William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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van&; and miscellaneous cases are mith6avadyapa, h&ri9oandra, idpa*
9a3ru, Bftdhvaryi, yftcchre^thi and y&vaochre9th&, JyogftmayftTtn*

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501 Sbcondaky Adjectivb Compounds. 1293 — ]

1S81. Ooe or two exceptional cases may be noted, as follows:

a. An adjeotlTe is sometimes preceded by a noan standing toward It
in a qnasi-adyerbial relation expressiye of comparison or likeness: e. g.
Qukababhru (VS.) parroUhroton, dn^ftmrdu (TB.) soft as wool, prfti^
priya dear as life, ku9e9a7avaJomrdu soft as lotus^oUen^ bakftUna
hidden like a heron, mattamfttangagftmin moving like a maddened elephant,

b« An adjeetiye is now and then^nalifled by another adjectiye: e. g.
Iqpi^nftita dark-gray ^ dhnmr&rohlta grayish red: and compare the adjec-
tiyes of intermediate direction, 1257 c.

e« The adjective p&rva is in the later language frequently nsed as
final member of a componnd in which its logical value is that of an adverb
qualifying the other member (which is said to retain its own accent). Thus,
drffaptlrva previously seen, parl^Itaptbrva already married, aparijftfi-
tapfbrvti not before known, somapitapurva having formerly drunk soma,
BtrfpwcvA formerly a woman,

III. Secondary Adjective Compounds.

1292. a. A compound having a noun as its final mem-
ber very often wins secondarily the value of an adjective,
being inflected in the three genders to agree with the noun
which it qualifies, and used in all the constructions of an

b. This class of compounds, as was pointed out above
(1247. III.), falls into the two divisions of A. Possessives,
having their adjective character given them by addition of
the idea of possessing] and B. those in which the final
member is syntactically dependent on or governed by the
prior member.

A. PosseBsive OompoujidB.

1208. The possessives are noun-compounds of the pre-
ceding class, determinatives, of all its various subdivisions,
to which is given an adjective inflection, and which take
on an adjective meaning of a kind which is most conve-
niently and accurately defined by adding having or pos'
sessing to the meaning of the determinative.

a. Thus: the dependent stLryatej&s sun's brightness becomes the

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1293 - ] XVIII. Composition. 502

posBessive sAryatejas possessing the brightness of the sun; yajftakftma
desire of saerijice becomes yiQft&kifcinft having desire of sacrifie€\ the
descriptiye b^hadratha great chariot becomes the possessive b^hid-
ratha hamng great chariots; Shasta not hand becomes alia8t4 hwMOest;
durghandi HI savor becomes dnrgindhi of ill savor; and so on.

b. A copnlatiye compoimd U not convertible into an adjective directly,
any more than is a simple noun, J>at requires, lUce the latter, a possessiTe
suffix or other means : e. g. vfigghaatavant, do^agti^in, rajastamasks,
a^irogrrlva* an^rgyi^^u* A yery small number of exceptions, howerec,
are found: thus, 8omendr& (TS.), Bt6mapf^t^ (^3* ^^O* hastyj^^abliA
(9B.), dfttini^ka (ChU.)) ^^) l^ter, cakramtiBala, sadftnanda, saocid-
ftnanda, s&akhyayoga (as n. pr.), balftbala, bhatabhftutika.

o. The name giyen by the natire grammarians to the possessiTe com-
pounds is bahuvrihi : the word is an example of the class, meaning pos-
sessing much rice.

d. The name **relatiTe'', instead of possessiTe, sometimes applied to
this class, is an utter misnomer; since, though the meaning of such a eom-
pound (as of any attribute irord) is easily cast into a relatlTe form, its
essential character lies in the possessiTe verb which has neTertheless to bd
added, or in the possessiye case of the relatiye wich must be used: thus,
mahfikavi and ftyurdft, descriptiTO and dependent, are ^relatiye^ also.
who is a great poety and that is life-giving^ but b^hadratha, possessiTe,
means who has a great chariot ^ or whose is a great chariot,

