William E. A. (William Edward Armytage) Axon.

The annals of Manchester: a chronological record from the earliest time to the end of 1885 online

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candelabra, Sft. 4in. high, and each bearing thirteen lights ; ten candelabrs»
2ft. lOin. high, and each bearing nine lights ; three centre pieces, oval In shape*
fitti'd with dishes of ruby glass, to contain flowers ; ten fruit stands, 12ia.
high, fitted wHh dishes of ruby glass ; twenty-four compotiers, fitted with
ruby glass dishes ; twenty -four ice dishes ; in all, a total of seventy-fovr
pieces. Added to the service are two loving cups, specially presented by the
Overseers. These are 18in. high by 91in« diameter of bowl, and each has three
handles. The design of the service is Gothic, of the Early English period, with
a fr( e use of ornament based upon Byzantine examples ; the intention of thm
<lesigner and the architect being that the service should harmonise with the
style of tlie building in which it is to be placed.

The new Town Ball of the City of Bianchester, the first stone of which
had been laid on October 20, 18Gd, and the top stone of the tower fixed on
December 4, 1876, was opened by the Mayor (Alderman Abel Ueywood) on
September 13. The members of the Council assembled at the old Town
Hall, and marched three abreast, with proper accompaniments of horse
and foot soMiers, fire brigade, and policemen, to Albert Sjuare, where Sfa*
.Toseph Heron presented the Mayor with a golden key, with which he opened
the doors, and the Council proceeded straight to their chamU^r amidst a fionrish
of trumpets and the porformauce of the Netional Anthem. A meeting of the
<'ouncil was then held under the presidency of the ex-Mayor (Alderman Curtis),
and on the propoHition of the two oldent aldermen, Messrs. Willert and Bake,
an nd dress for proHontation to the Mayor was adopted, and afterwards pte^

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18771 Annala of Manchester, 365

rented in the banquet ting-room. In the evening;; a banquet was given by the
Mayor and Corporation in the large public room, the guests numbering four
hundred, and including the Lord Chief Justice (Sir Alexander Cock bum),
IMshop Fraser, Lords Tollemache and Winmarleigh, Mr. Justice Hawkins, the
Right Hon. John Bright, M.P., and other members of the House of Commons ;
the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of York, the Right Hon. the Lord Provost of
Edinburgh, and the mayors of the neighbouring towns ; the members of the
City Council, and representatives of the mag'stracy, members of the legal,
medical, and clerical professions, and representatives of public bodies. On
the same day the Mayor was presented with a richly-cut large glass goblet,
bearing a Ix^autifully-cut full front view of the Town Hall, manufactured and
given by the men at the Prussia Street Flint Gloss Works, Oldham Rood. On
the foil'. wing day, September 14, the bakers of Manchester presented his
worship with a bcautif ully-illuminatcd address, and the operative stonemasons*
societies of Manchester, Salford, and Hulme presented him with an illuminated
addrcHH in the shape of a book. In the evening the reception and l)all took
place in the large public room and was numerously attended. Invitations '
having U'i>n Issued to about three thousand people. The public celebrations
were brought to a close on Saturday, September 15, when a great demonstra-
tion of trade and friendly societies took place. The huge procession, which
was between five and six miles long and contained nearly 50,OUO persons, start <il
from the Infirmary en route for Allwrt S^iuore about twelve o'clock. When
several of the societies had reached the Square the bands played the National
Anthem, followed by three cheers for the Mayor and Mayoress and John
Bright ; the Ih lis then commenced playing, and the procession marched past.
Sixty-nine societies took part, and afterwards went, some to Manley Park and
Pomona Gardens, others to Alexandra Park, and others to Delle Vue. The
total cost of the Town Hall building and fittings was about i:i^t.(X>\ and,
Includiu^ land, about £775,000. During one time more than 1,000 builders* men
were en^^t^ed, and for more than twelve months l)etween 000 and 700 masons
were kept in constant employment, being fully 100 more than were ever
engaged upon the Houses of Parliament at any one time. Of stone, •k4),Uh>
cubic feet were used ; bricks, 16,500,000 ; roofing, two and a half acres ; iron
beams and girders, two miles ; lead, 120 tons ; tracer>' in windows, 9,000 super-
ficial feet ; stone columns and shafts in groins, 13,500 feet ; bulls'-eyes in orna-
mental lead windows, 12,120; and gas burners, 3,000. The total nunilwr of
rooms in the building is three hundred and fourteen. Messrs. Taylor, of
Loughborough, considered that the peal of bells was the'greateM undertaking
3f the kind previously attempted. They form an almost chromatic scale of
twenty-one bells, reaching within half a note of two octaves. Ten of them
tre hung as a ringing peal, and are of the same weight as the famous Bow
bells. The large bell, G, weighs 6 tons 9 cwt., and is believed to be the fourth
largest in the country and the sixteenth in the world* Big Ben, at the Houses
of Parliament, weighs 13 tons 11 cwt.; Peter of York, 10 tons 15 cwt.; and Tom
of Oxford, 7 tons 12 cwt.; but Big Ben is cracked, and Tom cannot be used.
Bach of the twenty-one bells has on It the Initials of a memlxsr of the Town
Council (of that date) or Corporation oflScial, and round the top of each there
Is also inscribed a line of Tennyson's well-known lyric from his "In

