William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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of a hundred yearsy paftoafSradxya, trisiihvataara, bahuvftrfUEa*
a^tawftrfika* aaekavarf asfi h a sra, dagaafthaanw trisShaari, tripAu
nma, eatoridbyftyl or -yikft of fanr ekapierey etc. etc.

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1204—] XVII. Sboomdary Dbriyation. 456

f. More often, both members of a compound word htre the initial
strengthening: e. g. aftumftpftofi^ kfttmipftlkoftla» o&turvfticljB,
ftihalftukika, ftikabhftutika, trftistubjftgata, yi^urv^ftidika. Suck
cases are not rare.

g. The gui^-strengthening (except of a Anal u-vowel: lS03a) U
only in the rarest cases an accompaniment of secondary derivation. Excep-
tions, are dvayi and tray& and n&va (1209 i)» bhe^i and dovi
(1209 J), dr69a (1228 g), ^ekhara (1226 a).

1206. Accent, a. The derivatives with initial vrddhl-strengUi-
ening always have their accent on either the first or the last syllable.
And usually it is laid, as between these two situations, in aneh a
way as to be farthest removed from the accent of the primitiye; yet,
not rarely, it is merely drawn down upon the suffix from the final of
the latter; much less often, it remains upon an initial syllable without'
change. Only, in the case of one or two suffixes is the dbtimction
between initial and final accent connected with any difference in the
meaning and use of the derivatives (see below, suffix eya: 1216).

b. No other general rules as to accent can be given. Uauallf
the suffix takes the tone, or else this remains where it was in the
primitive; quite rarely, it is thrown back to the initial syllable (as in
derivation with initial yrddhi); and in a single case (t&: 1237) it is
drawn down to the syllable preceding the suffix.

1206. Meaning, a. The great mass of secondary suffixes are
adjective-making: they form from nouns adjectives indicating appur-
tenance or relation, of the most indefinite and varied character. But,
as a matter of course, this indefiniteness often undergoes speciali-
zation: so, particularly, into designation of procedure or descent, so
that distinctive patronymic and metronymic and gentile words are the
result; or, again, into the designation of possession. Moreoyer, while
the masculines and feminines of such adjectives are employed ai
appellatives, the neuter is also widely used as an abstract, denoting
the quality expressed attributively by the adjective; and neuter ab-
stracts are with the same suffixes made from adjectives. There are .
also special suffixes (very few) by which abstracts are made directly,
from adjective or noun.

b. A few suffixes make no change in the part of speech of the
primitive, but either change its degree (diminution and comparison),
or make other modifications, or leave its meaning not sensibly altered.

1207. The suffixes will be taken up below in the following
order. First, the general adjective-making suffixes, beginning with
those of most frequent use (a, ya and its connections, i» ka); then,
those of specific possessive value (in» vant and mant, and their con-
nections); then, the abstract-making ones (tft and tva, and their con-
nections); then, the suffixes of comparison etc.; and finally, those by
which derivatives are made only or almost only from particles.

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Stbms in a.


a. For oonTeiiieiloe of reference, a list of them in their order as treated
is here added:





tva, tv^tft




ra, ira, etc.






la, lu


tara, tama




▼a, vala, vaya,

ra» ma


eya, eyya






























i, aid






ka, aka, ika




tana, tna


na, Sna»





ina, ena






ma, ima.



tftti, tftt


vana, ftla


1208. ^ a. With this suffix are made an immensely

large olass of derivatiyes, from nouns or from adjeotives

haying a noun-value. Such derivatives are primarily and

especially adjectives, denoting having a relation or connectiofi

(of the most various kind) toith that denoted by the more

primitive word. But they are also freely used substantively :

the masculine and feminine as appellatives, the neuter,

especially and frequently, as abstract. Often th^ have a

patronymic or gentile value.