1294. a. That a noun, simple or compound, should be' added to an-
other noun, in an opposite way, with a yalue yirtually attributlTe, and that
such nouns should occasionally gain by frequent association and applicatloo
an adJectlTO form also, is natural enough, and occurs in many languages;
the peculiarity of the Sanskrit formation lies in two things. First, thit
such use should haye become a perfectly regular and indefinitely extensible
one in the case of compounded words, so that any compound with noon-
final may be turned without alteration into an adjectiye, while to a simple
noun must be added an adjectiTe-making suffix in order to adapt it to
adjectiye use: for example, that while hasta must become hastin an^
bfihu must become bfihomant* hira^yahasta and mahabfthu change
from noun to adjectiTe yalue with no added ending. And second, that
the relation of the qualified noun to the compoond should haye come to be
so generally that of possession, not of likeness, nor of appurtenance, nor of
any other relation [which is as naturally involved in such a constructioo:
that we may only say, for example, mah&bfihuh porufa^ man iri^A
great arms, and not also mahftbfthor vxbs^ jewel for a great arm^ or
mahftbahava^ 9&khfi]^ branches like great arms.

b. There are, however, in the older language a few derivative Md-
Jective compounds which imply the relation of appurtenance rather than &»(
of possession, and which are with probability to be viewed as suivivals of
a state of things antecedent to the specialization of the general ola» f

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503 Possessive Compounds. [—1297

possetsiye (oompare the similar exceptioDs under posBessive sofflxes, 1280g,
128df). Examples are: vl9vanara of oi for all men^ belonging to aU
(and 80 vi^&lTfti, -oarfa^i, -kfiti, -gotra» -manuSy -&yti» and sar-
vdpa^u, saptiun&nufa), vi^&^ftrada of every autumn^ vipath& for
bad roadsy dvirfijd [battle] of two kingsy a^vapjp^t^ carried on horseback^
vir&pastya abiding with heroes^ pUn^&mfisa at full moon^ ad^vaka /or
no divinity^ bahudevata or -tyk for many divinitiesy aparisaihvatsara
not lasting a full year y ek&da9akapftla /or eleven ditheSy Bomendr& /or
Soma and Indra. And the compounds with final membei in ana mentioned
at *1 296 b are probably of the same character. But also in the later lan-
guage, some 6t the so-ealled dvigu-compounds (1813) belong with these:
80 dvigu itself, as meaning worth two cows, dvin&u bought for two eh^s;
also occasional cases like devftsura [saihgrfima] of the gods and demons,
narahaya of man and horse^ cakramusala with discus of club, gtiru-
talpa violating the teacher^s bed,

1296. The posBessiye oompound is distlDgiiished from its sub-
Btrate, the determinative, generally by a difference of accent JTbis
difference is not of the same nature in all the diviBions of the class;
bnt oftenest, the possessive has as a compound the natural accent
of its prior member (as in most of the examples given above).

1296. Possessively used dependent compounds, or pos-
sessive dependents, are very much less common than
those corresponding to the other division of determinatives.

a. Further examples are : mayliraroxnan having the plumes of pea-
coeksy agnitejas having the brightness of fire, jfifttiniukha wearing the
aspect of relativesy p&tikftma desiring a husbandy hastipftda having an
elephant's feet, rSjanykbandhu having kshatriyas for relatives.

b. The accent is, as in the examples gi^en, regularly that of the
prior member, and exceptions are rare and of doubtful character. A few
compounds with deriyatiTes in ana have the acccent of the final member:
e. g. indrapana serving as drink for Indra, devas^dana serving as seat
for the gods, raylsthana being source of wealth-, but they contain no
implication of possession, and are possibly in character, as In accent, de-
pendent (but compare 1294 b). Also a few in as, as n^po&kij^ men-
hsholdingy n^&ias men-bearingy k^etrasadhas fleld-prosperingy are pro-
bably to be judged in the same way.

12^7. Possessively used descriptive compounds, or pos-
sessive descriptives, are extremely numerous and of
every variety of character; and some kinds of combination
which are rare in proper descriptive use are very common
as possessives.

a. They will be taken up below in order, according to the char-

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11J97— ] XVIII. CoMPOflinoN. 504

acter of the prior member — whether the noun-final be preceded by
a qualifying adjective, or noun, or adverb.