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366 Awtuds of MaTtchester.

Memoiiam.'* The qnotatlon begins with the last line in the aeeond Tene, aad
after giving two verses ipaissima tfcHxi, omits the next, and then adliereB to the
text in the other three verses.

The first number of Comue, issned October 2. No. 21, the last number, was
issued Febmary 21, 1878.

Mr. Cliarles Swallow died at his residence, Ardwf ek, on October 8, aged TOL
He was bom at Sterne Mills, Halifax, in 1807, and had lived in Mj^T^MMw^^^r
more than forty years. In 1864 he became agent for the Manchester Auxiliary
of the British and Foreign Bible Society, afterwards becoming Secretary of
the Lancashire district for the parent society. A few years before his death he
retired on a pension.

A house dinner was given on Wednesday, October 3, by the members of
the Reform Club to the Mayor of Manchester (Alderman Abel Heywood).

The comer-stone of the gasworks at Philips Park was laid, by Alderman
Hopkinson, October 10th.

The Church Club, at the comer of John Dalton Street'and Deaiiagate» was
formally opened by Bishop Fraser on October 23.

The ceremony of blessing the foundation of the new Romaa Catholic OoUege
of St. Bede, Alexandra Park, was performed by Dr. Vaughan, Bishop of
Salf ord, October 29. The building was previously the home of the Manchester

The first public meeting in the large room at the New Town Hall was held
on December 11, when Sir Arthur Cotton and Mr. John Lright deliveied
addresses on the means to i>revent the recurrence of famines In IJodUu


A presentation of two hundred guineas and an Ulundnated adilws was
made in the Salf ord Town Hall, on January 12, to Mark Addy, as an acknow-
ledgment for the rescue of many persons from drowning. Mr. W. T. Charley,
M.P., made the presentation on behalf of the subscribers.

A crowded town's meeting was held on J anuary lfi> to urge the Government
to maintain strict neutrality in the Eastern Question. A resolution to the
same efiect was passed at a special meeting of the City CooneU on
January 14.

The Crown Prince of Austria visited Manchester on January flB, and
inspected various objects of interest.

George PIggott, who had been condemned to death for the murder of
Florem e Galloway, at Broughton, on December 6, 1877, was executed In the
County Gaol, Strangeways, on February 4.

The Cheetham Free Library, in York Street, was opened on Febmary U.
The library was built at a cost of some £10,000^ and possesses a reading-room of
more than 90ft. in length. On the same date the Manchester Free Beferenee
Library, in King Street^ which had previously been the Town Hall, was
formally opened by the Bfayor, Mr. Alderman Grundy. The Hefersnoe Library
reading-room is one of the finest in the kingdom.

