William Dwight Whitney.

A Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana online

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Brahmans, nkmfi\rkwith the root, sintardeqtk with the intermediate direct-
ions; saldkgopa with the shepherd, Bahdvataa accompanied by one's young,
8ah4patni having her husband with'her, Bah&pVau^ti along with our men.

g. In BY. (save in a doubtful case or two), only saha in such com-
pounds gives the meaning of having with one, accompanied by; and, since
saha 'governs the instrumental, the wor^s beginning with it might be of the
prepositional class (below, 1310). But in AY. both sa and saha have this
value (as Illustrated by examples given above); and in the later language,
the co.mbinations with sa are much the more numerous.

h. There are a few exceptions, in which the accent is that of the final
member: thus, 8iy69a, Ba^d^aB^ sadf ga, sapr&thas, sabadhas, sapianyu
and AY. shows the accent on the final syllable in sftikgi ((B. siflga) and
the BubsUntivized (1312) savidyutd.

i* Possessive compounds with the exclamatory prefixes ka etc. are
too few in the older language to furnish ground for any rule as to accent:
k&bandha is perhaps an example* of such.

1805. PoBsesslTe compounds in which a verbal prefix is used
as prior member with adjective value, qualifying a noan as final
member, are found even in the oldest language, and are rather more
common later (compare the descriptive compounds, above, 1289; and
the prepositional, below, 1310). They usually have the accent of
the prefix.

a* Most common are those made with pra, vi, and sam: thus, for
example, pr&mahas having exceeding might, pr&gravas widely famed;
vfgriva of wry neck, vykfiga having limbs away or gone, limbless, vilSni
wifeless, viparva and YipBTUBjointless, vykdhvan of wide ways, vimanas
both of wide mind and mindless, viv&oas of discordant speech; B&mpatnl
having one's husband along, s&mmanas of accordant mind, s&ihsahasra
accompanied by a thousand, s&mokas of joint abode. Examples of others
are : &t5rtbrmi surging over, idhivastra having a garment on, 4dhyardha
with a half over, idhyakfa overseer, ipodaka without water, abhirupa

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1306—] XVni. Composition. 510

of adapted character^ &vatoka that ha$ aborted, amanas of favorahU
mind, udojas of exalted power, nimanyu of asituiged fury, nirmfiya
free from guile, nirhasta handless,

b« In a comparatively small number of cases, the accent is other^rise,
and generally on the final: thus, avake9&» upamanyi^, vi9aph&, vi9lkli4
(AY. vlgikha), vikary4, Bamm&tf , etc. ; in an instance or two, that of
the final member: thus, saih9{9vari having a common young.

1306. Possessive compounds with an ordinary adverb as prior
member are also found in every period of the language. They usu-
ally have the accent which belongs to the adverb as independent word.

a. Examples are: &ntytlti bringing near help, av6deva calling down
the gods, it&Qti helping on this side, ih4citta with mind directed hither,
dakfii^at^skaparda wearing the braid on the right side, ninftdharman
of various character, purudh&pratlka of manifold aspect, viQv&tomakhA
with faces on all sides, sady&Qti of immediate aid, v{f urapa of varum
form, Bm&dudhan with udder, adh&atfillak^man with mark below, eka-
tomukha with face on ^ne side, t&th&vidha of such sort

b. An Instance or two of irregular accent are met with: thus, pnro-
rath& whose chariot is foremost, qvaibkratifi so-minded

1307. a. It was pointed out in the preceding chapter (ISfiSh,
that the indifferent suffix ka is often added to a pure possessive
compound, to help the conversion of the compounded stem into an
adjective; especially, where the final of the stem is less usual or
manageable in adjective inflection.

b. Also, the compojind possessive stem occasionally takes farther a jiFOf-
sessiTo-making suffix: thus, ya9obhag{n» BU9iprin» varavan^, dirgha-
Butrin, ptu^av&gbuddhikarmln, sutisomavant, tftdfgr&pavant,
trayodagadvipavant, nSrakapftlakiu^^alavant, amitabuddhimant.

o. The frequent changes which are undergone by the final of a stem
occurring at the end of a compound are noticed farther on (1816).

