William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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(as in the case of compounds with verbal prefixes: 1160e).

a. Examples are: ke^av&rdhana hair^inereasing, ftyu yprat&raya
life-lengthening, tanQp^a body-protecting', devah6<jLana hatred of the
gods, puxhsi^vana giving birth to males,

b. A very few apparent exceptions as regards accent are really cases
where the derivative has lost its verbal character : thus, yamasfldani Tamds
realm, ftoMdvldhftna means of protection,

o.#An accusative-form is sometimes found before a derivative in ana:
thus, sarnpaihp&ra^ay ayak^maiiik&rai^ subhfigadik&ra^La, vanaifa«

1272. a. The action-nouns in ya (1218) are not infrequent in
composition as final member, and retain their own proper accent (as
in combination with prefixes). Sufficient examples were given above

b. The same is true of the equivalent feminines in y&: see above,
1218 d.

c. The gerundives in ya (1218) hardly oecar in the older language
in combination with other elements than prefixes. The two nlvibhSry^
and prathaxnavftsy^ (the latter a descriptive) have the accent of the
independent words of the same form ; balavijfiifiy& and &9vabadhya (?)
are ineonsistent with these and with one another.

1278. Compounds made with the passive participle in ta or na
have the accent of their prior member (as do the combinations of the
same words with prefixes: 1086a).

a. Examples are: h&8tak|^ made with the hand, vfrAJftta bom of a
hero, gh69abaddlia awakened by noise, priji£paticqrf (a created by Pn^
pati, dev&tta given by the gods; and, of participles combined with prefixes,
indraprastlta incited by Indra, bfhasp&tiprai^atta driven away hy
Brihaspati, ulkibhihata struck by a thunderbolt, v^jravihata, saihrat-

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493 Dbpemdbnt Compounds. [—1276

•sriaammita eommensurate untk the year, AY. has the anomtloot aputi-
saih^ita quickened by the watere,

b. A number of exception! oeenr, in whirh the flntl syllable of the
compound has the accent: fbi example, agnitapt&, indrotA, pit^ttA,
rathakritA, agnldagdhi (beside agnfdagdha), kavi9a8t4 (beside kav{-
9a8ta), .kavipra^aatd.

o. One or two special nsages may be noticed. The participle gata,
gone tOf as final of a compound, is used in a loose way in the later Jau-
guage to express relation of various kinds : thus, jagatlgata existing in the
world, tvadgata belonging to thee^ aakhigata relating to a friend, oitra-
gata in a picture, putragataih aneham affection toward a son, etc. The
partic^le bhuta been, become is used in composition with a noun as hardly
more than a grammatical device to give it an adjective form: thus, idaih
tamobh&tam this creation, being darkness (existing in the condition of
darkness); t&di ratnabhat&di lokaaya ?ter, being the pearl of the world;
k^etrabhUta* smrtA nftri bl^jabhtlta^ sm^pta^ pumftn a woman is
regarded as afield; a man, as seed; and so on.

d. The other participles only seldom occur as finals of compounds:
thus, prftBakftrmukabibhrat bearing javelin anlj bow, a9&BtravidTfifui
not knowing t^fi text-books, arjunadar9iT&&8 having seen Arf una, apriya*
^aAsivfifiB announcing what 'is disagreeable, g&atamabruvfi]^& trailing
himself Gautama.

1274. Compounds with deriyatiyes in ti baye (like combinations
with the'prefixest 1167 e) the accent of the prior member.

a. Examples are: db&naaftti winning of wealth, sdmapiti soma-
drinking, devAbtlti invocation of the gods, n&maukti utterance of
homage, hAYjiiMXi presentation of offerings; and so tok&a&ti* dev&hiti,
rudr&huti, BQkt6kti, sva^ak^ti, divi^ti*

b. In nem&dbiti, medli&8ftti» ▼an&dhiti (all RV.)i *^® tccent of
the prior member is changed from penult to final.

o. Where the verbal character of the derivative is lost, the general
rule of final accent (1267) is followed: thus, devaheti weapon of the gods,
devasomatf favor of the yods, b'rahmacitf Brahman-pile. Also in sar-
vajy&ni entire ruin, the accent is that of compounds with ordinary nouns.