1298. PoBsessive compounds in which a noun is preceded by
a qualifying ordinary adjective are (as pointed out above, 1280f,
very much more common than descriptives of the same form.

a. They regularly and usually haye the accent of theii prior member:
thus, any&rtipa of other form, ugr&bfthu having powerful arms, jivA-
putra having living sons, dlrgh&9ma9m longhearded, bf h&cohravaB of
great renown, bhtbimiila many-rooted, mahivadha bearing a great i^eo-
pon, vi^v&rupa having aU forms, 9ukT&van^ of bright c(dor, ^ivabhi-
mar9&]ia of propitious touch, saty&saihdha of true promises, B&rvSflga
whole-limbed, sv&ya^aB having own glory, h&ritaBraj wearing yellow

b. Exceptions, however. In regard to accent are not rare (a seventh
or eigbth of the whole number, perhaps). Thus, the accent is sometimes
that of the final member; especially with derivatiTes in as, as tnviradhas,
pufUp^^as, pfthup&kij^, and others in whleh (as above, 1296b) a
determinatiye character may be suspected : thus, ornjr&yas beside arojrl,
uruvy&oas beside tiruvy&c, and so on; but also with those of other
finals, as fjuh&sta, Qitik&]qia etc., kf^i^ak^^^i^ citrad^ika, tnvi-
9^ma, fjukr&tOy p^^np^u^u, pnruv&rtman, raghtiyaman, vi^u-
p&tman. In a very few cases, the accent is retracted from the final to
the first syllable of the second member: thus, afthubh^da, tuvigiTva»
puruvira, pumrApa, ^itibihn (also 9itib&h4). The largest class is
that of compounds which take the accent upon their final syllable (in part,
of course, not distinguishable from those which retain the accent of the
final member): for example, bahvann&, nUanakh&y puruputri,
vi9v&ag&, BvapatC tnvipratf, p^niparni f., dar9ata9rl» putin^iJtit
asitajfiu, p^agm&n, bahuprfO&a.

c. The adjective v{9va aU, as prior member of a compound (and also
in derivation), changes its accent regularly^ to vi9v&; 8&rva whole, aU,
does the same in a few cases.

1299. Possessive compounds with a participle preceding and
qualifying the 'final noun-member are numerous, although such a
compound with simple descriptive value is almost unknown. The
accent is, with few exceptions, that of the prior member.

a. The participle is oftenest the passive one, in ta or luu Thus,
ohinn&pak^a with severed wing, dlqpt&rfi^tra of firmly held royalty,
hat&m&tf whose mother is slain, iddhi^gni whose fire is kindled, uttSni*
hasta with outstretched hand, pTkYtttSiMk^ij^ having presented sacrifieitJ
gifts; and, with prefixed negative, ^ziftavlra whose men are unhitrmid,
dtaptatanu of unbumed substance, inabhimlfttavan^a of untarnished
color. Exceptions in regard to accent are very few : there have been noticed
only paryaatfikfi, vya8take9i f., aehinnapar^d.

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505 PossBSSiYE Compounds. [—1800

b. Examples ocem of % present partidple in the same sltaation. In
about half the (accentnated) instances, it glTes its own accent to the com-
ponnd: thus, dyat&dyftman» dh|^&dvan^ etc., 9U0&dratha, rd9ad-
vatsa etc., bhr^ajjanman etc., 8aihy&dvira» stan&yadama, s^Ulliad-
ift^; in the others, the accent is drawn forward to the final syllable of
the participle (as in the componnds with gOTcming participle: below, 1800):
thus, drav&tpft^ etc. (drav&t also occurs as adverb), rap^&dQdhaii,
Bvan&dratha, aroiddhftma, bhand&di^ti, krand&di^ti. With these last
agrees in form Jar&da^^ attaining old age, long-lived; but its make-up,
in Tiew of its meaning, is anomalous.

o. The RY. has two compounds with the perfect middle participle as
prior member: thus, yuyujftn&sapti with harnessed coursers (perhaps rather
having harnessed their cottrsers), and dad^finipavi (with regular accent,
instead of d&d^ftna* as elsewhere irregularly in this participle) with con'
spicuous wheeUrims,

d« Of a nearly participial character is the prior element in ^rdtkan^
(RV.) of listening ear\ and with this are perhaps accordant didyagni and
8thira9ma]i (RV., each once).