1808. The possessive compounds are not always used in the
later language with the simple value of qualifying adjective; often
they have a pregnant sense, and become the equivalents of depen-
dent clauses; or the having which is implied in them obtains virta-
ally the value of our having as sign of past time.

a. Thus, for example, ^Tit,'pt9:!f^\xvtiJi9k possessing attained adoleseence,
1. e. having arrived at adolescence', anadhigatagfiBtra with unstudied bookt^
1. e. who has neglected study; k^^prayatna possessing performed efufii,
1. e. on whom effort is expended; afiguliyakadar^an&vaBftna having iht
sight of the ring as termination, i. e. destined to end on sight of the ring;
uddh^ptavifftda^alya];! having an extracted despair-arrow, i. e. when IshaU
have extracted the barb of despair; QrutaviBtftral;! kriyatftm let him ^
made with heard details. 1. e. let him be informed of the details; dp^faviiyo
me r&mah Hama has seen my prowess, bhagnabhfi]^<}o dvijo yathfi /<^

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511 Participial and Prepositional Compounds. [ — 1310

the Brahman thai broke the pots, aktftnrtam xi^ yath& Uke a eage
that has spoken faleefy.

B. Ck>mpoimd8 with Gk>yenied Final Member.

1309. Participial CompoundB. This gronp of compounds,
in which the prior member is a present participle and the final mem-
ber its object, is a sioall one (toward thirty examples) and exclusi-
vely Vedic — indeed, almost limited to the oldest Vedic (of the Big-
Veda). The accent is on the final syllable of the participle, whatever
may have been the iatter*s accent as an independent word.

a. Examples axe: vid&dvasu winning good things^ k^ay&dvira
governing (k^^yant) heroes, tar4ddve^^ overcoming (t&rant) foes,
ftbhar&dvasu bringing good things, eoday&nmati inciting (cod&yant)
devotion, manday&tsakha rejoicing friends, dh&rayitkavi sustaining
sages, ma&hay&drayi bestowing wealth.

b. In B&d&dyoni sitting in the lap (sftdat quite anomaloiisly for sldat
or sadat), and spiphay&dvan^a emulous of color, the case-relation of the
final member is other than accasative. In patay&n manday 4t8akh am
(RV. i. 4. 7), patay&ty with accent changed accordingly, represents patay-
&t8aJEham» the final member being understood from the following word.
Vidida^va Is to be inferred ftom its deriyatiye vftidada^vl Of this
formation appear to be Jam&dagni» prat&dvasu (prath&dP)» and tras-
&da8yu (for tras&ddasyu P). It was noticed above (1299 e) that yuynja-
n&aapti is capable of being understood as a unique compound of like
character, with a perfect instead of present participle; B^dhadifti, on
account of its accent, is probably possessive.

1310. Prepositional Compounds. By this name may be
conveniently called those combinations in which the prior member
is a particle having true prepositional value, and the final member
is a noun governed by it. Such combinations, though few in num-
ber as compared with other classes of compounds, are not rare, either
in the earlier language or in the later. Their accent is so various that
no rule can be set up respecting it.

a. Examples are: &tyavi passing through the wool, atiratr& over-
night, atim&tr4 exceeding measure; ddhiratha lying on the chariot, adhi-
gav4 belonging to the cow ; adhaspadi under the feet, adhoalm^ below
the axle; kDUpatha following the road, annpQrv& following the one pre-
ceding, one after another, anuf aty& in accordance with truth, anukdla
doum stream, etc. ; &ntaBpatha (with anomalously changed accent of ant&r),
within the way, antardftv^ within the flame (?), antarhasti in the hand;
dntig^ha near the house; apiprai^a accompanying the breath (prfti^), &pi-
vrata concerned with the ceremony, api^arvari bordering on night, api-
kan^ next the ear ; abhijiiu reaching to the knee, abhf vira and abhf satvan
overcoming heroes; tpathi on the road, adeva going to the gods, fijarasi