a. The regular and greatly prevailing formation is that which

is accompanied with vrddhi-strengthening of the first syllable of

the primitive word, simple or oompoond. Examples of this for-
mation are:

b* From pTimltives ending in consonants: with the usnal shift of
accent,. ftyasi of metal (&yae), mfinasi relating to the mind (m&nas),
Bftamanasi friendlinese (smn&nas}, brfthmai^ priest (br&hman),
hftimavatd from the Himalaya (him&vant), aagirasd of the Angiras
family (^fiLgiras); h&tina elephantine (hastfn), m^buta pertaining to
the Maruts (marut); — with accent thrown forward from the final upon the
Bofflx, 9Srad& autumnal^ vftiriyi relating to the virf^» pftufi^ belong-
ing to Puehdn', gftirik^iti eon of Oirikekit\ — with accent unchanged,,
manuka descendant of Mdnus.

c* The suffix is added (as aboye instanced) to the middle stem-form
of siems in vant; it is added to the weakest in m^hona and vfatraghna;
the ending in remains unchanged; an osnally does the same, bnt some-

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19(»— ] XVII. Secondary Derivation. 458

times loses its a, as in pftu^^ trSlY^p^i^ dft^ariyU; and somefiiaci
its n, as In brfihm&y ftuk^i, bftrhatsfima.

d. Fiom primltiTes in f : jfiltra victorious (Jetf or J6tf eon^u^^),
tvl^t^ relating to Todshtar, sftvitrd descendant of ike sun (Bavitt)*
&i&dbhetrs, pftitra.

e. From primitlyes in u: usaally with gtu^arstrengthening of the n,-
as vft8av& relating to the Vdeue, &rtav& concerning the eetuons (jfta^
dftnavi child of Ddnu (dimx), BftindhaTi f^om the Indus (alndhn);
— but sometimes without, as m^LdhTa full of sweets (m&dhu), ^ir^vi
side (p&r^u rib), pftidir& belonging to Pedii, t&iva of the hodiy (tanti),
y^dva of Y&dn.

f. From primitiyes in i and i, which rowels are snpplanled by ti«
added safflz : pirthiva earthly (pfthivi), Bftra0vat& of the Sdrmsoa^
ftindr&gnA belonging to Indra and Agni (indrfigni); -piSkktA Jkf&feU
(pafikti)» nftiri^ belonging to Nirrtiy pftrthuraQmi of Prihuroead,
p&9Upat& of Pacupdti,

g. From primitives in ft, which in like manner disappears: yUm u n i
of the YamCina, Bftraghi AaiMy etc. (oarighft bte\ KftnTnA natural tMd
(kaainft girl).

h. A large number (m'Ore than all the rest together) ficem primitini
in a, of which the final is replaced by the suffix: for example, with lh«
usual shift of accent, ftnUtri inimical (amftra enemy\ TSnufk of Vdrusm,
vfti9vadeT& belonging to aU the gods (vl9v&deva), n&irha8t& hamdUss-
nsBs (nirhasta), vftiya^i descendant of Vyacva\ gardabha asinim
(gardabh&), dfiiva divine (deir&)» midhyuhdina meridional (mmS^
y&ihdina), - pftdtra grandchild (patr4 son)^ Bftubhaga good /ortmat
(eubh&ga), v^tdhryaQva of Vadhrya^vd^s race', with unchanged aocetjt
(comparatiTely few), vftsanti vernal (vasanti spring), mftitrd Mitr£s.
fttithigvi of AtiMgvSs race, dftivodftsa Divoddsa^s. In a few inetaaeat,
ya is replaced by the suflix: thus, sftura, pfimfi* yiyftayalka.

i« The derivatives of this last form are sometimes regarded as made by
internal change, without added suffix. Considering, however, that othei
final vowels are supplanted by this suffix, that a disappears at sCeB-Aaal
also befoTO various other suffixes of secondary derivation, and that»B» ex-
amples of derivation without suffix are quotable f^m primitives «f trnj
other final than a. It seems far too violent to assume here a deviattoa frasa
the whole course of Indo-European word-making.

J. Adjectives of this formation make their feminines in i (see 88Sa).

laoo. The deriyatives made by adding ^ a without
v^ddhi-change of the initial syllable are not numerous, and
are in considerable part, doubtless, of inorganic make, results
of the transfer to an a-declension of words of other finals.