Mr. John Stuart, of The Elms, Higher Broughton, died February SBL
Mr. Stuart was bora near MarkethiU, In Ireland, In 1798. where hla father had

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Awnals of Manchester. 867

a fann. At 26 yean of age he emigrated to the United States, and in 1828 he
founded, in Philadelphia, in partnership with his hrother Joseph, the business
house of Stuart and Brother. In 1831 he opened, in New York, a dry gooJs
house, which*afterwards gave place to the banking firm of J. and J. Stuart and
Co. In 1834 he settled in Manchester, and in 1816 founded the banking house
of John Stuart and Ca Mr. Stuart was the principal supporter of a refuge for
fallen women in Manchester, and also took great interest in the Young Men's
Christian Association.

Mr. Joseph Gregory died in February. During the Free Trade agitation he
was a prominent supporter of protection. He was author of a pamphlet
entitled Look at Home : the FdUaciea of Free Trade Exposed. He was an
advocate of the Ten Hours Bill.

Momu8y No. 1, was issued March 7. The last number October 6, 1888.

A vocal concert and choral competition byjtonic-sol-fa choirs of Manchester
and Sal ford was given at the Free Trade Hall, March Ol

The Corporation Water Bill, of which the Thirlmere scheme was a promt-
nent feature, came before a select committee of the House of Commons on
March 12, and the preamble was declared to be passed (sul]Ject to the under-
standing that certain clauses were inserted) on March 26.

The flower show of the Botanical and Horticultural Society was held in tha
New Town Hall, Bfarch 10.

At a public meeting, held at the Memorial Hall, a memorial was adopted
to be sent to the Councils of Manchester and Salford, asking for the opening
of free libraries and museums on Sundays. March 27.

Upwards of one thousand original sketches, drawings, and etchings, by the
late George Cruikshank, were exhibited at the.Boyal Exchange during March.

The Corporation obtained an iAjunction on April 1, in the Chancery of
Lancashire, to restrain another potato dealer from selling wholesale at premises
in Edge Street^ dose to the plainti£b* market, without paying tolls to tha
plaintifls. (**The Mayor, &c, of Manchester v. Fallows ** reported in local
papers. See June 4, 1877.)

Sir James Watts, Knight, died at Abney Hall, Cheshire, April 0. He was
bom in March, 1804, and was in business in Manchester, in partnership with
his brothers, Samuel and John* In 1848 he was elected councillor for St.
James 8 Ward, became mayor in 1855, was re-elected in 18j6, and at the same
time an alderman. On the occasion of the Tisit of the Queen to open the Art
Treasures Exhibition, in 1857, she conferred the honour of knighthood upon
Alderman Watts. Sir James wss a J.P. for Manchester, and in 1871 served
the office of High SherifT of Cheshire.

The tenth annual congress of tha Co-operatiTe Societies of Great Britain
was held in the CoK>peratiTe Hall, Downing Street, April 22 and two
following days. The Marquis of Bipon presided on the first day, the Bishop of
Manchester on the second, and Dr. John Watts on the third.

A conference, consisting of fifteen hundred delegates, to protest against this
country entering into war, was held in the Free Trade Hall, on April 30, and in
the evening a public meeting was addressed by tlie Right Hon. John Bright,
M.P., to the same purpose.

Rev. Thomas Elford Poynting, minister of the Unitarian Chuth. Mgn^^ffff ^

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868 Annals of Manchester. [187»

and theological tator of the Unitarian Home Missionary Board, died April 30.
Of humble origin, he was a man of profound learning and philosophical spirit.
He was the author of the History of Monton Cfuipelt and of various tracts and

An exhibition of art treasures, in aid of a fund for the erection of a new
building for the School of Art, was opened by Alderman Grundy (mayor), at the
Royal Institution, Kay 10. The departments comprised blue and white porce-
lain, enamels, arms and armour, Persian art» embroidery, ivory carvings,
Wedgewood ware, and Oriental lacquer wood and porcelain.

The strike of Joiners in Blanchester came to an end early in May, having
lasted twelve months. Some eight hundred men went on strike, and it is
calculated that they lost at least £50,000 in wages, although some £50,000 was
received by them as strike pay.