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1310—] XVni. Composition. 512

reaching old age, ftdvftds9& tip to twelve ; upakak^d reading to the arm-
pits, upottami next to last, penultimate ; up&ribudhna abo>oe the bottom,
ap&rimartya rising above mortals; tiroJaii& beyond people; ni\i8ill& out
of the house; parip&d (about the feet) snare, parihast& about the hand,
bracelet; pardk^a out of sight, par6m&tra beyond measure, parogavyati
beyond the fields, para^ahasri (p&«U|ysaha8ra, (!B.) above a thousand;
purok^ in front of the eyes; pratidof^ toward evening, pratilomA
against the grain, pratiktila up stream, praty&k^ before the eyes; bahi^
paridhi outside the enclosure; v{pathi outside the road; eamak^^ elou
to the eyes, in sight

b. Compounds of this character are in the later language especially
common with adhi: thus, adhy&tma relating to the soul or self, adhi-
yajfia relating to the sacrifice, etc.

o. A snfflxal a is sometimes added to a final consonant, as in Qpfinasa
on the wagon, Avyufd until daybreak. In a few instanoee, the suffix ya
is taken (see above, 1212 m]; and in one word the snfflz in: thns, pari-
panthin besetting the path,

d. The prepositional compounds are especially liable to adverbial nte:
see below, 1318 b.

Adjective Compounds as Nouns and as Adverbs.

1811. Compound adjectives, like simple ones, are freely used
sabstandvely as abstracts and coUectiTes, eiH)ecially in the neuter,
less often in the feminine; and they are also much nsed adverbiaUy,
especially in the accusative neuter.

a. The matter is entitled to special notice only beeanse certain forms
of combination have become of special frequency in these uses, and because
the Hindu grammarians have made out of them distinct classes of com-
pounds, with separate names. There is nothing in the older language which
by its own merits would call for particular remark under this head.

1812. The substantively used compounds having a numeral as
prior member, along with, in part, the adjective compounds them-
selves, are treated by the Hindus as a separate class, called dvigo.

a. The name is a sample of the class, and means of two cows, said
to be used in the sense of ufOrth two cows; as also pafteaga bought for
five cows, dvin&u worth two ships, p&Skcakapfila made in fhe etqfs, and
so on.

b. Yedio examples of numeral abstracts and collectiyes are: dviriUi
[combat] of two kings, triytig4 three ages, triyoJan& space of three leagues,
tridivi the triple heaven, pafioayojanit space of five leagues, ^aijlahi sir
dayi^ titne, daqBikgv^ ten fingers* breadth ; and, with suffix sra, SBhaariiaffk
thousand days' journey. Others, not nomeral, but essentially of the saae
character, are, for example: nai^mitrk freedom from enemies, nik il hi yi
freedom from guilt, savidyntd thunderstorm, vfhrdaya heartUssness, sod

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513 Adjective Compounds as Nouns and Advbbbs. [—1813

B&brdaya heartiMis, sudlvi praeperity hy day, 8tun|>g& and eu^akoni
proiperify with beatit and birds, Feminlnes of like use are not quotable
from BY. or AY.; later occur tuch as tri^atl three hundred, (481), triloki
the three worlds, pafioamtUi aggregate of Jive roots.

o. As the examples show, the accent of words thus used is various;
but it Is more prerailingly on the final syllable than in the adjective com-
pounds in their ordinary use.

1818. Those adverbially used aoousatives of secondary adjec-
tive compounds which have an indeclinable or particle as prior mem-
ber are reckoned by the Hindu grammarians as a separate class of
compounds, and called by the name avyayibhftva.

