William E. A. (William Edward Armytage) Axon.

The annals of Manchester: a chronological record from the earliest time to the end of 1885 online

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and the official value of British cotton goods of all kinds exported in this year
was £366,060.

The manufacture of muslins was introduced*


Hr. Henry Whittaker, schoolmaster, of Salford, died ICareh 1.

The Wesleyan Chapel in Oldham Street opened, March 30, by Rev. John
Wesley, who records in his diary that " the whole congregation behaved with
the utmost seriousness."

Birs. RafZUd died of spasms, after an hour^s illness, 19th ApriL Eliaabeth
Whittaker was bom at Doncaster, and in 1748 entered service as housekeeper,
and when with Lady Elisabeth Warburton, of Arley Hall, in that capacity,
met the head gardener, Bir. John RafZUd, to whom she was married at Great
Budworth, 3rd March, 1703. In eighteen years she had sixteen daughters.
They came to Manchester, and finally settled at the King's Head, Salford. In
1700 appeared TKe Experienced Engli$h HouMkeeper, which went through
many editions. Baldwin, the London publisher. Is said to have paid her £1,400
f6r the copyright in 1773. In 1772 she issued the first Manchester Directory^
and it was n4ssued in 1773, and again in 1781— the year of her death. A work
on midwifery is said to have been completed in MS., and it is said that her hus-
band, who did not sharo the business ability of liis wife, sold it in London, but
whether it was published is not known. At one time she gave lessons to
young ladies in cookery and other branches of domestic economy. She is also
said to have helped in the continuance of Harrop*s newspaper and in the com-
mencement of Prescott's, and that but for her aid Manchester would have been
left without a newspaper. An account of her busy life is given in Harland*s
CoUeetanea^ voL i., p. 119 ; vol. it, p. 144 ; PcUaHne Note-book, vol. L, p. 141.

The first number of the Mancfiester ChronicU was printed and published
by Charles Wheeler, in Hunter's Lane, Cannon Street, June 23. The paper waa
conducted by Charles Wheeler and by his son John. It was discontinued June
23, 1838, but was revived by Josiah Leicester, under the heading of the Man*
eheeier Chronicle and Salford Standard, January 6, 1839, 4, SUAnn Street.
It finally ceased December 31. 1812.

A new market opened 28th July in Pool Fold. It wan discontinued In 1803.
Under date of 1782 will be found an account of the trial action brought agaimit
the promoters of this scheme.

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108 Annals of Manchester. dTSS

Samuel Feploe, Junior, LL.D., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died
October 22, aged 82 years, and was buried at Chester. He was much respected
by the clergy both at Manchester and at Chester, as he resided at both places,
and was remarkable for his attendance on public worship. He was succeeded
by the Bev. Richard Assheton, D.D.

Mr. Robert Thyer died at Manchester 27th October. This learned man was
bom at Manchester, February, 1708-9, and was Librarian of Chetham*s College.
Ue is often mentioned in Byrom's Jaumalf and was the editor of Samuel
Butler*s Bcmaina. {Orammar School Regiater^ 1., d9.)

There were 2,519 houses in Manchester assessed to the house tax.

The Manchester and Blackpool diligence set out from the Royal Oak, in the
Market Place, every morning at six o'clock ; arrived at the Red Lion Inn, in
Preston, at noon ; met the Lancaster, Penrith, and Carlisle diligence, and went
to Forshaw*s at Blackpool. Fare to Blackpool, 15s. " The Journey performed
by Pickford and Ca, D.v.'*

The foundation of the BCanchester Literary and Philosophical Society
belongs to this year. It arose'from conversational meetings held at a tavern by
a number of gentlemen interested in literature and science. The history of the
society and its labours has been told by Dr. Angus Smith in A Centenary of
Science in Maneheeter, (London, 1883.)

Public BaUis were erected near the Infirmary.

Home patients were admitted to the benefit of the Infirmary.

James Artingstall, who had been condemned to be hanged at Lancaster for
his share in the riot at Manchester in July, 1780, received a pardon.