1275. Compounds with a deriyatiye in in as final member haye
(as in all other cases) the accent on the in. .

a. Thus, uktha^aiLsin psalm-singing, vrataoftiin vow-performing,
f^bbad&yln bullock-giving, satyavadin truth-speaking, 9ro]^pratodln

1276. There is a group of compounds with deriyatiyes in i,
having the accent on the penult or radical syllable.

a. Thus, pathir&k^i road- protecting, havirm&thi sacrifice-disturbing,
fttmadt&i^i soul-harming, patbi^&di sitting in the path, sahobhiri strength-

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1276—] XVIII. Composition. 494

hearing^ vaauv&nl winning good-^things, dhanaB^iii gaining teeaUhy mano-
m.{L^i mind-stetUing^ 'ph9lBg;ri,hi setting f^it; and, from, reduplicated root,
urao&kri making roam, Gempoands with -s&ni and -v&ni are especially
frequent in Veda and Brahmana; as independent words, nouns, these are
accei^ted sani and vazi£. In many cases, the words are not found in
independent use. Combinations with prefixes do not oocnr in sufficient
number to establish a distinct rule, but they appear to be oftenest accented
on the suffix (1156fj. '

b. From |/han are made in composition -ghni and -ghnl, with
accent on the ending: thus, Bahaaraghni. ahighnf, 9vaghni; -dhi from
}/dh& (1156g) has the accent in its numerous compounds: thus, ifudhl»
garbhadhi, puochadhl.

1277. Compoands with deriyatiyes in van have (like combhii-
tions with prefixes: 1169o) the accent of the final member: namely,
on the radical syllable.

a. Thus, Bomapivan toma-drinkingy baladivan itrength-giving^
pftpakftvan wit-doing, bahuBlivan much^ielding, talpa^van fying on
a conchy rathaytvan going in a chariot, druf&dvan sitting on a tree,
agretv&ri f. going at ffie head. The accent of the obscure words mSta-
ri^yan and m&taHbhvan is anomalous. •

b. The few compounds with final man appear to follow the same rule
as those with van : thus, Bv&diikf&dman sharing out swfets, ft^ubdman

1278. Oompounds with other derivatlTes, of rare or sporadic occurrence,
may be briefly noticed: thus, in n, rfi^tradipBd, devaply^, govindOc
vanarfi^i (?)• compare 1178e; — in nn or tnn, lokak^tno, BUiil-
pakf tnd: compare 1 196; — in tp, n^&t^, mandb&t^, haskartf (vasu-
dbitaraa, AY., is doubtless a false reading"). The derlyatives in as are
of infrequent occurrence in composition (as in combination with prefixef^.
above, 1151k), and appear to be treated as ordinary nouns: thus, yi^iia-
vao&8 (but birai^atdjas, AY.).

B. Desoriptiye Compounds.

1279. In this division of- the class of determinatiyes,
the prior member stands to the other in no distinct case-
relation, but qualifies it adjectively or adverbially, accord-
ing as it (the final member) is noun or adjective.

a. Examples are: nilotpald blue loitu, Barvagui^a all good quality.
priyasakba dear friend, mahar^f great-sage, rajatapstr& silver cup]
&jii&ta unknown, Bulq^a well done, dufkft ill-doing, puraffat^ mucA
praised, punarnava renewed.

b. The prior member is not always an adjective before a noun, or

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495 Dbsobiptivb CaicPOUNDS. [—1280

an adTerb before an adjeotlTe; other parts of speech are sometimes nsed
adjeetlTely and adTerhially in that position.

c The boundary between descriptiye and dependent compoonds is not
an absolnte end; in certain oases it is open to qnestion, for instance, whether
a prior nonn, or ad)ectiTe with nonn-Talne, is used more in a case-relation,
or adverbiany.

d. MoreoTsr, where the final member is a derivatiTe having both nonn
and adjectiTO Talne, it Is not seldom doobtfal whether an adjective com-
pound is to be regarded as descriptWe, made with final adJectiTe, or pos-
sessiTe, made with final nonn. Sometimes the accent of the word determines
its character in this respect, but not always.

^ A satisfactorily simple and perspionons classification of the descrip-
tive compounds is not practicable ; we cannot hold apart thronghont the com-
pounds of nonn and of adjeotiTe Talne, bnt may better gronp both together,
as they appear with prefixed elements of various kinds.