The Rev. William McKerrow, D.D., ex-moderator of the Presbyterian
Church of England* died at Bowdon, June 4, aged 75 years. A native of
Kilmarnock, he was educated at Glasgow University, was ordained in l.^^J7,
and became minister of Uoyd Street Presbyterian Chapel, in succession to the
Hev. Dr. Jack. When this chapel was pulled down, in 1838, the congregation
removed to Brunswick Street, where Dr. McKerrow ministered until a short
ttuie previous to his death. In 1876 he completed the fiftieth year of his
ministry, and the jubilee was celebrated by the whole of the Presbyterian budy,
who presented him with a testimonial of the value of over £1,000 and an illu-
minated address, whilst a scholarship was also founded by. subscription and
establinhed in connection with the Manchester School Board. Ho was one of the
principal organisers of the United Kingdom Alliance, a memU'r of the Man-
chester School Board from its formation, and took an active part in the sgitation
of the ^Vnti-Com-Law League.

41 Victoria, cap. 55. Act to provide for the appointment and remuneration
of separate stipendiary justices for the division of Manchester and for the
borough of Salford, and for other purposes, June 17.

St. Mary's Church, Beswick, consecrated by Bishop Froiier, June 17.
Messrs. Foley and Austin were the architecU, and the cost of erection £9,500.

Mr. Charles James Mathews died at the Queen's Hotel, June 24. He was
the son of Charles Mathews, the celebrated actor, and was bom at Liverpool,
December 26, 18U3. He was intended for the Church, but was apprenticed to an
architect. He afterwards adopted the stage as his profession, and was
successively lessee and manager of the Olympic, Covent Garden, and Lyceum
Theatres. He was author of several comediettas, mostly adapted from the
French. Mr. Mathews was recognised as a master of light and eccentric

41 and 42 Victoria, cap. 163. Act to confirm certain provisional orders made
by the Board of Trade under the Tramways Act, 1870, relating to Cardiff tram-
ways (extension), Manchester Corporation tramways, Manchester suburban
tramways, and Oldham Borough tramways. July 2.

41 and 42 Victoria, cap. 141. Act for incorporating the Manchester
Suburban Tramways Company, and for empowering them to construct tram-
ways in the neighbourhood of Manchester, and for other purposes. July 4.

The annaal exhibition promoted by the National Rose Society held at the

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Armals of Momchuter. 369

Botanical GardenB, Old Trafford, July 8, being the first time that the society
had held its exhibition ont of London.

St. Bride*8 Chorch, Shrewsbnry Street, Brooks^s Bar, was consecrated by
Bishop Eraser, August 2.

The Langworthy wing of the Feel Park Museum, built from a bequest of
Mr. Alderman Langworthy, was opened on August 14 by Mr. Alderman
Walmsley. The wing is a handsome addition to the building, and consists of
a reading-room and picture gallery, respectively 74 and 104 feet in length.

Mr. James Mudie Spence died at Heme Bay, August 15. He was bom in
1830, and was the son of Mr. Peter Spenoe, F.C.S. He spent much of his lif^ in
travel in Norway, California, and South America. He wrote The Land (/
Bolivar, 1878, which is an account of his residence in Venesuela, where he made
the ascent of the Pico de Naiguata, 0,430 feet high. Amongst the plants then
gathered Is one named after him, Chuaquea Speneei. He was a member of
the Alpine Club, and a Fellow of the Boyal Geographical Society. He is buried
in the Salford Cemetery.

The Manchester Free Libraries were first opened to the public on Sunday*
on September 0.