Mr. Richard Arkwright brought nine actions, in this year, against certain
manufacturers for the infringement of his patent for the carding, drawing,
and roving machines. An association of Lancashire spinners was formed to
defend the actions.

** Mr. Fildes, in the same year in which Raikes began his work at Glouoester,
opened a Sunday School in a Manchester cellar, a second in a garret, and a
third in the first room in Manchester buUt expressly for Sunday School pnr-
poees, a room erected at Mr. Fildes' own expense, behind his own dwelling-
house, in the neighbourhood of London Road." (Tyerman's Life of Wedey, voL


A panic was created in Manchester by the circumstance of 7,012 bags of
cotton having been imported between the months of December and ApriL

Sir John Parker Mosley, lord of the manor, brought an action in the Court
of King's Bench against Bir. T. Chadwick and Bfr. Holland for setting up 144
meat stalls in Pool Fold, in July, 1781, in violation of his prescriptive rights :
decided in his favour June 19, after being twice argued at Westminster, upon*
special verdict found for the plaintiff at Lancaster Assises. Modeif v.
Chadiffiek^ 3 Douglas's Reports, 117 : 7 Bam. and Cress. 47 (note).

Bir. Richard Wainwright, Mus. Doc, died, 15th July.

The inhabitants of Manchester raised a corps of 150 volunteers to serve
during the war in America. Thomas B. Bayley was the Ueatenant-Colooel

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1783] Armals of Manchester. 109

Commandant; George Lloyd wm the Major, and hia wile preaented the
regiment with oolonrs, worked by the ladlea of Mancheater. The oifioers'
oommiaaiona, dated September 24, were preaented to them in St. Ann'a Square.
November 18.

An Act paaaed for building the New Bailey Prison. (See under datea nd?,
mo, and 1872.)

The Mancheater Printing Society, for the publication of the writinga and
doctrine of Swedenborg, waa instituted.

Mr. Oswald Moaley, the heir of Sir J. P. Mosley, came of age. The erent
waa celebrated by a ball given to four hundred of the nobility, gentry, and prin-
dpal inhAbitanU of the diatrict.

Lord North viaited Mancheater, and dined with the gentlemen of the town
at the Bull's Head.

Particulars of the '* Volunteers of the Manchester MiliUry Aasociation **
are given in Earwaker^a Local OUaningat Nos. 150, 165, 187.

An act (22 (3eo. UL cap. 00), was passed to prevent the seducing of artiflcera
or workmen employed in printing calicoes, cottons, muslins, and linena, or in
making or preparing blocks, plates, or other implementa used in that manu-
factory, to go to parte beyond the seaa; and to prohibit the exporting to foreign
parte of any auch blocks, platea, or other implementa. This act imposed a pen-
alty of £100, or twelve months* imprisonment, for enticing any workman
engaged in calico printing to go beyond the aeas.


Mr. Edward Oreavea, one of the feolfeea of Chatham's Hospital, died at
Cnlcheth, aged 75. January 28.

Bev. Joseph Hoole died 4th Feb. He was a son of Bev. Joseph Hoole, rector
of St. Ann'a, and waa educated at the Grammar School, and at Oxford, where
he waa Vice-Preaident of Magdaiene College.

Mra. Boger Aytoun« of Chorlton Hall, died February 20. She was the
widow of a rich apothecary, Thomaa BiinahuU, and married ** Spanking Boger^
Aytoun, of Inchdamie, a man very much younger than herself.

A fatal duel waa fought with swords between Captain Mouncey of the 79th
Begiment, and Comet Hamilton, in Spencer's Tavern, in the Market Place,
March 21. The former waa killed. The quarrel originated in a dispute aa to
the reapective qualitiea of two doga. Mr. Hamilton waa acquitted by a
eoroner^a Jury, and Bir. Mouncey had a public funeral at St John's Church.