1280. The simplest case is that in which a noun ^ as
final member is preceded by a qualifying adjective as prior

a. In this combination, both nonn and adjective may be of any
kind, verbal or otherwise. The accent is (as in the corresponding
class of dependent noon-compounds: 1267) on the final syllable.

b. Thus, ajfiatayakfrn^ unknoten disease, mahadhani great weaUhj
kfipra^yend stoi/i hawk, kf^i^a^akuni black bird, dakfii^figni aouihem
fire, uruk^itlu;^ abode, adharahanii lower jaw, itarajan& other folke,
sarv&tm&n whole soul, ekavird sole hero, ^aptar^ seven sages, t^tiya-
«avan& third libation, ekonavifi^ati a score diminished by one, jagrat-
BVtL-pnk waking sleep, y&VAyaXBskhk defending friend, apak^Iyamftna-
palc^ waning half.

O. There are not a few exceptions as regards accent. Especially, com-
pounds with vffva (in composition, accented viQvd), which itself retains
the accent: thus, vi^v&devfts aU the gods, vl9v&manu9a every man. For
words in ti, see below, 1287 d. Sporadic cases are madhy&iiidina,
▼^ikapi, both of which show an irregular shift of tone in the prior
member; and a few others.

d. Instead of an adjective, the prior member is in a few cases
a nonn used . appositionally, or with a qnasi-a^ective value. Thus,
rlUa7ak9ni& king-disease, brahmar^i priest-sage, rijarfi king-sage,
rijadanta king-tooth, devajana god-folk, duhitpjana daughter-person,
^axnUata creeper named garni, muflkftkhyft the name ^mouse^, Jaya-
Qabda the word ^conqaer^, ujhitagabda the word ^desertecT; or, more
figuratively, g^hanaraka house-hell {house which is a hell), 9&p&gni
curse-fire (consuming curse),

e. This group is of consequence, inasmuch as in possessive application

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1280—] XVIII. Composition. 496

it l8 gxe«tly extended, and fonas a nameioiis oUss of appoBltional eom-
ponndff: see below, 1298.

f. This whole sabdiiislon, of noana with preceding qualifying adjec-
tiyes, is not mn common; but it is greatly (in AY,, for example, more than
flTe times) exceeded in frequency by the sob-class of poasessiTes of the
same form: see below, 1298.

1281. The adverbial words which are most freely and
commonly used as prior members of compounds, qualifying
the final member, are the verbal prefixes and the words of
direction related with them, and the inseparable prefixes,
a or an^ bu, dus, etc. (1121). These are combined not
only with adjectives, but also, in quasi-adjectival value,
with nouns; and the two classes of combinations will best
beii treated together.

1282. Verbal adjectives and nouns with preceding
adverbs. As the largest and most important class under this head
might properly enough be regarded the derivatives with preceding
verbal prefixes. Th^se, however, have been here reckoned rather
as derivatives from roots combined with prefixes (1141), and have
been treated under the head of derivation, in the preceding chapter.
In taking up the others, we will begin with the participles.

1288. The participles belonging to the tense-systems — those in
ant (or at), mftna» ftna» vSj&lb — are only rarely compounded With
any other adverbial element than the negative a or an, which then
takes the accent

a. Examples are : inadant, ddadat, ina^nant, Aaravant, &lnbh-
yant, &d&Byant» ^ditsant, &devayaat; Amanyamtna, Ahiftaftna,
Aohidyamftna; &dadiv&]&B, Abibluvafke, atasth&na; and, with yerbal
prefixes, Anapaaphurant, Anfigfluni^yant* Anabhyftgami^yant^ &vi-
rftdhayant, Avlo&oalat, Apratimanyuyamftna.

b. Exceptions in regard to accent are very few : arondhatly fO^vantlt
aood&nt (RV., once: doubtless a false reading; the simple participle is
o6dant); AY. has anip&dyamftna for BY. &nipadyam&na (and the
published text has aeaiixydnt, with a part of the manusciipts); (B. has

o. Of other compounds than with the negative prefix haye been noted
in the Yeda -punardlyamftna (in Apnnard*) and B^vidvft&s. In alalt-
bh&vant and jafijan&bh&vant BY., as in astaiiiy&nt and astame^yint
(AY.), we have participles of a compound conjugation (1091), in which,
as has been pointed out, the accent is as in combinations with the Terbal

