William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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does not appear, or not in that form, as an independent word: examples
are mahft great (apparently nsed independently In Y. in accnsative), tuvl
mighty (V.), dvi two.

f. Not infrequently, the final member of a compound assumes a special
form: see below, 1816.

1260. But a case-form in the prior member of a compound is by
no means rare, from the earliest period of the language. Thus:

a. Quite often, an aocnsatiTO, especially before a root-stem, or a derir-
ative in a of eqaiyalent meaning : for example, pataihg& going hy flighty
dlianaifajay& winning weaUh^ abhayaihkar& causing absence of danger^
pri9timbliar& bringing proeperity, v&oamiiikliay& inciting the voice; bat
also sometimes before words of other form, as ^Qvamiffi horecdesiring,
Qubhaiiiyavan going in splendor, subhftgaTiilr Arap a making happy,
bliayaxhkartf causer of fear. In a few cases, by analogy with these, a
word receives AU accusative form to which it has no right: thus, h^daihs&n^
xnak^tixiigama, vasuihdhara, fttmambhari.

b. Much more rarely, an instrumentalT: for example, girftvfdh increas-
ing by praise, vSoastena stealing by incantation, kr&tvfimagha gladly
hestovoing, bhftsakefa bright with light, vidman^pas active with wisdom.

o. In a Tery few instances, a dative: thns, nare^fh^ serving a man,
ajmi^biti errand to us, and perhaps kiyedhi and mahevfdh.

d. Not seldom, a locative; and this also especially vrith a root-stem or
ar-derivative : for example, agreg& going at the head, divikflt dwelling
%n the shy, vane^&li prevailing in the wood, afige^fha existing in' the
limbs, pro9the9ay& lying on a couch, sut^kara active with the soma,
di-vicara moving in the sky; ftr69atru having enemies far removed,
BWnn&ftpi near in favor, m&deraghu hasting in excitement, srudhi^fhira
firm in battle, antevftsin dwelling near; ap8uj& horn in the waters,
Iif'tav&s hurling at hearts.

e. Least often, a genitive: thns, rfiy&akfixna desirous of wealth,


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I960—] XVni. Composition. 484

akasyavid knowing no one. But the older language has a few examplei
of the putting together of a genltlTe with its governing noon, each member
of the combination keeping its own accent: see below, 1267 d.

*f. Ablatiye forms are to be seen in bal&tkftra violence and balftt-
kfta, and perhaps in parfttpriya. And a stem in-f sometimes appean in a
copnlatiye compound in its nominative form: thus, piULpvLtrHvi father and
sony hotSpotftrftu the invoker and purifier, Anyonya one another is t
fused phrase, of nominatlTe and oblique case.

g. In a very few words, plural meaning is signified by plural form:
thus, apanji etc. (in deriTation, also, apsu is used as a stem), hftsv&B,
n^I^iprai^etra conducting men^ rujaakara causing pams^ (and dvtl)
hanflVampa trembling of the two jaws.

h. Much more often, of words having gender-forms, the feminine ii
used in composition, when the distinotlve feminine sense is to be conveyed:
e- g. gopinfttha maeter of the shepherdeeseSy dSsiputra son of a femaU
slave, m^Id^ gazelU-eyed, praijItftpraijL&yana vessel for consecrated


1261. The accent of compounds is very varioas, and liable to
considerable irregularity even within the limits of the same formation;
and it must be left to be pointed out in detail below. All posaible
yarieties are found to occur. Thus:

a. Each member of the compound retains its own separate aeoent This
is the most anomalous and Infrequent method. It appears in certain Yedit
copulative compounds chiefly composed of the names of divinities (so-called
deyatA-dvandTaa : 1266 ff.), and in a small number of aggxegatiosi
partly oontainiog a genitive case-form as prior member (1267 d).

b. The accent of the compound is that of its prior member. This U
especially the case in the great class of possessive compounds; but also to
determinatives having the participle in ta or na as final member, in tkose
beginning with the negative a or an, and in other less numerous and ixs-
portant classes.

c. The accent of the compound is that of the final member. This Ib not
on so large a scale the case as the preceding; but it is nevertheless qutef
common, being found in many compounds having a verbal noun or adjectlvt
as final member, in compounds beginning with the numerals dvl and tri
or the prefixes BU and dua, and elsewhere in not infrequent exceptioiu.

d. The compound takes an accent of its own, independent of tkat c^
either of its constituents, on its final syllable (not always, of course, to be
distinguished from the preceding case). This method is larg^ foUowed.
especially, by the regular copulatives, and by the great mass of depeadex
and descriptive noun-compounds, by most possessives beginning witk tb«
negative prefix; and by others.