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■ 459 Stems in a» ya. [—1210

a. A nmn'ber of exampleB of stems In a made by transfer were noticed
above (890). The oases of such transition occnr most frequently in eom-
pOBltton (1815): thus, further, apa- (for ap or ftp toater)^ -foa» -nara, etc.;
ttom stems in an, -aha, -v^^a, etc., but also -ahna and - v^^fi^ and
vf^ai^a; from stems In i, -aflgnla, -rfttra, etc.; from the weakest forms
of afio-stems (407) uooA, nloi, parftei, etc. ,

b« Also occurring especially in composition, yet likeMrise as simple
words often enough to have an independent aspect, are derivatiYes in a
froni nouns in aa (rarely is, us): thus, for example, tamas&y rajasA,
payas&y brahmavaroasa, 8arvaTeda8&, d6vftiiia8&, pam^i, tryftyn^i,
and probably m&nofa.

o. Similar derivatiyes from adjectives in in are reckoned by the
grammarians as made with the suf&x ina: thus, malizia poUuUd^ para-
me^t^iina etc. (see 441 b).

d. A number of words formed with the so-called sufAx anta are evi-
dent transfers from stems in ant. A few of them are found even from
the earliest period: thus, panta draughty 9vSntA (?], vaaantA sprinfff
bemantA winter ^ ▼e9antA etc. tank, jivanti a certain healing plant; and
others occur later, as jayanta, taranta, madhomanta, etc. They are
a&id to be accented on the final.

6. From alio-stems (407) are made a few nouns ending in !&«: thus,
Anuka, ^^;»fika, upaka, priUka, parilcA, etc.

f. From stems in f, hotrA, netrA, ne^t^^, potrA, pra^AatrA, etc.,
from titles of priests; also dhfttr&» bhrfttrA, eto.

g. Other scattering cases are : savidsrutA, ftvsrafA, vlradha, kA-
kuda, kakabh&, a^^a, bh^myi, aakhyi, Adbipatya, Jfispatyi*
aratir&, pftmfviu

h. The Yedic gerundives in tra (toa), piade by addition of a to
abstract noun-stems in to, have been already (966 a) fully given.

i« TrayA and dvay& come with gui^a-strengthening from numeral
stems; nAva new in like manner from nu now, and Antara apparently
from antAr.

J« Bhe^ajA medicine is from bhi^U healer, with gni^a-change; and
probably devA heavenly, divine, god, in like manner from div sky; heaven
(there is no **root div shine^ in the language).

1210. n ya> With this suffix are made a very large

olaM of words, both in die old language and later.

a. The derivatives in ya exhibit a great and perplexing variety of
form, connection, and application; and the relations of tiie suffix to others
containing a ya-element — iya, IJra, eya, ftyya, esrya, enya — are
also in part obscure and dtffloult In the great majority of Instances in
the oldest language, the ya when it follows a consonant is dissyllabic in

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1210—] XYII. Seookdart Derivation. 460

metrical Talne, or 1b to be read as ia. ThuB, In BY. , 26B words (excluding
compounds) have ia, and only 75 have ya always; 40 are to be read nov
with ia and now with ya, but many of these have ya only in isolated
cases. As might be expected, the Talae ia is more frequent after a heavy
syllable: thus, in RY., there are 183 examples of ia and 27 of ^a after
SQch a syllable, and 78 of ia and 96 of ya after a light syllable (the
circumflexed yk — that is* to say, fa — being, as is pointed out below,
1212»1» more liable to the resolution than ya or y&). It must be left lor
further researches to decide whether in the ya are not included more than
one sufdx, with difTerent accent, and different quantity of the i-elementj
or with an a added to a final i of the primitive. It is also matter for
question whether there is a primary as well as a secondary soffix ya; the
suffix at least comes to be used as if primary, in the formation of gerui-*
dives and in that of action-nouns: but it is quite impossible to separate
the derivatives into two such classes, and it has seemed preferable there-
fore to treat them all together here.

b. The derivatiyes made with ya may be first divided into those
which do and those which do not show an accompanying v|pddlii-
increment of the initial syllable.

o. Adjectives in ya, of both these divisions, make their feminines
regularly in yft. But in a number of cases, a feminine in i is made,
either alone or beside one in yft: e. g. ofttormft^ figniveQi, ^fin^ili,
ari (and aryft), ddivl (and dfilvyft), Bftuml (and sftumyS); dliiri
9ir9aa^ avcuri, etc.