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497 Dbsobiptive Compounds. [—1285

1284. The passiye (or past) participle in ta or na is maoh more
yarioQBly compoimded; and in general (as in the case of the verbal
prefixes: 1086a) the preceding adyerbial element has the accent

a. Thus, with the negative a or an (by far the most common case) :
4]qrta, ddabdha, Ariffa, &nftdhr9t<^ dpariyita, isaibkhyata, &na*
bfayarfifha, &par1ini tawamyddha ; — with so, siij&ta, sdhuta, s^aih-
^ta, ayiuraifak^; — with das, d49oarita9 d^rdhita and dtirhita,
doh^fta; — with othei adverbial woids, d&AsuJQta, n&Tidftta» s&na-
9rata, avay&ihkrta* trfpratifthita: &raihkrta and kakiO^tkyta are
rather partidples of a compound conjugation.

b. Exceptions in regard to accent are^ with a or an» anft^astd, apra-
^ast&y and, with the accent of the participle retracted to the root, amfta,
adffta, aoitta,. aydta myrtW, atArta (beside dtOrta), aslirta (? beside
sl&rta) ; — with su (nearly half as numerous as the regular cases), BubhtitA,
8tikt&» supra^asti, avikta, Biilqrt& and BnJ&t4 (beside s^kyta and
BUJftta)» and a few others; with duB (quite as numerous as the regular
cases), dnriti (also diirlta), durukti, da^kre^ (also d^^kyta), dor-
bliQt&; with Ba» sajftti; with other adverbs, amot&, ari^t^t&t tuvij&t&,
pT&<nnopavIt&, tadftnuhdagdhi, pr&tardiigdb&, etc., and the com-
pounds with pom, puny&t&, purapny&t&, porupra^asti, piira9tut&,
etc., and with Bvayaxn, svayaihk^ etc. The proper name a^ft^h^
stands beside A^ft^ha; and AY. has abhinn& for RY. ibhinna.

1285. The gemndiyes occur almost only in combination with
the negatiye prefix, and haye usually the accent on the final syllable

a. Examples are: an&py&y anindy&» abndhyi, asahyi, ayodhyi,
ainoky&; adyifei^d; ahnavSyy&; and, along with yerbal pre/lxes, the
cases are asaibkbyeyi, apramf^yd, anapavrJy&» anatyndy&, anft-
dlq*9y&» ayimokyd, anftniikfty& (the accent of the simple word being
Baihlcby^ya etc.).

b. Exceptions in regard to accent are: &nedya» ddSbhya* &gohya,
^o^ya, dyabhya. The two anavadhar^ya and anativyftdhyh (both AY.)
belong to the yii-diylsion (1218b) of gerundives, and have retained the
accent of the simple word. And dghnya and aghnyd occnr together.

o« The only compounds of these words with other adverbial elements
in T. are soyabhya (accented like its twin dyabhya) and prathamavfisyk
(which retains the final circumflex), and perhaps ekavftdyd.

d* The neuter nouns of the same form (1218c: except sadh&Btutya)
retain their own accent after an adverbial prior member: thus, purvapasrya,
pOrvap^ya, amutrabhtflya; and saha^^yyii. And the negatived gerundives
instanced above are capable of being viewed as possessive compounds with
such nouns.

e. Some of the other rerbal deriyatiyes which haye rules of their
own as to accent etc. may be next noticed.

Wbitoey, Oraminar. 3. ed. 32

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1286—] XVUI. Composition. 498

1286. The root-Btem (pare root, or with t added after a short
final Yowel: 1147d) is very often combined with a preceding adyerbisl
word, of yarious kinds; and in the combination it retains the accent

a. Examples are: with Inseparable prefixes, adrdh not harming, aad
not giving birth, aruc not shining; Bukft well-doing, BU9r&t hearing wefl;
du^k^t ill-doing, dQ^^ (199 d) impious; sayiO joining together, sam&d
conflict; Bahi^A horn together, sahav&h carrying together; — with ether
adverbs, 'am^or growing old at home, upanBpf9 touching upward,
puxuurbhli appearing again, pr&tary^ harnessed early, sadyahkrl bought
the same dag, Bfikaihvfdli growing up together, Bi^aihdf ever-binding,
vl^uvft turning to both sides, -vTthftB&h easHg overcoming; — with ad-
ject! yes used adTerblally, uruvy&o wide-spreading, prathamaJa^<<-5om,
9akrap{9 brightly adorned, dvij& twice bom, trivft triple, svariU self-
ruling; — vlth nouns used adverbially, 9ambhti benejicent, 8arya9yit
shining like the sun, l9anakft acting as lord, Bvayambhti self-existent;
and, with accusative oase-foTm, pataihgd going by Jlight.