6. The compound has an accent which is altered from that of oae »<
its members. This is everywhere an exceptional and sporadically occ«niDt

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485 CopuLATivB Compounds. [— 1S58

CAse, and the InBtances of it, noted below under eacli fornutton, do not
require to be assembled here. Examples are: medh&s&ti (mMhA), ti-
IkadqTfk (tila)» khtdihasta (kh&df), y&vay&dcLvefas (yfty&yant);
9akadhAma (dhnmd), amfta (mft&), Buvira (vlr&), tuvigriva
(grivi). A few words — as vi^va, ptibrva, and sometimes s&nrll — take
usually a changed accent as prior members of compounds.

I. Copulative Cempeunds.

1252. Two or more nouns — muoh less often adjectives,
and, in an instance or two, adverbs — having a coordinate
construction, as if connected by a conjunction, usually and^
are sometimes combined into qpmpounds.

a. This is the class to which the Hi^du grammarians give the
name of dvandva pair, couple; a dvandva of adjectives, however, is
not recognized by them.

b. Compounds in wiiicb the relation of the two members is altematiye
instead of copulatiye, though only exceptional, are not yery rare: examples
are ny&iftdhika defective or redundant, Jayaparijaya victory or defeat,
kritotpanna purchaeed or on hand, kft^t^ialoftasama like a log or
clod, palqfimrgata the condition of being bird or beast, tri^^advifi^a
numbering twenty/ or thirty, oatu^pafkcalq^as four or Jive timee,
dvyekftntara different by one or two. A less marked modiilcation of the
copniative idea is seen in such instances as priyasatya agreeable though
true, prSrthitadurlabha sought after but hard to obtain; or in ^rSnta-
l^ta arrived weary.

1258. The noun-copulatives fall, as regards their in-
flective form, into two classes:

1. a. The compound has the gender and declension of

its final member, and is in number a dual or a plural,

according to its logical value, as denoting two or more than

two individual things.

b. Examples are: prfti^pfinS^ inspiration and expiration, vrlhi-
ywKii rice and barley, fks&m^ verse and chant, kapotoltikft^ dove
and owl, oandrfidityftu moon and sun, hastya^vftu the elephant and
horse, c^ftv&yas goats and sheep, devSsur&a the gods and demons,
atharwftagir&sas the Atharvans and Angirases, samb&dhatandryks
iMnxieties and fatigues, vldyftkarm&gl knowledge and action, hasty a^vfta
'9l^hanis and, horses; of more than two members (no examples quotable
from the ol^cr language), ^ayyftaanabhog&s lying, sitting, and eating,
fcygJUiTn aigakyatrlyavlt^ndrfts a Brahman, KshaHya, Vai^a, and godra,

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1268—] XVIII. Composition. 486

roga^okaparitftpabandluuiavyftsaxiftni di$6a$€i pain^ g^ft eapUoi^^
and muforiune.

2. c. The compound, without regard to the number de-
noted, *or to the gender of its constituents, becomes a neuter
singular collective.

d. Examples are: iftftP^^zt&m tehai is offered ami -bestowed , aho-
rfttr&m a day and nighty Iqptftlqpt&m the done and undone, bhfttabhav-
y&m past and future, ke9a9ma9r4 hair and heard, o^adhivanaspatl
plants and trees, candratftrak&m moon and stars, ahinaknlaTn snakt
and ichneumon, ^irogrivtfm head and neck, yfllfftinalnsfikamatknyaiii
lice, fiies, and hugs,

1264. a. That a stem in f as prior member sometimes takes its
nominatiye form, in ft, was noticed ^bove, 1260 f*

b* A stem as final member is sometimes changed to an a-form to maka
a neuter coUectiTe: thas, ohattropftnaham an umbrella and a shoe.

o. The grammarians give roles as to the. order of the elements com*
posing a copnlatiYe compound: thus, that a more* important, a briefer, «
vowel-initial member should stand first; and that one ending in a should
be placed last. Violations of them all, however, are not infrequent.