A. This term is a deriratlTe txom the compound verb (1094) made up
of avyaya uninfieeted and yl>hfi, and means eonversUm to an indeeUnable,

b. The prepositional compounds (1810) are especially firequent in this
use: thus, for example, annyradh^m by one^s own wiU, abhipflrv&m
and parovar&m in succession, ftdv&da^toi up to twelve, pratido(|^4m at
evening, samak^Am tin sight. Instances given by the grammarians are :
adhihari upon Hari, upariyam with the king, upanadam or upanadi
near the river, pratyagni toward the fire, pratini^am every night, nir-
iiiftV^irft.Tn ioiih freedom from fiies.

O* A large and important dass is made up of words having a relative
adverb, especially yath&, as prior member. Thus, for example, yath&va9&in
as one chooses (v&^a wtU), yathfikftAm as done \before\, according to
usage, yathftnftni& by name, yathabhflg&m according to several portion,
yathafis&m and yathftpar^ limb by limb, yatrakamam whither one will,
yftvanmfttr&m in some measure, y&vi^Uiv&m as long as one Uves^
yftvata&bandhu according to the number of relations.

dm These compounds are not common in the old language; BY. baa
with yathS only four of them, AY. only ten ; and no such compound is
used adjectively except STftcehre^thi RY., yavaochra^tbi AY. as good as
passible. ^. has yathftkftrln» yathftoAr{n» y&thftkftma, y&thfikratu as
adjectives (followed in each case by a correlative tdthft). The adjective use
in the later language also is quite rare as compared with the adverbial.

e. Other cases than the accusative occasionally occur: thus, instrumental,
as yath&Baiiikhyena» yathft^aktyft, yathepsayft, yathftpratifirtu^s;
and ablative, as yatbSuoity&t.

f. A daiijB of adverbs of frequent occurrence is made with sa: e. g.
sakopam angrily, Bftdaram respectfuUy, aaamitani with a smile, savi-
^e^am especially.

g. Other adverbial compounds of equivalent character occur Earlier, and
are common later: for example, ^ekarm&m without work, nfinftrath&m
on different chariots, ubhayadytiB two days in succession, eitrapadakra-
main with wonderful progress, pradSnapQrvam with accompaniment
of a gift', etc.

Whita«y, Onkmniar. 8. ed. 33

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— ] XVUL Composition. 514

AnomalMs ComiMiinis.

814. Ab in every language, compounds are now and then met
which are of anomalous character, as exEibiting combinatioDs
omenta not usually put together, or not after such a methoil, or
ich a purpose. Some of these, especially of thotiie occurHtig in
Id language, may well be noticed here.

« Gompoundfi havittg & particle ia flntl member: as, apract{ having
Ud, tiiTiprAti mightify opponhg^ dtatblS refiuing^ Titatlta /dSie,
ltath& ai it reaUy isy stbiikhb prosperity in compamb^Mp^ aniha
namutra having no here a^d no y&nder, eto.
• AgglomeratlonB of two or more elements out of pbitses : thus, aham-
i eager to hefiret; ito i to m tt te & contest for pre^n/dnenee^ MAttiaiili^
i for possession^ iJdhSmk Ugentt (iti hft "sa tkusj indeed^ it icoil
smMitk and naghftri^ not, sureiy, dying ot' coming to harmy kiivila a
inknown person, tadidartba havihgjust that as aim, Icflo i riTtJrfn
f errands in every directiony "kMeitkBTk doing tdl sorts of things,
oidvid wherever found, aknta^oidUttya outofaU danger^ yftd*
L^fya Whait-is-Uhhe, eto.

. AgglomeratioBB in which the prior memher retatna a syntaede^foni:
Lyonya and paraspara one another^ avaraap a ra inverted,
. Aggregations with the natural order inverted: e. g. pitJfcnrmhi and
\MSbk grandfather, putrahata totth his sons slain, jSavfilmik and
akta ioiih bended knee, daintajftta providedwith tee^; aoaXptX^
>ed Of soma, piaSktIrSdBaa havihg groups of gifts, gojate oliMT,
Ihtri, agrattfiafks; eto. t^ of the tongue, of^ nose, eto. OoBirpara
291 o.