The foundation atone of the New Bailey Bridge waa laid May 0; the
bridge waa opened for paaaengera and carriages in 1785 ; the toll taken off,
January 81, 1803. It waa owned by subscribers, who, during eighteen years,
reeeived toll, which repaid them for the capital invested and seven and a half
per eent. The toll for the last year waa let for UhlSO,

Bev. John Wealey vlaited Manchester, May 17. Here he had an enormous
sacramental service, at which thirteen or fourteen hundred communicanta were
present. " Such a eight,** says he, "aa, I believe, was never seen in Manchester
before.** ** I believe,** he adds, "there is no place but London where we have so
many aonls ao deeply devoted to Crod."

The Description of Manchester^ by a native of the town, price one shilling,
I printed by Charlea Wheeler, June 21.

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1 10 Annals of Manchester.


Bir. Thomaa Tipping, of Ardwick, died July 12.

The Manchester Regiment (the 72nd) returned from Gibraltar, and were
presented with five shillings each, together with their pay and arrears, »)th
August, and were disbanded 9th September.

Birs. Phoebe Byrom, sister to the late Mr. John Byrom, died September 2S,
aged 85 years.

An air ballocm ascended from the Infirmary gardens, and alighted at
CrozElord, Derbyshire. One shilling was the charge for admittance to witness
the ascent, and the proceeds were devoted to the benefit of the Infirmary.

Bir. Titus Hibbert, writing to a Prussian correspondent as to the trade of
the town, says: '*The greatest quantity of foreign yam is imported from
Hamburg and Bremen, Dantsig and Konisberg, and the greatest part of it, by
far, is manufactured at Bfanchester, and by the manufacturers who live in the
country and lesser towns, near enough to come weekly to Manchester, which
they do, to buy yam and cotton and sell goods ; the rest at Blackburn, Preston,
Wigan, Walton, Nottingham, etc** (Birs. Hibbert Ware's Lift of Samuel
BibbeH Ware)

The river Tib was covered over with a culvert.


Father Thomas Falkner, &J.; died at Plowden Hall, Salop. January 90,
aged 77. He was bom in Bianchester, where his father was a surgeon. He
was educated at the Grammar School, and practised as a surgeon in Manches-
ter. About 1731 he was sent out as surgeon *on a slave-ship to Africa, and
from thence to Buenos Ayres. Here he was converted to Roman Catholicism
and entered the Society of Jesus as a noviciate, Biay 5, 1732, and after his
ordination entered on his missionary labours. In 1788 he was expelled, along
with the other Jesuits, from South America. He afterwards removed to
Plowden Hall, Shropshire. He was the author of A Description of Pata-
goniOj editions of which appeared in German in 1775, in French in 1787, and in
Spanish in 183S. (Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholies,)

Samuel Kay, BLD., died 23rd February, aged 1%. He was the first physician
of the Bianchester Infirmary, and was notable for his benevolence. (Baker's
Memorials, p. 60.)

Rev. John Wesley again visited Bianchester, in March.

Bir. Ralph Biarkland, lieutenant in the 23rd Regiment, died at Chorlton
Ua)U August 3L

Bir. Joseph Younger, one of the patentees of the Bianchester theatre, died
near Liverpool, September 4.

Ann Lee died at Watervliet, New York, 8th September, aged 48 years and six
months. She was bom at Toad Lane, Manchester, 20th Febmary, 1736, and was
daughter of John Lee, a blacksmith. She married in 1702, Abraham Stanley,
or Standerin, and had several children who died young. She Joined a small
religious sect, a remnant of the French prophets (see under date 1712), and
became a leader. She was accepted as "Ann the Word," and with some
followers emigrated to America, where she was the foundress of the Shakers,
who adopted a communistic life and the rule of celibacy. Her followers are
remarkable for their honesty and industry. There is an extensive literature

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Annals of Manchester. Ill

relating to the Shaken, whose official name is the " United Society of Believers
In Christ's Second Appearing.** (Axon's Laneaahire OleaningB.)