1266. In the oldest language (BY.), copulatlye compounds such
as appear later are quite rare, the class being chiefly represented by
dual combinations of the names of divinities and other penooM^j
and of personified natural objects.

a. In these combinations, each name has regularly and usually
the dual form, and its own accent; but, in the very rare instances
(only three occurrences out of more than three hundred) in whieh
other cases than the nom.-acc.-yoc. are formed, the final member only
is inflected.

b. Examples are4 {ndraB6mft, {ndrftv{f]giQ» {ndrftb^haap^^ agnl-
96mftu» turv&9fiy&d&, dyaTftp^thivI, u^aa&niktft (and, with inter-
yening words, n&ktft • . • u^aaft), stiryfim&aft. The only plural is indri-
marutaa (voc). The cases of other than nominative form are mitrlU
v&rui^ftbhyfim and mitrav&ruj^yoe (also mitr&yor v&rui^ayo^), ao J
{ndrftT&ru^ayoe (each once only).

c. From dy^vftp^hivi Is made the yery peculiar genitiye diviapf-
thiyy6B (4 times: AY. has dyavftp^^thivlbhyftm and dyavftprtliiwyos>

d. In one compound, parj&nyavitft, the first member (RY., onct)
does not have the dual ending along with the double accent (indranft-
sat^ft, voc, is doubtful as to accent). In several, the double aooent is
wanting, while yet the double designation of nnmber is present: thV}
indrftpa9i^68 (beside indrftptl^^ft), somSptlf&bhjrfini (aomftpQfa^A
occurs only as voc), vAtftparJanyA, sCiryftoandram&Bfty and indrignl
(^ith indrftgnlbhyftm and indr8gny68): somSmdrftifi is accented ooly

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487 Copulative Compounds. [—1267

in 9B. And in one, indravjiyt^ fonn and accent are both accordant with
the naages of the later language.

e. Of other copnlatiyes, like those made later, the RV. has the ploial
i^T^as, the duals jflaOm^, 0aty&nrt^> sft^anftna^and ; also the neu-
ter coUectiye ift&purt4m, and the substantively used neuter of a copu-
iative adjective, nUaloliit&iii. Further, the neuter plurals ahorfitri^i
nydkemera^ and nkthftrlf it. praties and songs, of which the final members
as independent words are not neater. No one of these words has more than
a single occurrence.

1266. In the later Vedlc (AV.), the usage is much more nearly
accordant with that of the classical language, save that the class of
neuter singular collectiyes is almost wanting.

a. The words with double dual form are only a sinall minority (a
quarter, instead of three quarters, as in RV.) ; and half of them have only
a single accent, on the final: thus, besides those in RY., bhavftradrftu,
blLavft9arvft^; agnftvl^i^fl, voc, is of viomalous form. The whole num-
ber of copulatives is more than double that in RV.

b. The only proper neuter collectives, composed of two nouns, are
ke^a^ma^r^ hair andlieard, afijanftbhy afij an Km sake and ointment, and
ka^iptipabarha^&m mat and pillow, unified because of the virtual unity
of the two objects specified. Neuter singulars, used in a similar collective
way, of adjective compounds, are (besides those in RY.): kftfik^t&in what
is done and undone (instead of what is done and what is undone), oittd-
lcot4m thought and desirs, bhadrapftp&m good and evil, bhfltabhavy&m
past and future.