1211. Deriyatiyes in CT yft with initial yrddhi-strength-

ening follow quite closely, in form and meaning, the analogy

of those in 3^ a (above, X208). They are, however, decidedly

less common than the latter (in Veda, about three fifths as


a. Examples are: with the usual shift of accent, dftivya divmt
(dev&), palitya grayness (palitd), gprftlvya cervical (grlvi), &rtvijya
priestly office (rtvij), g&hapatya householder's (g^h&pati), janariUya
kingship (Janari^), B^grftmiditya victory in battle (saiiigrfiniivift),
Bftuva^vya wealth in horses (svkqrva,), ftdpadra^t^ya witness (npa-
draft^) ; ftdityi Aditya (iditi), Bftum3r& relating to sdma, &tithy4 hes-
pitality (itithi), prfij&paty& belonging to Prqjipati, vfiimanasyA mM-
lessness (vimanas)* sihadevya descendant of Sahddeva; — with aeeeot
thrown forward from the final upon the ending, lftuky& of the world (loki),
kftvyi of the Kavi-raee, firtvy& descendant ofRittij Tfiyavy4 heUmgin^
to the wind (vft3n&), rfiivaty& wealth (revint); — with unchanged ac-
cent (very few), adhipatya lordship (&dhipati)» ^rfilffhya exeeUenet
(9r69tlia), vfil^ya belonging to the third caste {yi<i people)y pfti^Byt
manliness (piSuiiB).

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461 Stems in ya. , [^1212

b. The AY. has once n&irbftdhyk, with circumllezed final; If not
an error, it is doubtlens made through n&irbftdha; vftifi^vyftiL (VS. i. 12)
appears to be dual fern, of vftifi^vi.

1212. Derivatiyes in CT ya without initial vrddhi-

strengthening aie usually adjectives, much less often (neuter,

or, in ITT yS, feminine] abstract nouns. They are made from

every variety of primitive, and are very numerous (in Veda,

three or four times as many as the preceding class).

. a. The general mass of these words may be best divided accord-
ing to their accent, into: 1. Words retaining the accent of the prim-
itive; 2. Words with retracted accent; 3. Words with acnte yk (i&);
4. Words with circumflexed ya (fa). FinaUy may be considered the
words, gerundives and action-nouns, which have the aspect of primary

1. b. Examples of derivatives in ya retaining the accent of their
primitiveB are : &9vya equine (&9va), &ngya of the Utnbs (&iiga)» mukh-
J9k foremost (m&kha motM), &vya ovine (&vi)» g&vya bovine (g6%
^9yA of the people (ylq), durya of the door (d&r), n&rya manfy (nf )»
vffi^a virile (vffan), Bvari^ya autocracy (avarf^), suvirya wealth in
retainers (suvfra), vi9v^anya of all men^ vl^v&devya of all the gods
(vi9v&deva), maylira^epya peacock-tailed,

c. In the last words, and in a few others, the ya appears to be used
(like ka, 1222 h: cf. 1212 m) as a snfflx simply helping to make a
possessive compound : and so farther Boh^stya (heslde the equivalent
suh&sta), m&dhuhaatya, d&9amft8ya» mi9r&dliSnya, anyodarya^

2. d. Examples with retraction of the accent to the first syllable (hs
in derivation with v^dhi-increment) are: kdi^fhya guttural (kai^thA),.
skAndbya humeral (skandhd), vr&tya of a ceremony (vratd), m^gbya
m t?ie clouds (megli&), pitrya of the Fathers (pit^)» pr&tijanya adverse
(pratUan&). Hirai^y&ya of gold (hfranya), is anomalous both In draw-
ing the accent forward and In retaining the final a of the primitive; and
gavy&ya and avy&ya (also &vyaya) are to be compared with it as to

3. e. Examples with acute accent on the suffix are: dlvy& heavenly
(dfv), aatyi true (stot), vyfighry& tigrine (vySghrd), kavy& wise
(kavf), grftmyi of the village (grama), Bomy& relating to the soma^
anenaayft sinlessness (anen&s), adakfii^yi not Jit for ddkfii^a.