1800. PosseBsiye compoonds having a numeral ae prior member
are very common, and for the moBt part follow the same rule of
accent which is foUowed by compoundB with other adjectives: ex-
cepted are those beginning with dvl and tri, which accent in general
the final member.

a. Examples with other numerals than dvi and tri are: 6kaoakra,
^ka^ir^an, 6kapad, o&tura&ga, o&tu^pak^a, p&ftofifigtiri, p&ftofta-
dana, 944a9va, f&fpad, sapt^jibva, aaptim&tr, aafapad, a^f&putra,
n&vapad, n&vadvftra, d&^a^fikha, d&^a^Irfan, dvida^ftra* trl&^&d-

ara, ^at&parvan, ^atiulant, Bah&arai^ftman, sah&sramula.

b. Exceptions in regard to accent are but few, and haye the tone on
he final syllable, whatever may be that belonging originally to the final
member; they are mostly stems in final a, used by substitution for others
in an, 1, or a consonant: thus, caturak94 etc. (akf&n or Kkffi.: 481),
(;^a4ah& etc. (&han or &har: 480 a), da^av^fi etc. (vf^an), ekarfttx^
etc. {ttktri or ritrf), ekaro& etc. (fc); bat also a few others, as i|^-
yog^ a9tSyog&, 9atfirgh&, Baha0r&rgh&, ekapar&(P).

o. The compounds with dvl and trl for the most part have the ac-
cent of their final member: thus, for example, dvij&ninan, dvidhtra,
dvlb&ndhu, dvivartanf, dvip&d; trit&ntu, trinabhl, trlQ6ka, triv&-
rfitha, trioakrd, tri9lr94n, trip&d. A number of words, however, follow
the general analogy, and accent the numeral : thus, for example, dv{pakf a»
dvf^avma, dvy^toya, trfyindhi, trykra, tryll9lr, and sometimes dvf-
pad and tripad in AV. As in the other numeral compounds, as substi-
tuted stem in a is apt to take the accent on the final: thus, dviv^fd
and trivT^i, dviriyi, dvirfttr&» tryfiyufi, tridivi; and a few of other

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1300—] XVIII. Composition. 506

charactei with tri follow the same rule: thus, trlka94, trinfiki, tri'
bandhu« tryudh&n, tribai^hfs, etc.

d. The neuter, or also the feminine, of numeral compounds is often
used BubstantiTely, with a collective or abstract Talae^ and the accent is
then regularly on the final syllable: see below, 1812.

1801. PoBsessive compounds having as prior member a noan
which has a quasi-adjective value in qualifying the final member are
very frequent, and show certain specialities of usage.

a. Least peculiar Is a noun of material as prior member (hardly to be
reckoned as possessive dependents, because the relation of material is not
regularly expressed by a case: 295): thus, hfranyahasta gold-hmtdel,
hirai^asraj with golden garlands, dyahsthui^a having brazen supports,
rajat&n&bhi of silver navel.

1802. Especially common is the use of a noun as prior member
to qualify the other appositionally, or by way of equivalence (the
occasional occurrence of determinatives of this character has been no-
ticed above, 1280 d). These may conveniently be called ap po-
sitional possessives. Their accent is that of the prior member,
like the ordinary possessive descriptives.

a. Examples are : &9vapan^ horse-winged, or having horses as wings
(said of a chariot), bhtimig^ha leaving the earth as home, indrasakhi
?iaving Indra for friend, Agnihotf Tiaving Agni as priest, gandharv&patnl
having a Gandharva for spouse, ^Cir&putra having hero-sons, jaramftyu
having old age as mode of deaih, living till old age, agnivfiaas Jtre-ekd,
tadanta ending with that, cftraoakfus using spies for eyes, viygLii^ar-
manfiman named Vishnuearman\ and, with pronoun instead of noon,
tvadtlta having thee as messenger, t&dapas having this for work. Excep-
tions in regard to accent occur here, as in the more regular deeeriptive
formation : thus, agniJUiv&» vr^ai^a^vi* dbama9iklL&» paYinasi, asftn-
nama, tatkula, etc.