1267. Copulative compounds composed of adjectiyes
which retain their adjeotiye character are made in the same
manner, but are in comparison rare.

a. Examples are: 9iiklakr9i^ light and dark, sthalajftudaka ter-
restrial and aquatic, dftntarSjatasftavan^ of ivory and stiver and gold
used distributiyely; and -vTttapina round and plump, 9fint&nukula
tranquil and propitious, h^itasragrajohina wearing fresh garlands and
free from dust, ni9ek&di9nia9ftnftnta beginning with conception and
ending with burial, used cumulatively; nS ti9ito^a nfit over cold or
hot, used alternatively ; kijai^ad^t^ui^t^ '^^^ f^ ^ moment and then
lost, ointitopasthita at hand as soon as thought of, in more pregnsnt

b. In the Yeda, the only examples noted are the cumulative nUa-
lobit& and iff&pQrtd etc., used in the neut. sing, as collectives (as point-
ed out above), with tSniradlimnr& dark taumy; and- the distributive
dakgiigaflavyi right and left, 8aptamfi9tcun& seventh and eighth, and
bliadrapftpi good and bad (beside the corresponding neut. collective).
Such combinations as satyfinft^ truth and falsehood, pxiyftpriya^^Atn^s

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1267—] XVIIL Composition. 488

agreeable and disagreeable, vhere each component is used snbstantlTely, are,
of course, not to be separated from the ordinary nonn-componnde.

o, A special case is that of the compound adJectlYes of direction: as
uttarapf&rva nortk-east, prSgdak^i^a sotUh^emi, dalry1ijiiim<9<ttin>
south-weH, etc.: compare * 1881 b.

1258. In aooentuated texts, the oopolative compoimds have
uniformly the accent (acute) on the final of the stem.

a. Exceptions are a case, or two in AV., where doubtless the* reading
is false: thus, vfttftparjanyll (once: beside -ny&yofl), devamaniifyito
(once: QB. -8y&), bra]imariyan3rlU>hyS3ai (also VS.); farther, vfiiko-
pavftkyk (QB.), a^anftyapipftse (9B.).

1269. An example or two ajre met with of adrerbial copulaHves :
thus, iharditrl day by day, sfijr&mprfttar at evening and in the m&ming.
They haye the accent of their prior member. Later occur also bShyantar,
pratyagdakfii^ pratyagodak.

1260. Bepeated words. In all ages of the language, nom»
and pronouns and adjectiyes and particles are not infrequently repeated,
to give an intensive, or a distributive, or a repetitional meaning.

a. Though these are not properly oopulatiye compounds, tiiere is no
better connection in which to notice them than here. They are, as the
older language shows, a sort of compound, of which the prior member has
its own independent accent, and the other is without accent: hence they
are most suitably and properly written (as in the Vedic pada-texts) u
compounds. Thus : Jahy ^fftih ^uraih-varam slay of ihem each b^ man ;
div6-dive or dy&vi-dyavi from day to day; &iigSd-afig91 Idmno-lom-
nalji p&rva^i-parvai^ from every limb, from every hair, in eadi joint;
pr&-pTa yajfi&patiiii tira make the master of the sacrifice live on and on;
bliAyo-bhuya^ 9V&h-9va^ further and further, tomorrow and again to-
morrow] ^kay&i-'kayft with in each case one; vay&ih-vayain our very

b. Exceptional and rare cases are those of a personal verb-form re-
peated: thus, p{bft-piba (Ry.)> y&JAsva-yaJasva (QB.), v6da-veda
(? 9^.)» — ^^^ ^^ *^o 'w^ords repeated: thus, yavad vfi-yftvad vft (^B.),
yatam6 vft-yatame vft (9^.)*

0. In a few instances, a word is found used twice in sucoeerton with-
out that loss of accent the second time which makes the repetition a ^-
tual composite: thus, n* nd (RV.), s&iil a&m (AV.), ih^ *hk (AV.),
aniyft- 'n&yft (gB.), etuhl etuhl (RV., ace. to pada-text).

d. The class of combinations here described is called by the native
grammarians ftmre^ita aidifd^mtd^). .-^ '

1261. FinaUy may be noticed in passing the compound numsraU,
tiLftda^a //, dviviii9atl 22, tri^ata 103, c&ta]|^8ahaara 1004, tnd
so on (476 ff.), as a special and primitive class of copulatives. They tie
accented on the prior member.

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II. ' Determinative Compounds.

1262. A noun pr adjeotive is often combined into a
compound with a preceding determining or qualifying word
— a noun, or adjective, or adverb. Such a compound is
conveniently called determinative.