The boronghreeve and constables issued an address, August 10th, recom-
mending the establishment of Sunday schools. A meeting was held 28th
September, at the Bull's Head, and a committee was formed with Sir John
Parlcer Mosley as president. Churchmen, Dissenters, and Roman Catholics
served on this committee, and it was not until 1800 that sectarian disputes
caused a rupture. This plan of joint management was copied in many other
parts of the kingdom. Rooms were hired in dwelling-houses and the teachers
were paid. The first building exclusively appropriated to the purpose of a
Sunday school Is said to be the cottages in Gun Street, Ancoats, which were
the gift of Simeon Newton.

Admiral Lord Hood and his family visited Manchester.

Fustian tax of one penny per yard imposed upon all Ueached cotton
manufactures, if under the value of three shillings per yard, and twopence if
exceeding that value. This tax was in addition to the already existing duty of
threepence per yard. Deputations were sent from various towns, and the
manufacturers were heard by counsel at the bar of the House; and in the
following year Ifr. Pitt brought in a bill which repealed the new duties of 1784
on linen and cotton manufactures.


Rules were drawn up for the government of Sunday schools in Manchester,
at a n)eeting in the Manchester Hotel, at which Sir John Mosley presided.

The magistrates authorised the constables to prevent cock-fighting and the
throwing of cocks during Shrove Tide. February 16.

Bir. Stanley, M.P. for the county, presented a petition to the House of
Commons from the manufacturers and inhabitants of Manchester against the
commercial regulations between Great Britain and Ireland. March 11.

The thermometer was from 1 to 18} degrees below the freezing point from
October 18, 1781, to March 16, except 26 days.

Power-loom weaving was invented by the Rev. Dr. Edmund Cartwright, of
Hollander House, Kent, by whom a patent was taken out on the 4th of April.
In 1787 he patented an improved invention, and in 1800 he received a Parlia-
mentary grant of £10,00a He was brother to the celebrated Misjor Cartwright,
and died at Hastings on the 26th of October, 1832.

Mr. Garrow, as counsel for the fustian manufacturers, was called to the bar
of the House of Commons, when he spoke for two hours. April 8.

Many thousands of weavers from Oldham and its vicinity, who had been ^
thrown out of employ owing to the tax on manufactures, visited Manchester.
April 12.

Mr. Thomas Walker and Mr. Thomas Richardson, the delegates, arrived
express with the intelligence that the repeal of the tax upon fustians had been
moved by Mr. Pitt, seconded by Mr. Fox, and carried without a division. The
delegates alighted at the Bull's Head, in the Market Place, which was filled
with people. After a short speech by Mr. Walker they were placed upon two
chairs and carried through the streets. April 21.


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112 Annals of Manche^r.


The gentlemen and ladles appeared with faTonn in token of the repeal of
the f oBtian tax, April 22.

Mr. Sadler ascended in his balloon , 12th May, from a garden behind the
Manchester Arms Inn, Long Millgate. It was then a private house.

The Fnstian Tax Repeal Act received the royal assent, May 13.

The fnstian tax repealed through the endeavours of Mr. Thomas Walker
and Mr. Thomas Richardson, who were presented with a silver cup each. The
victory was celebrated by public processions. May 17.

Mr. Sadler made his second baUgpn ascent, but on alighting was obliged to
let it drive with the wind. May 19.

Jane Diggle, of Kersal Moor, died June 12. She had her oolfin and suit
made tliirty years before she died.

A dinner was given to Thomas Stanley, M.P., at the Manchester Hotel,
August 27. This was to celebrate his share in the repeal of the Fustian Act.

A musical festival was held in the Concert Hall, Fountain Street, Sept. 1.

Thomas Reynolds, second Baron Dude, of Tortworth, died at Woodchester
Park, September 11.

Lord Robert Spencer, Sir Frank Standish, Charles James Fox, and Mr.
Grenvilie visited Manchester, and dined with the local adherents of the Liberal
party. September 16.