b. Not infrequently, a substantively used adjective is the floal monber
in such a compound: thus, {ndriOyeftha having Indra as chief, jnkn$J^
^a^tha having the mind as sixth, 86ina9rei|ftha of which soma is heeL,
ekapar4 of which the ace is highest (?), ^sthibhtiyas having bane as the
larger part, chiefly of bone, abhirupabhtiyiftha chiefly composed ef
worthy persons, da9&vara having ten as the lowest number, ointftpara
having meditation as highest object or occupation, devoted to meditation^
ni^^vfisa-parama much addicted to sighing.

o. Certain words are of especial frequency in the compounds here de-
scribed, and have in part won a peculiar application. Thus:

d. With ftdi beginning or ftdika or &dya^r«^ are made compounds
signifying the person or thing specified along with others, such a person or
thing et cetera. For example, d9v& indr&daya)^ the gods having Indra m
first, i. e. the gods Indra etc., marloy&dXn munin Marici and the other

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507 PossBSflivB Compounds. [—1803

sages, BT&yambhuv&dyft^ saptfti te manava^ those seven Manusy
SvayambJntva etc., agniftomftdikftn the sacrifices Agnishtoma and so on.
Or the qualified noan is omitted, as in annapftnendhanftdini /oo(/, drink,
JUei, etc., dftnadhannftdikaih oarata bhay&n let your honor practise
Uberality, religious rites, and the like. The particles evam and iti are also
sometimes nsed by substitution as prior members: thus, evamftdi vaoa-
nam words to this and the like effect; ato liaih bravimi kartavya^
saihoayo nityam ityftdl hence I say ^accumulation is ever to be made^ etc.

e. Used in much the same way, but less often, is prabh^ begin-
ning: thus, vi^vftvasuprabh^bhir gandharv&i]^ with the Oandharvas
Vicvavasu etc.; especially adrerbially, in measurements of space and time
as tatprabhrti or tata^prabh^ thenceforward.

f. Words meaning foregoer, predecessor, and the like — namely,
pQrya» piirvaka* porahsara, puraskrta, ptLrogama — are often
employed in a similar manner, and especially adverbially, but for the most
part to denote accompaniment, rather than antecedence, of that which is
designated by the prior member of the compound: e. g. Bmitap&rvain
with a smile, anfimayapra^nap^vakam with inquiries after health
pitftmahapurogama accompanied by the Great Father.

g. The noun mfttrft measure stands as final of a compound which is
used a^jectively or in the substantiye neuter . to signify a limit that is not
exceeded, and obtains thus the virtual value of mere, only: thus, jala-
mfttrei^ vartayan living by water only (lit. by that which has water
for its measure or /tintQ,**garbhaoyatim&trena by merely issuing from
the womb, prSi^y&trikamfttra^ ayftt let him be one possessing what
does not exceed the preservation of life; uktam&tre tu vaoane but the
words being merely uttered.

h. The noun artha object, purpose is used at the end of a compound,
in the adverbial accusative neuter, to signify for the sake of or the like :
thus, yi^fiaslddhyarthaiii in order to the accomplishment of the sacrifice
(lit. in a manner having the accotnplishment of the sacrifice as its object),
'damayantyarthain for DamayanfVs sake (with Damayantl as obfecf).

i. Other examples are &bhft, kalpa» in the sense of like, approaching:
thus, hemftbha gold- like, irqrtakalpa nearly dead, pratipannakalpa
almost accomplished; — vidhft, in the sense of kind, sort: thus, tvadvidha
of thy sort, pura^avldha of human kind; — prSya* in the sense of
mostfy, often, and the like: thus, duhkh&pr&ya full of pain, tp^pr&ya
abounding in grass, nirgamanaprdya often going out; — antara (in
substantive neuter), in the sense of other: thus, de9&ntara another region
(lit. that which has a difference of region), Janmftntar&i^ other existences,
^akhftntare m another text.

1808. In appositiorial possessive cojnpounds, the second member, if it
designates a part of the body, sometimes logically signifies that part to which
what is designated by the prior member belongs, that on or in which It is.