St. Clement's Church, Ordsal, was consecrated by Bishop Fraser, Septem
ber 14. Paley and Austin were the architects, and the cost of erection was £9,000

Mr. Joseph Kay, Q.C., died October 0, at Fredley, Dorking. Mr. Kay
who was a younger brother of Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth, was bom at Ordsal
Cottage, Salford, in the year 1821. He was educated at Trinity College, Cam*
bridge, when he graduated with honours. He was called to the Bar in ISiS,
and went the Northern Circuit ; was made a Q.C. June 23, 1860, and was elected
a Bencher>f the Inner Temple in May, 1870. Mr. Kay was Judge of the Salford
Court of Record, and was also Solicitor-General for the County Palatine of
Durham. Mr. Kay unsuccessfully contested Salford in the Liberal interest in
1874 and in 1877. He was the author of Education in England and Europe,
1850, Poor Childrm in English and Oerman Towns, and other writings.

Rev. Francis R. Raines, Bf.A., F.S.A., Hon. Canon of Manchester, died
October 17, at Scarborough. Canon Raines was bom at Whitby, February 2S,
1806. He was originally designed for the medical profession, but, changing his
intentions, went to St. Bees* College and Queen's College, Cambridge, to prepare
for the ministry. In 1828 he took Deacon's orders, and in 1820 was admitted
to Priest's orders by the Bishop of Chester. In 1832 he was appointed Vicar
of Bfihirow, near Rochdale, where he remained until his death. From 1846 to
1877 he was Rural Dean of Rochdale, and in I&IO was made Honorary Canon of
Manchester Cathednd. The Archbishop of Canterbury conferred upon him
the degree of M.A. in 1845, and he was a Fellow.of the Society of Antiquaries.
As a member of the Chetham Society ha edited or compiled sereral volumes for
that body, including Bishop Oastreirs NoHtia Cesiriensis, Hisiorp of the
Lancashire Chantries, Wardens o/ Manchester, The Virars of Eochdaie, &c.
At his death he bequeathed to the Chetham College Library all his antiquarian
manuscripts, amounting to more than forty folio volumes, of exceeding value
to historians. He was interred at Milnrow.

The new bridge over the Irwell at Old TrafR>rd was opened by the Mayor
of Salfdrd, Mr. Alderman F. H. Walmsley, November 7.

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370 Armala of Manchester. am

A Ylflit was paid to the Reference Library by the United Field Natnraliate
on Sunday, November 24. Mr. W. K A. Axon gave an addreaa on the botanical
books, which was afterwards printed. This was the first occasion of the sorL

Mr. George Hanson died at Bradford, Yorkshire, December 10. He was a
natlre of Manchester, and educated at the Grammar School, but removed to
Wilsden, Yorkshire, where he took an active part in public affairs. He was
treasurer of the Airedale College. {McmcheBter City Netee NoUe and
Querieaj voL ii., p. 3.)

The Free Lance, a Manchester weekly periodical, ceased to be puhlisbed on
December 21. The first number was pubUshed in December, 1800.

Mr. Joseph Smith, founder of the Social Institution, died at Us
residence at the Maple Spring Hotel, of WlBsahlcken, Pennsylvania. Of this
benevolent but somewhat eccentric person, Mr. Holy oake has given an amusing
account in hiB History of Co-aperaHon (voL 1., p. 861, vol ii., pp. 882, 874, 43K.)
He was at Peterloo, and afterwards Joined the Blanketeers, and, when a
Socialist, was known as the " sheepmaker," because he would not allow
audiences to leave a meeting until they had subscribed money for a sheep for the
benefit of the Queenwood oonmiunity. There Is an interesting account of his
work as a wood-carver in Holyoake's Among the Americans^ London, 188L


A new Conservative Club was opened on January 0» in Great Clowes Stnet,
Broughton, by the Solicitor-General, Sir Hardinge Giffard.

Bev. William Arthur Darby, BLA., F.B.A.S., died January 10, aged QDi
He was rector of St. Luke's, Chorlton-on-Medlock. He was author of sevemi
Antl-Boman Catholic pamphlets, and of The Astrtmomical Obaerver, 1804.

Mr. Henry Dunckley, M.A., editor of the Manchester Examiner atui
ThneSf and author of the Letiera of Veraxt was entertained at dinner at tbe
Reform Club on Ja&nary 10. A presentation was at the same time made to
him by a number of gentlemen, of 700 guineas, a silver service, and a nmnber
of selected books.