1268. This is the class of compounds which is of most
general and frequent occurrence in. all branches of Indo-
European language. Its two principal divisions have been
already pointed out: thus, A. Dependent compoulids, in
which the prior member is a substantive word (noun or pro-
noun or substantively used adjective), standing to the other
member in the relation of a case dependent on it; and
B. Descriptive compounds, in which the prior member is
an adjective, or other word having the value of an adject-
ive, qualifying a noun; or else an adverb or its equivalent,
qualifying an adjective. Each of these divisions then falls
into two sub-divisions, ' according as the final member, and
therefore the whole compound, is a noun or an adjective.

a. The whole class of determinatives is called by the Hindu
grammarians tatporo^a (the term is a specimen of the* class,* mean-
ing Am num)'j and the seeond division, the descriptives, has the
special name of karmadh&raya (of obscure application: the literal
sense is something like offietrhearmg). After their example, the two
divisions are in European- usage widely known by these two names

A. Dependent Oompounds.

1264. Dependent Noun-compounds. In . this di-
vision, the case-relation of the prior 'member to the other
may be of any kind; but, in accordance with the. usual re-
lations of one noun to another, it is oftenest genitive, and
least often accusative.

a. Kxamples are: of genitive relation, devfuieni army of goda^
yamadntd Yama^s meMMger, Jivalok4 the world of the living^ ijidra-

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1264—] XVIII. Composition. 490

dhanuB Indra'a bow, brabxnagavl the JBtspMrnan's caWf vi^agiH poutm-
mountf mitralftbha acquisition of friends, mfirkha^atftni hundreds of
fools, vfrasenasuta Virasena's son, riyendra chief of kings, aamat-
putr&B our sons, tadvaoaa his words; — of datlTe, pSdodaka water for
the feet, mSsanioaya accmnukUion for a tnonA; — of iustnimenUl, ftt-
masftdfgya likeness with self, dhftnyftrtha wealth acquired by grain,
dharmapatni lawful spouse, pitftyandlixi paternal relation; — of abUtiTe,
apBaratiaambhava descent from a nymph, madvijogt^ separation from
me, ofturabhaya fear of a thief; — of locttire, Jalakri^ft sport in the
water, grfimavftsa abode in the village, purof&iqrta untruth abaift a man;
— of accusatiye, nagaragamana going to the city.

1266. Dependent Adjectiye-oompounds. In thifi
division, only a very small proportion of the compoundi
have an ordinary adjectdve as final member; but usually a
participle, or a derivative of agency with the value of a
participle. The prior member stands in any case-relation
which is possible in the independent construction of such

a. Examples aie : of locative relation, sthftUpakva cooked in a pet,
a9vakovida knowing in horses, vayal^sama alike in age, yudhmhlra
stettdfast in battle, tantt^ubhra beautiful in body; — of iiAtnimental,
mftt^psad)^ like his mother; — of dativ^ gohita good for cattle; — of
ablative, bhavadanya other than you, garbhS^fama eighth ftom birth,
df^yetara other than visible (i. e. invisibley, — of genitive, bharata^reftha
best of the Bharatas, dvijottama foremost of Brahmans : — with particip-
ial wor^a, in accusative relation, vedavid Veda-knowing, aiuiftd4 food-
eating, tan&pana body-protecting, aatyavftdin truth-speaking, pattragata
committed to paper (lit. gone to a leaf); — in instrumental, madhupA
cleansing with honey, svay&ihkfta self-n^de, Indragapta protected by
Indra, vidyfil^a deserted by (L e. destitute of) knowledge; — in loca-
tive, hf^layftvldli pierced in the heart, ^rtvij sacrificing in due season,
divicara moving in the aky;^ia ablative, riUyabhra^ta fallen from
the kingdom, v^kabhita afraid of a wolf; — in dative, ^arai^figata come
for ref%kge.

.• 1266. We take up now some of the principal groups of compouadB
falling under these two heads, in order to notice their specialities of
formation and use, their relative frequency, their accentuation, and so on.

1267. Compounds having as final member ordinary nouns (such,
namely, as do not distinotly exhibit the character of verbal nouns,
of action or agency) are quite common. They are regularly and usu-
ally accented on the final syllable, without reference to the accent of
either^ constituent. Examples were given above (1264 a).