The Rev. John Bennett preached a sermon in aid of Sunday schools, 2nd
October. The following is a copy of the title-page :—

The Advantages of Sunday Schods : A discourse preached for the htntfit
of thai usefvl and excellent charity, St, Mary's Church, in Manchester^ on
Sunday, the 2nd of October, 1785 ; to which is prefixed some account of the
origin, design, and progress of this institution. Published by order of the
chairman of the committee. By the Bev. John Bennett, secretary to the
society. Printed by J. Wheeler, and sold by J. Clark and aU the booksellers'
in Manchester. (4to»pp.2Q.)

The scholastic session of the College of Arts and Sciences was opened with
a lecture by Dr. Charles White, October &

Rev. Abel Ward died, at Neston, 9th October. He was a graduate of
Queen's College, Cambridge, and in 1745 became Rector of St. Ann's. A strong
advocate and defender of the Protestant succession, the authorities recognised
the value of his aid by a succession of preferments. He pieached against'
Popery and JaooUUsm, and in 1751 became Archdeacon of Chester, after which
he was only occasionally resident in Manchester. He wrote The Duty of
rendering to aU their Dues considered, a sermon. (Manchester, 175a) <Ear^
waker's Local Oleanings, No. 651.)

Peter Malnwaring, M.D., died, aged 91. He bequeathed his books to the
Manchester Infirmary, where they became the nucleus of the present library.

A German named Baden was tried at Lancaster, and fined £S0O, tor
having visited Minchester and seduced cotton operatives to go to Germany.

The privileges of the spinning-Jenny, which had *partly been thrown open
in 1788, were, in this year, wholly given to the pubUc, when coUon mills began
to inoease as well as the population.

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Annals of Manchester . 113

It was estimated by Mr. Pitt that the population employed in the cotton
trade generally was 80,000.

Cylindrical calico printing was invented by a Scotchman named Bell, and
was first saooessfolly applied at Masney, near Preston, by Messrs. Livesey, '^
HargreaTes, Hall, and Company.


A main of cocks was f ought at the Boyal Exchange betwixt the gentlemen
of Lancashire and Cheshire for £5 a battle and £200 the main. Cheshire won
by eight battles. January 8, 6, 7, 8, 9.

A fire broke out in the New Market Hall, Pool Fold, and entirely consumed
the upper part of the building, January 10.

Manchester Academy instituted 22nd February. The first session was
opened 14th September by an address from Boy. Thomas Barnes. Dr. Thomas
Percival was the first chairman. In 1803 it was removed, and became Man-
chester College, York ; in 1840 it returned to its birthplace as Manchester New
College, and in 1863 was removed to London, stiU retaining the name of Man-
chester New College.

John Holker, Chevalier of the Order of St. Louis, and inspector^neral of
the woollen and cotton manufactures of France, died at Bouen, 28th ApriL He
was bom at Stretford, and baptised there 14th October, 1719. His parents were
married at Manchester in 1718, and the name is found frequently at Monton.
He was a " calendarer,** Joined the rebels in 1745, and was taken prisoner
at Carlisle. When in Newgate awaiting trial a fellow-prisoner found a means
of escape from the same cell, but Holker was too bulky to pass through the
** straightgate." The generous comrade returned, and the two in company
enlarged the hole and both escaped. Holker was concealed for six weeks by a
woman who kept a green stall, but eventually escaped to France, where he
entered the army, and retired on a pension of 000 francs in 175B. He had
previously, in connection with partners, erected a velvet factory at Bouen, and
in 1758 he retired with a fortune. He was inspector-general of foreign manu-
factures from 1756 until his death. In 1706 he established chemical works and
introduced leaden chambers for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. He is said
to have visited England secretly to induce RngUsh artisans to settle in fiance.
He was nominated a Chevalier de St. Louis, 27th September, 1770. This
remarkable life is given with the fullest detail in communications by Mr. J. G.
Alger in the PaUUine NoU-hook, vol. Iv., pp. 47, 111.