4. f. Of derivatives ending in drcumflexed ya (which in the Veda are
considerably more numerous than all the three preceding classes together),,
examples are as follows:

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1212—] XVIT. Secondary Derivation. 462

g. From oonsonant-stems : vi^yk of the clan (RV. : vf9), h^dyk of
the heart (hfd), vidyutya of the lightning (vldyut), rfijanyit of ihe
royal class (rf^an), do^ai^yk of the arm (dof&h), girfa^yk of the head
(girf&n), liarmajifjk active (k&rman), dhanvanyk of the plain (dh£n-
van), namasyk reverend (n&mas), tvaoaayk euiieular (tv&cas), bar-
hifyk of barhisy Syu^yk giving life (iyuB)^ bhasadyk of the butiodcs
(bhas&d), prfioya eastern (prifto), etc. Of exceptional formation is ar-
yamyk intimate (aryam&n), -with which donbtless belong afttmya (sit-
man) and s&kfya (Bftkfin).

h. From n-stems : hanavyk of the Jaws (b&iiu), vfiyavya belonging
to Vaytij pa^avyk relating to cattle (pa9u), if avyk relating to arrows
({fu)* madhavyko/ the sweet (m&dhu), apsavyk of the waters (apad
loc), rajjavyk o/ f opat (rijju) ; ^aravyli f. arrow (^dro, do.); and there
may be added n&vyk navigable (especially in fern., nftvyli navigable stream:
nftu boaf). The RV. has prftQavyk to be partaken of (pra + V^a?), with-
out any corresponding no«n prft^u; and also fbcJaTyli rich in n^ur i ih t ment
(tirj), without any intermediate orju.

i. Under this head belong, as was pointed out above (864), the so-
called gerundiTes in tavyit, as made by the addition of yk to the inflnitiTtt
noun in tu. They are wholly wanting in the oldest language, and hardly
found in later Yedic, although still later taVya wins the Talue of a ptimary
sufilx, and nakes numevons ferbal deriyatives.

J. From i- and i-stems hardly any examples are to be quoted. VS.
has dundubhya Arom dnndubhf.

k. From a-stems: Bvargyk heavenly (Bvarg&), devatyit relating to
a deity (dev&t&), prapathyk guiding (prapatli&)» budhnyk funda-
mental (budhii&% Jaghanyk hindmost Qagh&na), vanu^k Vdruna\
viryh might (vir&), udarya abdominal (udkra), ntsya of the fountain
(ixtsa) ; and from ft-stems, urvarya of cultivated land (urv&rft), svfthya
relating to the exclamation Bvahft.

1. The circumflexed ya is more generally resolved (into fa) than the
other forms of the suffix: thus, in RV. it is never to be read as ys after
a heayy syllable ending with a consonant; and even after a light one it
becomes ia in more than three quarters of the examples.

m. There are a few cases in which ya appears to be used to help
make a compound with governing preposition (next chapter, 1810: ef.
1212 o): tiius, apikakfyk about the arm-pit, upapakfyh upon the sides,
ud&pyh up-stream; and perhaps npatj'nyk lying in the grass (occurs only
in voc). But, with other accent, &nv&ntrya through the entrails^ lipa-
mftaya in each month, abhinabhyk up to the clouds, aiita]^par9avyi
between the ribs, ddhigartya on the chariot seat ; of unknown accent, adhi-
haatya* anupp^t^^^ anunftBikya, anuTa&9ya.

1218. The derivatives in CT y& as to which it may be

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163 Stems in ya. [—1213

^l^uestioned whether they are not, at least in part, primary
.derivatives from the beginning, are especially the gerund-
ives, together with action-nouns coincident with these in
form ; in the later language, the gerundive- formation (above,
963) comes to be practically a primary one.

a. In RV. occur about forty instancet of gemndiTes in ya, of toler-
ably accordant form: the root nsoally nnstrengthened (bnt c^tya, bhAvya,
-]i4vya, ]B4xjym» y6dh7a; also -midya, -vaoya, bhftvyA); tlie accent
on the radical syllaUe vben the word is simple, or compounded with prepo-
sitions: thus, pra^&sya, upas&dya, viMvya (but usually on the final
after the negative prefix: thus, anftpy&» anapav^jyi) — exceptions are
only btaftvy^ and the doubtful fikAyyk; the ya resolved into ia in the
Tory great majodty of occurmnots; a final i^ort vowel followed by t (in
^'itya, -k|Stya, «9r4feya, HBtiLtya, and the redopUcated oarkftya* beside
cark^: not in n&vya and -h&vya), and 5 changed to e (in -deya
only). If regarded as secondary, they might be made with ya, in accord-
ance with other formations by this suffix, in part from the root-noun, as
anukft-ya, in part from deriTatives in a, as bhftvy& (from bb&wa).