St. John's Church, Deansgate, after belog restored at a cost of £1,000^ was
re-opened on February 18.

Bev. Joseph Bayner Stephens died, February 18L He was bom at Bdinbnrsh
in 1805, where his father, a Wesleyan minister, was then stationed. He soon
afterwards came to Manchester, and was educated at the Grammar ««>Vh>^
and Joined with Harrison Ainsworth in private theatricals. At twenty he
became a Wesleyan minister, and was sent to Stockholm, where he studied
Scandinavian literature with great ardour and success. On his retnm to
England in 1880^ he was suspended by the Conference fbr speaking in favour
of the separation of Church and State. He was an earnest advocate of the TVm
Hours Bill, and became a leader of the Chartist party. He was tried at
Chester, August, 1830, on a charge of sedition, and sentenced to eighteen
months' imprisonment. His oratorical powers were of a very unusual ofder,
and were again exerted during the cotton famine. He was resident in Man*
cheater or Stalybridge for more than half a century (Holyoake's Li/g of Joseph
liayner Stephens. London, 1881). It was he who first turned the attentioa ot

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1S79J Annals of Manclieeter. 87 1

his younger brother, Frofeseor George Stephens, of Copenhagen, to the study
of Northern Uteratoie.

Mr. Benjamin Templar, a well-known schoolmaster In Manchester, died at
Southport on March i. He was a natlre of Bristol, and obtained his first
appointment in the British School at Bridport. In 1864 he was appointed
master of the Model Secnlar School, Jackson's Bow, Bianchester. About 18B7
he resigned this situation and opened a priyate school at Tetlow Fold, Cheetham,
and subsequently at Birkdale, near Southport. He was the author of several
manuals, including Beading Leu<m3 in Social Economy^ A Orculuaied School
Arithmetic, and The Ediffious Difficulty in National Education,

Mr. Alderman Paul Ferdinand Willert died at Higher Broughton on
March 18. He was a natlye'of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strellts, and was bom
in 1791. He came to England in 1821, and commenced business in Manchester.
He was a commissioner of police from 1828 until the powers of the Com-
missioners were transferred to the Corporation. In 1888 he was elected to
represent the Ardwick Ward in the Town Council, and in 1841 he was made an
alderman, and assigned to the Oxford Ward, which he afterwards exchanged
for that of Cheetham. Not only was he a skilful financier, but he was a man
of culture and acquirements, for many years playing second rioUn In the
amateur orchestra of the Gentlemen's Concert Hall, and at the same time
taking an interest in the Foreign Library of which he was treasurer. He was
much respected by a large number of aoqualntances.

St. James's Church, Broughton, consecrated by Bishop Fraser, March 31.
Paley and Austin were the architects, and the cost of erection was £7,850.

Dr. Andrea Crestadoro, chief librarian of the Corporation Frse Libraries of
Manchester, died April 7. He was bom at Genoa In 1806, and educated at the
Grammar School there, and at the Unlyersity of Turin, where he took the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. He shortly afterwards became professor of
natural philosophy In that seat of learning. About the same time he published
a translation of Bancroft's History ofAmerica^ as well as some minor treatises
on political and social economy. In 1862, being then a resident of Salf ord, and
at subsequent periods, he patented several Inyentions, including one entitled
** Improvements in the means and apparatus for navigating the air.** In 1861
he was appointed chief librarian of the Manchester Free libraries, and in 1878
he was created by the King of Italy a Cavaliere dell* Ordlne de Corona dltalia.
In 1861 he published a work entitled, 2>u Pauvoir Tempord et de la
SouverainetS Pontificale* His aptitude for bibliography was exceptional, and
for some years he undertook the compilation of the British CcUalogue for
Biessrs. Sampson, Low, and Co. In 1886 he published a pamphlet on The Art
of Making Catalogues. The first volume of the catalogue of the Manchester
Beference Library was compiled by him, and is a work which exhibits much

Online LibraryWilliam E. A. (William Edward Armytage) AxonThe annals of Manchester: a chronological record from the earliest time to the end of 1885 → online text (page 49 of 63)