b« When, however, a root-stem is already in composition, whether
with a verbal prefix or an element of other character, the further added
negative itself takes the accent (as in case of an ordinary adjective; belov,
1288 a): thus, for example, infik^it not abiding, infivrt not turning back,
kvidvi^ not showing hostility, ddufk^t not HMoing, &na9vadft not giving
a horse, &pa9uhaii not slaying cattle, (anfigaa would be an exception, if
it contained V'gft: which is very unlikely). Similar combinations witii an
seem to» retain the radical accent: thus, Bupratdr, Bvftbhtiy svfiynj:
svav^ is an unsupported exception.

e. A few other exceptions occur, mostly of doubtful character, ai
pr&tiprft9, Badh&stha, idliriga, and the words having afio as flnal
member (407 ff.: if this element is not, after all, a suffix): compare 1269a.

1287. Other verbal derivatives, requiring to be treated apart
from the general body of adjectives, are few and of minor impor-
tance. Thus:

a. The derivatives in a are in great part of doubtful character, beeause
of the possibility of their being used with substantive value to make a pos-
sessive compound. The last ambiguous, probably, are the derivatives froD
present-stems (1148j), which have the accent on the suffix: thus, asunvi*
apa9y&, akfudhyd, avldasyi, anftmp^, sadapj^A, punannanyi;
and with them belong such cases as atn>&y av^dhd, araiiigam&y umkrami.
evftvadd, Batrftsah&y puiiahBar&, purahsar&; and the nouns s&yam-
bhav&, Bahacard, pr&tah8&v&, niithoyodh&. Differently accented, oi
the other hand, although apparently of the same formation, are such u
dnapaaphura* inavahvara (compare the compounds noticed at ISSSb)-
Badavrdha, Blibharva* nyagr6dha, puro^a9a, sadhamida» Bad€iglia«
BUp&oa, Buh&Ta, and others. Words like ad&bha, durhiu^ Btikira,
8uy&ma» are probably possesslves.

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499 Descriptive Ck>icpouNDS. [—1288

b. The deriTatiyes in van keep in general the accent of the final
member, on the root (compare 1169 0» 1277): thns, ft^up&tvan and
raghup&tvan 9u>%ft-flying, pnroyavan going in front, Bokftvan well-
doing', andsut&rman and sav&hman and raghuy^an are probably to
be classed with them. Bnt the negatiye prefix has the accent e^en before
these: thus, &yajvan, &r&van, dprayutvan; and Baty&madvan (if it
be not possessive) has the accent of its prioi member.
* c. A few words in i seem to hsTe (as in dependent compounds : 1276)
the accent on the radical syllable : thus, dorg^bhi, fjnv&ni, tuvi^v&i^.

d. The derivstiTes in ti are yariously treated: the negative prefix has
always ihe accent before them: as/&oitti, &bhQti» dnfihuti; with su and
dUB, the compound is accented now on the prefix and now on the final, and
in some words on either (sdniti and Bonltl, d^^tuti and duftutf); with
other elements, the accent of the prefix prevails : thos, B&huti^ Badh^Mtuti,
piir6hiti» purv&piti, pfbrvy&stuti.

e. The derivatives in in have, as in general, the accent on the soffix:
thns, purvftsfn, bahuo&rin, Bftdhadevfn,* Bavftafn, kevalftdin. But
with the negstive prefix, &n&min, dvitftrin.

f. Other combinations are too various in treatment, or are represented
by too few examples in accentuated texts, to justify the setting up of rules
respecting them.

1288. Of the remaining combinations, those made with the insep-
arable prefixes form in some measure a class by themselves.