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491 Dependent Compounds. [—1270

a. A piinofpal exception with regard to aeoent is p&tl masterj lard
(and its feminine p&tnl), componnda with which uanally retain the aeoent
of the prior member : thus, prajipati, T&Bupati, ^tithipati, g6patl»
KTh&patni, etc. eto. (compare the Teibal noons in ti, below, 1274). But
in a few words p&ti retains its own accent: thus, vi^p^ti* rayip&ti,
pa^p&tiy yasup&tni, etc.; and the more general rule is followed in
apiMur&patf and vrijapatf (AY.), and nadipatf (VS.), oitpati (MS.;
elsewhere oitp4ti).

b. Other exceptions are sporadic only: for example, Jaxiarfyaii» deva*
v&rmaii, hira^yat^JaSy pftanfth^va^ godhAma and 9akadhtiTna (but
dlL^mi); Tfto^atena.

o. The'appearanoe of a case-form in such' compounds is rare: examples
are dfvodftsay vftoastena* uoo&fl^^avas, uccftfrgho^a, dOrdbh&B
(the three last in possessiye application).

■ d* A number of compounds are accented on both members : thus^
9&cip&ti, s&daep&ti, bfhasp&ti, v&nasp^ti, r&thaap&ti, J&p&ti (also
Ja8pati)» n&ra9AA8a, t&nun&pt^y t&nun&pftt (tantt as independent word),
9ana^96pa. And (B. has a long list of metronymics having the anoma-
loua acoentoation kftat8ip^tra» g^brglpatra» etc.

1268. The compounds having an ordinary adjective as final mem-
ber are (as already noticed) comparatively few.

a. So far as can be gathered from the scanty examples occurring in
the older language, they retain the accent of the prior member^ thus,
g&vifthira (AY. gaA^XhitSL)^ tantt^ubhra, m&deraghu, yajfi&dhira,
a&navlpra, til&ini9ra (but tila); but Iqpft^paoyi ripening in cttUi-
voted soil,

1269. The adjective dependent compounds having as final mem-
ber the bare root — or, if it end in a short vowel, generally with
an added t — are very nnmerons in all periods of the language, as
has been already repeatedly noticed (thus, 888 f-h, 1147). They are
accented on the root.

a* In a very few instances, the accent of words having apparently or
eonjeeturally this origin is otherwise laid : thus, iAaatra, &iiarvi9, svavfj,
prmtyiik^adfi}, piQiraiiidhi, 69adhi, irami^ U9&dagh, vats^pa, &bda.

b. Before a final root-stem appears not very seldom a case-form: for
example; pataiiig&, girftvfdh, dhiySjuTy ak^^ayftdruh^ hqrdi8p^9,
divi8pf9, vanes&li, divi^&d, afige^tba, IqrtBT&a, p^utur» apsuji.

o. The root-stem has sometimes a middle or passive value: for ex-
ample, mcuioyuj yoked (yoking themselves) by <he tvillj h^daySvidh
pierced to the heart, manuja bom of Manu,

1270. Compounds made with verbal derivatives in a, both of
action and of agency, are numerous, and take the accent usually on
their final syllable [as in the case of compounds with verbal prefixes:
1148 m).

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1270—] XVIII. Composition. 492

a. Examples are: luuitagr&bh& hand^gr taping ^ devavancUi god-
praiiing, havlradi devouring the offering, bhUTaziao7av& shaking the
world, vrStyabrav& eaUdng one's self a vrfttya; ak^parlUayi /iiili»r«
at play, va^a^kftr^ utterance of va^f, gopofd prosperity in eatUe,
afigajvari pain in the limbs.

b. In a few Instances, the accent is (as in compounds with ordinary
fidJeotiTes: above, 1268) that of the prior member: thus, mar&dvrdha,
8ut6kara, divfcara (and other more questionable words). And di&gha
milking, yielding is so accented as final: thns, madhudi&gha, kSmadugha.

o. Case-forms are especially freqnent in the prior members of compounds
with adjectiTe deriyatives in a showing gtu^strengthening of the root:
thus, for example, abhayaihkar&, yudhiihgami, dhanaiiija^ pvraih-
dar&, yi^vambhariy divftkard, talpe^ay4» diyifVAnLbh^.

1271, Compounds with verbal nouns and adjectives in ana are
very numerous, and have the accent always on the radical syllable

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 51 of 59)