» Aggregations of particles were pointed out a'bove (II I la); also
te) Cases m which n4'and int are ns^d in composition.
I -In late Sanslult (perhaps after the false analogy of comMoatioiis
Ekl anu, viewed as tadanu, with tad as stem Instead of nenter aecn-
I, a preposition is sometimes compounded as final member with the
gOTdtned by it: e. g. vrk^itdhas or vrkQ&dliaat&t under the
Aantfinta^ between the teeth, bhaTatiopari on top of the Mouse.
vfna i^ithout truth.

Stem-finals altered in Cdmposftion. .

815. Transfers to an a-form of declension from other leu
on finals, which are not rare in independent use, are especiaUy
on in the final members of compounds. Thus:

> A stem in an often drops its final consonant (compara

examples are ak^a, adhva, arva» aatha, aha, tak^a,
ha, rfija, loma» vrfa, gva, eaktha, s&ma.

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515 LooBB C0N8TBUOT10N WITH Compounds. [—1816

b. An i or i is changed to a: examples are afignla, afijala, a^s,
knk^a, khlra, nada» n&bha, bhtUna, rfttra, sakha.

o« An a is added after a ilnal consonant, and sometimea after an
U-Towel or a diphthong ^compare 890): examples are |^oa» tvaoa; uda*
pada, ^arada; ai>a; dhura, para; ahna, a^mana» Odlma, rljfia;
aiuuMk ayasa^ Syn^a. uraaa» enasa, tamaaa* manasa, jnsiuf a, rajasa,
rahaaa, varoaaa, Tedasa, ^reyasa* sarasa; bhruva, diva, gava,
g&va, nftva.

d« More sporadic and anomalous cases are snch as : apanna-da (-dant)»
paiioa-fa (-^a^)* ajAika-pa (-pad), ^ata-bhi^ft (-bhi^oj), vipag-oi
(-dt), yathft-pura (-pnras).

Loose Construction with Compounds.

1816. In the looBeness of iiillimited and fortnitooift ccmbination,
es|Moially in the later laagnage, it is by no means rare that a word
h) eompoBition has an independent word in the sentence depending
npon or qualifying it alone, rather than the componnd of which it
forms a part.

a* Examples are: rfty&sUmo ▼i9v4paiyaaja (RT.) de9ir^m of
M-mj^abU weaUh; aAli6r uruc&kri^ (R^O causing relief /^om distrees;
mahftdhan^ &rbhe (RV.) in great conieet and in mtmll; SFftafidi fsiif-
fhyakftmaf^ (A^S.) desiring superiority over his felUnos) brShma^&fi
ohrata^IlaYrttaaaiiipaimAn ekana v& (AGS.) ^raJmums endowed with
learning, character, and hehabior, or with onS [0/ the ^ee]; cittapramft-
thini bfilft devfinftm api (MBh.) a girl disturbing the minds eten of
the gods; vasifthavacanftd nya9|!f&ga8ya co 'bhayol^ (R.) at the words
of both Fasishtha and Biskgacringa; idtftdravyipahara^e ^astrtM^Ain
ati^ndbasya ca (H) in ease of stealing ploughing implements or weapons
or medicament] Jyoti^f&iii madbyaofiri (H.) moving in the midst of the
stars; dimpitvaih oa mrmnayam (M.) a wooden and an earthen
vessel; syandane dattad^fil^ (^.) with eye fixed on the chariot;
tftiwninn ullambitamrta^ (KfiS.) dead and hanging upon it.


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A. The following text is given (as proposed above, S) in order
to illustrate by an example the variety of Sanskrit type in nse. It
is given twice over, and a transliteration into European letters follows.
The text is a fable extracted from the first book of the Hitopade^

The Hunter, Deer, Boar, and Jackal.