1. a. The negative prefix a or an, when it directly negatives the
word to which it is added, has a very decided tendency to take the

b. We have seen above (1288) that it does so even in the case of
present and perfect and future participles, although these in combination
with a verbal prefix retain their own accent (1086: but there are exceptions,
as avad4nt» apa^y&nt, etc. (!B.); and also in the case of a root-stem, if
this be already compounded with another element (1286 b). And the same
is true of its other combinations.

o. Thus, with various adjective words: dtandra, ddabhra* ^dft^uri,
4nTJii» ddevayn, dtr^i^aj, dtavySAs, dnfimin, &dvay&vln, dpraoetaa,
dnapstyavant, dnupadasvant, &pramSyuka» dmamri, &praji0£l^>
&vididha3ru» inagnidagdhaf &kftmakar9ana, &pa9Cftddaghvan. Fur-
ther, with nouns, dpati, ^kumfira, dbrahmapa, dvidyft, i^raddhft,

d. Bnt there are a number of exceptions, in which the accent is on
the final syllable, without regard to the original accentuation of the final
member: thus, for example, acitrd, a9xir&, avipr&, ayaJMyd, anfi-
BvaSJsi^ aathurf, anS^u, i^ctrayu, anftmayitnu ; and in amitra enemy,
and avira unmanly, there is a retraction of the accent from the final syllable
of the final member to its penult.


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1288—] XVm. Composition. 500

2. e. The prefixes su and dns have this tendency in a much
less degree, and their compounds are very variously accented, now
on the prefix, now on the final syllable, now on the accented syllable
of the final member; and occasionally on either of two syllables.

f. Thus, for example, edbhadra, s^vipra, supakva, subrShnuu^a,
B^bhi^aj; sutirthd, suvasani, Bu^firathl, sup&^i, sucitr^; 8U96va,
Bii]i6t|^: suvira la like avlra; — durmitrd, dul^Lfv&pnya ; and ducchunfi'
(168 b), with inegulai retraction of accent (<jiin&). *

3. g. The compounds with sa are too few to famish occasion for
separate mention} and those with the interrogatiye prefix in its vaiioos
forms are also extremely rare in the Yeda: examples are kueari, kat-
pay&» k&bandha, ktmannami, kumftri, ki&yava, ku^iva.

1289* The verbal prefixes are sometimes used in a general ad-
verbial way, qualifying a following adjective or noun.

a* Examples of such combinations are not numerous in the Yedt.
Their accentuation is various, though the tone rests oftenest on the pre-
position. Thus ddhipati over-lord, Aparflpa mis'form, pr4ti9atra oppos-
ing foe, pr&pada fore part of foot, pr&i^p&t great-grandMid, vipakva
quite done, s&mpriya mutually dear*, upajihvikft side tongue (with re-
traction of the accent of Jihva); antarde^^ intermediate direction, pradiv
forward heaven, prapitSmah& (also [pr&pitsmaha) great-^andfather,
pratijan& opponent, vyadhv& midway. These compounds are more fre-
quent with possessive value (below, 1306).

b. This use of the verbal prefixes is more common later, and some of
them have a regular value in such compounds. Thus, ati denotes excess,
as in atidura very far, atibhaya exceeding fear, dtiptirufa ((B.) c^f
man; adhi, superiority, as in adhidanta upper- tooth adhistrl chief woman;
abhi is intensive, as in abhinamra much inclining, abhinava epan^neit^
abhirucira delightful; & signifies eomewhai, as in fiku^a somewhat crooked,
ftnUa bluish; upa denotes something accessory or secondary, as in upa-
pur&i^ additional Purana; paxi, excess as in paridorbala very weak;
prati, opposition, as in pratipakfa opposing side, pratipuataka copy;
vi, variation or excess, as in vidQra very far, vipft^^u greyish, vikfudra
respectively small; earn, completeness, as in sampakva quite ripe.

1290. Other compounds with adverbial prior members are quite irreg-
ularly accented.

Thus, the compounds with ptiru, on the final (compare the partldples
with pum, 1284 b): as, purudasmi, purupriyd, puru^candrA; thoM
with piimar, on the prior member, as punar^va, pi^armagha, pftnar-
yuvan, punarvasu (but punal^sari etc.); those with sat&a. sattni.
8aty&, the same, as Bat6maliant, satln&manya, saty&mugra; a fev
combinations of nouns in tf and ana with adverbs akin with the prefixes,
on the final syllable, as puraStf , pura^Bth&tf, upari9ayan&, pr&ta^sa-

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 52 of 59)