John Collier, better known as " Tim Bobbin,** died, at Blilnrow, 14th July.
He was bom at Urmston, and baptised at Flixton 6th January, 1706-9. The
greater part of his life was passed at Mllnrow, where he was schoolmaster. In
1746 he published a View of the Laneaahirt Dialect^ which has since passed
through almost innumerable editions. It cannot be supposed to represent
faithfully the folk-speech of any particular district^ but it pteserves many
uncommon words and idioms which Collier had picked up in various parts.
There is a great deal of humour in his writings, but he is coarse and sadly
wanting In refinement. Collier wrote in verse and prose, and dabbled in
archsDology. His Curitma Bemarka an the History of Manchester and More
Fruit from the Same Pannier are severe criticisms on Whitaker*s Bistory of

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114 ATmals of Mcmchester.


Manchester. In these he is thought to have heen aided by Richard Towneley,
of Belfleld. Collier was also a painter, and published a volume of caricatores,
entitled Human PoMicna Delineated. He Is buried in Rochdale Churchyard.

A rule was adopted 6th September by the joint committee of Sunday
schools that writing should not henceforward be taught in the schoolroom.
The bigotry and cruelty of such a regulation at a time when the means of
education were so scanty needs no comment.

James Holland was hanged at Bolton-le-Moor, for croft breaking, Sept. 12.

Mr. Josiah Birch, for many years treasurer to the M anchester Infirmary,
died September 29.

Sir John Parker Mosley served the office of High Sheriff of the County
Palatine of Lancaster. He was accompanied from his seat at Ancoats by an
immense retinue of his friends and neighbours, and the conviviality attending
it was long celebrated in their private discourse. (Moeley's Mosley Family,)

A num was tried at Lancaster and fined £200 for having had in his
^ possession a quantity of machinery with a view to export it to the Emperor of
Germany, and for also having seduced workmen to go abroad with it.


The foundation stone of the New Bayley, or Prison for the Hundred of
Salford, laid May 22 by Thomas Butterworth Bayley. It was opened for
prisoners April, 1790. Large additions were made to it in 1816, but in 1872 it
was sold to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company in consequence
of the erection of the gaol in Strangeways.

A meeting waa convened at the Bianchester Hotel, by the Boffoughieeve,
f6r the purpose of establishing fixed market days, June 19.

The Collegiate Church broken into and two surplices and the poor box
stolen, June 22.

The Rev. John Wesley held the annual conference of the ministers in his
Connexion, at Bianchester, in July. 150 preachers attended.

Ifr. John Tipping died at his house, Ardwick Green, August 19.

The Bishop of Chester consecrated a new burial ground in Ashley Lane,
21st September. It was closed in 1816, and after a period of neglect was
covered and is now known as St. Mlchaers Flags.

A flood in the Irwell which lasted for seven days carried away a portion of
Salford Bridge*

The Rev. Robert Kenyon, incumbent of Salford Chapel* cme of the tooffeca
and also librarian of the Chetham College, died, aged 46.

Muslin manufacture developed rapidly through mule spinning, and GOO^OOO
pieces were manufactured in Great Britain.

The value of exported cotton goods, in this year, amounted to £1,101,457.
This was immediately after Arkwright*s patent had been declared invalid.

It is stated that only fbrty-two spinning factories existed in Laneaahire.


Sir Ashton Lever, Ent., of Alkrington, died at the Bull*s Head Inn, Man-
chaster, February 1. Having as a young man shot a " white sparrow,** it
formed the starting point of an important but very miscellaneous ooUection of

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AnnalB of Manehester. 115

objeeto of natural history and archasology, known as the Leverian Muaemn.
Financial diiBcnlties induced Sir Ashton to part with this collection, and Par-
liament authoriaed a lottery for the purpose in 1785. The winner afterwards
disposed of it by public auction in 1806, when the sale occupied 66 days. It has
been surmised that Sir Ashton's death was due to poison self -administered.

lir. Thomas Burchell died 18th Harch. He was for seTeral years the con-

Online LibraryWilliam E. A. (William Edward Armytage) AxonThe annals of Manchester: a chronological record from the earliest time to the end of 1885 → online text (page 16 of 63)