^^ 1^: I Ari^H ft >j^ fnyi^ i^j '^Ni fw: i

^^1T»^ inn ^ ^q*nifi i f<ni7 > m

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Appendix. 517

«:^ln^\ ^4(N1HlHd^^ : ^f^^HHlt^l( l 8^fdl^d^

HraflnnPi im^ m^rfir fiiwm «)du<id41<A«4 «ig«^ ^lanilNwww r

ftBlt kalyb^akatakSv&Btavyo bhftiravo nftma vyftdha^. ea
ofti *kadft mftftsalubdha^ Ban dhanur ftdfiya vindhy&tavUnadhyaih
gata^. tatra tena m^a eko vyftpftdita^* mr^aiu AdSya gaoohatft
tena ghorftk^tl^ sOkaro d^t^^* tatas tena m^gaih bhttm&u ni-
dh&ya aukara^ ^are^a hata^. stULarei^ *pj figatya pralayagha-
naghoragarjanaih k^tvA sa vy&dho mafkadege hata^ ohinnadroma
iva pap&ta. yata^:

Jalam agniih vi^aih ^astraih k^udvy&dhl patanaih gire^
nlmittaih klihoid ftaftdya dehl pr&i^ftlr vimuoyate.

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5 IS Apbbkdix.

atrftntare dlrgharftvo nitana jambuka^ paribhramann fihfir-
ftrthi tftn mrtftn m^pgaTsrftdhaBtlkarftn apa^yat Slokyft *<sintayad
amim: abo bfaJIgyain. siated hh ^ m it saflMtpasttdtaat^ atbay*:
aolntit&ni du^^kh&ni yathfii 'v& 'V&ntl d^iinftin,
oakhfiny api te<h& .manye dfiiaraai ateS *ti«loyat«.
bboirjctiL; et^Sih mftVinftlr mdaotrayadi BaiaadMkadi bhojaTmih
me bhavi^yald. tata^ prafthainabiili^ukffiyftih t&vad imAni svft-
dtnS wftftitHiri v^hqya.>flwTaT?iJg^(BrnftgTiwh asOirubandksib lrM i tti > f
'ty uktvft tathft 'karot. tata^ ohizine Bn&yubandhe drutam utpa-
titena dbanu^ft hrdi bhinna\i sa dirghar&val^ pafiioatvadi gata;^
ato 'haih bragsSm^:

kartavya)^ saihoayo nityaih kartavyo nS 'tisaihoaya^;
atlaaiiaa g i adp fei^ dhfuuu|& jAinlNiko tatah«

B. The fbUoving text is given m order to illustrate by a saffi-
cient example Hib luuial Htetbod jo£ mwkiag acesttt, -as deaGdbed
above (87). In the mannscripts, the accent-signs are almost invariably
added in red ink. The text is a hymfi estiaeted Irom the tmtk er
last book of the Big- Veda; it is regarded by the tradition as uttered
by vac voice (i. e. the Word or Logos).

Hynm @L IWi ftrom the BigrV«ds.

^ i^fHq T^ ^M^ ^S^ TJ^mm ^^ u :^ u

rtT 4t^ sd^t 3^ Hf^Jwii^f] ntfi^ydrilH^H ^ h
TOT ^ «3W% d %qsqi% uj.«iRiMd n f xyftrjic^i

**ft^ WUJij^ sl^rft §]if ^f%fT *n^5C?: I

ti ^iiq^ cIcl^U 4iiii)fH ft g^fTPft fPtf^ rt ^^mih^u H »