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1808—] XVIII. Composition. 508

a. ThoB, ghft&pi^t^ buiter-backedy m&dlmJihTa honey'tongued,
nifkiigrlva and mai^igriva neeklaee-^teek&df pitrahasta venelrhtmdei,
v^rabfthu Ughtntng-armed, iarftmukha blood-faced, 'kWnXfHJhnn metd-
udderedy v^ajafhara aacrifice-bellied, vft^pakaj^fha with tears in tke
throat, 9raddhainana8 with faith in the heart; with irregular aeeent,
dhtunfikff f. smoke'eyed, a^rumukhl f. tear-faced; and khadihasta
ring-handed (khftdlj. In the later langaage, such compoonda are not in-
frequent with words meaning hand: thus, 9a8trapft9i having a eword in
the hand, lagu^ahasta carrying a staff.

1804. Of possesBive compoundg having an adverbial element as
prior member, the most numerous by far are those made with the
inseparable prefixes. Their accent is yarions. Thus:

a. In compounds with the negative prefix a or an (in which the latter
logically negatives the imported idea of possession), the accent is prevailingly
on the final syllable, without regard to the original accent of the final memher.
For example: anant& having no end^ abal& not possessing strength, arathi
without chariot, a^raddhi faithless, amai^ without omamenty a^atrd
without a foe, avarm&n not cuirassed, ad&nt toothless, B^yiid footless^
atej&8 without brightness, anfirambha]|^ not to be gotten hold of, apra-
timSn& incomparable, aducchiin& bringing no harm, apak^paoohi
without sides or tail,

b* But a number of examples (few in proportion to those already in-
stanced) have the prefix accented (like the simple descriptives : 1288 a):
thus, ^k^iti indestructible, &ga kineless, i/goip9^^iihout shepherd, ^vana
lifeless, &n&pi without friends^ &9i9Vi f. without young, &m^^tya deaik-
less, &brahman without priest, dvyacas without extension, &havia without
oblation, and a few others; AV. has dprajas, but ^B. apraj&8. A very
few have the accent on the penult: namely, a^^fas, aj&ii» and avira
(with retraction, from vir&), apdtra (do., from putri)-, and AT. has
abhrStr, but RV. abhrftt^.

e. In compounds with the prefixes of praise and dispraise, BU aod
due, the accent is in the great minority of cases that of the final member:
thus, Buk&lpa of etksy make, subh&ga weU portioned, sunAkfatra of
propitious star, suputrd having excellent sons, sugopi well-shepherded,
Buklrti of good fame, Bxxgkadhi flagrant, BuhShAweU-armed, suy&dita
of easy control, Bukr&tu of good capacity, Buhird good-hearted, wasrii
well-garlanded, BUvArman weU-cuirassed, Buvfaaa well-clad, BUpiA^IU
weU guiding ; durbh&ga ill-portioned, durdf 9lka of evil aspect, dordhira
?uird to restrain, durg&ndhi ill-savored, durftdhi of evil designs, dor-
dh&rtu hard to restrain, du^t&rita Jutrd to excel, duraty^tu hard to cress.
durdhiir ill-yoked, dun^iman iU-named; duryiBaB iU-dad,

d. There are, however, a not Inconsiderable number of instances Is
which the accent of these compounds is upon the final syllable: thus, sn-
9ipr& welUlipped, Bvapatyi of good progeny, BaBa]hkft9& ofgoodaspsd,
Bvafiguri weU-fingered, Bvif d having good arrows, Bapiv&B well fatted;

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and compounds with deriyatiToi io ana, m 8tivijli&ii& of easy dtscemmenty
sftpaaarpa^A cfeaay approach^ du9oyavan& hard to $hake; and AY. has
BuphalA and Bubandh^ against BY. Buph&la and sttbdndha. Like
avira, Buvira shows retraction of accent. Only dorft^ir has the tone on
the prefix.

e. On the whole, the distinction by accent of possessive from deter-
minatire is lose deariy shown in the words made with su and das than
in any other body of compounds.

f. The associatire prefix sa oi (less often) Bah& is treated like an
adjective element, and itself takes the accent in a possessive compound:
thus, B&kratu of joint toiU^ B&n&man of like name, 8&rQpa of eimilar
form^ nkyojii having a common origin, 84v&oa8 of assenting words^ 8&toka
having progeny ahng^ with one*s progeny, B&brfthmaija together with the

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 53 of 59)