY. words). In three BY. eases,
the final aa of a noun-stem is even changed to o before it: namely, aA^
hoyu» duvoyu (and duvoya; beside duvaayu), Aakydhoyu.

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^^l^ —

445 Stems in u, u, uka* [ — 1180

j. The words in yu do not show in the Veda resolution into iu (ex-
cept dhSsiuB AY., onee).

1179. 3" H. Stems in 3" tl are very few, even as
compared with those in ^ I (1166). They are for the most
part feminines corresponding to masculines in u (844 b),
with half-a-dozen more independent feminines [see 855 o).

a. To those already mentioned abo^e are to be added kartj^ti pitj -caltl
(in pum^calti), -janti (in prajanti), ^nmbhti.

1180. 3oR uka. With this suffix are made derivatives
having the meaning and construction (271 g] of a present
participle. The root is strengthened, and has the accent.

a. The dexiyatives in uka are hardly known in the Veda; but they
become frequent in the Brahmanas, of whose language they are a marked
characteristic (about sixty different stems occnr there); and they are fonnd
occasionally in the later language. In all probability, they are originally and
properly obtained by adding the secondary suffix ka (1222) to a derivatiye
in u; bnt they haye gained fally the character of primary formations, and
in only an instance or two is there found in actual use an u-word from
which they should be made.

b. The root is only so far strengthened that the radical syllable is a
heayy (79) one ; and it has the accent, whether the deriyatiye is made from
a simple root or from one with prefix.

c. Examples, from the Bnhmana language, are: vaduka, na^uka,
upakramuka, pn^iduka* upaath&yuka (258), vyfiyuka, v^duka,
bhSTuka* k96dhuka, h^truka, v&rfuka, sam&rdhuka, d&&9uka,
ftlambuka, 9ik9uka (GB.: RY. has ^Ikfu)* pramayuka (§B. has

d. Exceptions as regards root-form are : nirmargurka (with v^ddhi-
Btrengthening, as is usual with this root: 627), -kasuka, ^pdhnuka (ftom
a tense-stem; beside &rdhuka). AY. accents B&ixikaBuka (9B. has
saihk&auka) and vikasuka; RY. has 8ftnuk& (which is its only example
of the formation, if it be one; AY. has also ghatuka from ylian, and
^raxnftyuka) ; vasuka (TS. et al.) is probably of another character.
A9anSyuka (PB. et al.) is the only example noticed from a conjugation-stem.

6. Of later occurrence are a few words whose relation to the others is
more or less doubtful: kftrmuka and dhftrmuka, taftruka, tarkuka,
nftuduka, pftdukft» peouka, bhik^uka, U^uka, seduka* hi^^uka*
breipika. Of these, only lA^uka appears like a true continuer of the
formation; several are pretty clearly secondary derivatiyes.

f. A formation in uka (a suffix of like origin, perhaps, with uka)
may be mentioned here: namely, indbfUca, majjtzka* and, firom redn«

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118<V— ] XVII. Primary Derivation. 446

plicated roots, Jftgarlika wakeful, Jafijapuka (later) muUering, daada-
9tika biting^ yftyf^jtika sacrificing much^ vftvaduka (later) talkative;
salalftka Is questiouable.

1181. 3E|of) aka. Here, as in the preceding ca^ey we
doubtless have a suffix made by secondary addition of efi ka
to a derivative in 3^ a; but it has, for the same reason as
the other, a right to be mentioned here. Its free use in
the manner of a primary suffix is of still later date than
that of uka; it has very few examples in the older language.

a. In RY. is found (besides p&vak4, which has a different accent,
and which, as the metre shows, is really pav&ka) only a^lyaka mitnie;
AY. adds plyaka and v&dhaka, and VS. abhikr6Qaka. Bnt in the later
language such derivatiyes are common, more usually with raising of the root-
syllable by strengthening to heavy quantity : thus, nfiyaka, dfiyaka (268),
pftcaka, gr&haka, bodhaka, jagaraka; but also Janaka, khanaka.
They are declared by the grammarians to have the aooent on the radical
syllable. They often occur in copulative composition with gerundiree of
the same root: thus, bhakfyabhakfaka eaiodfe and eater, vftoyavftoaka
designated and designation, and so on.

b. That the derivatives in aka sometimes take an accusative object
was pointed out above (271 o).

c. The corresponding feminine is made sometimes in akft or in aki,
but more usually in ik&: thus, n&yikft (with n&yakft), p&eikft» bodhikft;
compare secondary aka, below, 1222.

d. Derivatives in fika are made from a few roots: thus, Jalpfika,
bhikf&ka; but very few occur in the older language: thus, pav&ka (above,

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 46 of 59)