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Appbndiz. 519

^ 1^ ^ ^ iil|i<^ffi4d1 Hr«iHi ^ sh^i II r II

ahiih mdr6bhir v&aubhi^ oarSxny ah&m ftdityfiir at4 v1qt&-
devfti^» ali4ih mitrav&ru^o 'bht bibharmy ahim. indrftgni ah&m

a^v{no 'bhi. 1.
ah&ih 86main fthan&BftTfa bibharmy ahAih tv&^t^urain ut& ptl^ii^aih
bh&gam, ah&m dadhftml dr&yii^aih lyivf^mate supr&vyd y^a-

mftnfiya sonvsld. %.
alx&jfti rtq^A saihg&iiiani visQnftih cAMtiufi prathamt yajfifyftnftm,
taih m& deva vy kdadhiitL pumtr^ bhAristh&trfiih bhtby

Sve^&yantim. 3.
m^& b6 &imam atti y6 Tip&^yati j&i^ pra^tl y& Uh 9P^6ly nkt&m,
amant&vo maih t4 4pa kfiyanti 9Tad]x{ ^ruta 9raddhiv&ih te

vadftmi. 4.
ah&m 9vk sray&m id&ih vadfimi Ji^t<u^ dev^bhir ut& mano^ebhl^,
y&ih k&m&ye t&ih-tam ugr&ih Iq^oml t&ih brahmaijaTh t&m ^iih

t&xh BumedlUbn. 5.
ah&ih rudraya dh&nur a tanoml brahmadvlfe ^drave hiuitavt a,
ahioh j&nftya sam&daih kp^omy ah&ifa dyav&p^^thivi a vlve^a. 6.
ahit^ Buve pit&ram asya mtlrdh&ii inAma ydnir apsv hnWi^ sa-
madr6, t&to vi ti^fhe bhuvand 'nu vi^vo ta *mdih dy^ varf-

iniu^ 'pa sp^ami. 7.
*ah&m ev& v^ta iva pr& vftmy ftr&bhamfti^ bhdvanftni vlqv^
par6 divi pari eni pfthivyftf *t^va1a mahint skAi babhflva. 8.

O. On. the next page is given, in systematic arrangement, a
Bjnppsis of all the modes and tenses recognised as normally to be
made from every root in its primary conjugation, for the two common
roots bhu be and Iqp make (only the precative middle and peri-
phrastic future middle are bracketed, as never really occurring).
Added, in each case, are the most important of the verbal nouns and
adjectives, the only ones which it is needful to give as part of every

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11 ? ?



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Jtorororo* j^'O'o'o'o'


5 < < 3 "I








ft ^

cr o












I r


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The referenees in both Indexes are to ptngr^^hs. In this one, many
abbioTlations are used; but it is beliered that they will be foond self-
explaining. For example, ^pron.'' is pronnnciation ; ^enph." points out
anything relating to phonetic form or euphonic combination; '^pres.'', to
present-system; ^t" is intensive; ^des.'' is desideratiye; and so on. A
prefixed hyphen denotes a sofflx; one appended, a prefix.

a, pron. etc., 19-22; combination
with foUowing vowel, 126, 127;
loss of initial after e and o, 186,
175 a; resulting accent, 135 a; not
liable to gw^, 235a; Ughtened
to i or u, 249; lost in weakened
syllable, 263.

a, as nnlon-vowel in tense-inflection,
621c, 631.

-a, primy, 1148; scdry, 1208, 1209;
-a in -aka, 1181; — a-stems,
dcln, 326-34; f^om rdcl fi-st, 333,
344; in compsn, 1270, 1287 a.

a- or an*, negative, 1121 a-e; in
compsn, 1283 ff., 1288 a. 1304 a, b.

-aka, prmy, 1181; aka-stems some-
times govern aeons., 271 c^ sodry,
1222J, k.

-aki, see 1221b.

}/akf, pf., 788.

ak^ara, 8.

ak^&n, dk^l, 343 f, 431.

agho^a, 34b.

j/ao or afio, pf., 788 b; pple 956 b,
967 c; stems ending with, 407-10.

Online LibraryWilliam Dwight WhitneyA Sanskrit grammar : including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana → online text (page 54 of 59)