b. The AY. has a somewhat smaller number (about twenty-fiye) of
words of a like formation; but also a considerable group (fifteen) of deriv-
atives in yk with the same value: thus, for example, ftdyk eatable, k&r-
yk to he done, eaanfipyk to be obtained, atitfiryk to be overpaaeedj
nivibbMxjh to be carried in the apron, pvathamavftsyk to be fret worn.
Tbese seem more markedly of secondary origin: and especially such forms
as parivargyk to be avoided, avimo]cy& not to be gotten rid of, where
the guttural reversion oleady indicates primitives in ga and ka (216 b).

c. Throughout ^e older language are of common occurrence neuter
abstract nouns of the same make with the former of these classes. They
are rarely found except in composition (in AY., only oitya and St6ya as
simple), and are often used in the dative, after the manner of a dative
infinitive. Examples are: brahmajy^ya, Tasud^ya* bhigadkdya,
ptir^ap^a, ^atas^ya, abhibhiiya, devahtiya, mantra^rutya, kar-
makftya, Tq-trattirya, hotfvl irya , ahik&tya, Battras&dya, 9^^?^-
bhidya, brahmac4rya, n^f&hya. Of exceptional form are i^dya (y^ad
and ^aha^^yya (j/^l); of exceptional accent, aadb&rtatya. And AY.
has one example, rai^k, with circumflexed final.

d. Olosely akin with these, in meaning and use, is a smaller class
of feminines in jti thus, kftya, vidy^ ityii» agnioitya, vfijs^itya,
xnti^ftibatya, devayajy^ etc.

e. There remain, of course, a considerable number of less classifiable
words, both nouns and adjectives, of which a few from the older langnage
]nay be mentioned, without discussion of their relations : thus, Btirya (with

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1213—] XVn. Sbcondabt Derivation. 464

fern. sQry^), fUya» pufya, n&bhya; yujya, g^dhya, iryig aryd and
arya, m&rya, m&dhya.

The suffixes apparently most nearly akin with ya may best be
next taken np.

1214. ^ iya. This suffix is virtually identical with
the preceding, being but another written form of the same
thing. It is used only after two consonants, where the
direct addition of IT 3ra would create a combination of diffi-
cult utterance. It has the same variety of accent with ya.

a. With accent fya (s= £a or jk): for example, abbriya (also abh-
riy&) J^om the ehudB (abhri), kfatiiya having authority (kfatri),
yajfklya reverend (yajfii), hotriya libational (b6trft), amitriya inimieal

b. With accent iy& (s= ik or y&): for example, agriy& (also asxiya)
foremost (&gra), indriy& Indra's (later, sense: {ndra)» kfetxiy^ of the
field (kf^tra).

e. With accent on the primitive: gr6triya learned (9r6tTa), ftviya
(also ^ptvfya) in season (ftu).

1216. ^ lya. This suffix also is apparently by origin a ya
(ia) of which the first element has maintained its long quantity by the
interposition of a euphonic y. It is accented always on the i.

a. In RV. occur, of general adjectives, only ftrjikfya and fi^hame-
dbiya, and examples in the later Yedic are very few: e. g. parvatiya
mountainous (AY., beside RY. parvatyk). In the Brahmanas &re found
a number of adjectives, some of them from phrases (first vrords of Terses
and the like): thus, anyarftftriya* pa&oavfttiya, mftijfiliya, kayS-
9abluya, sv&dafkiliya, fipohiftblya, etc.

b. It was pointed out above (066) that derivative adjectives in iya
from action-nouns in ana begin in later Yeda and in Brahmana to be
used gerundivally, and are a recognized formation as gerundives in the
classical language. But adjectives in aniya without gerundive ohuaeter
are also common.

o. Derivatives in Iya with initial Vfddhi are sometimes m^e in

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 48 of 59)