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of the 'Records' (Kojiki) and of the 'Chronicles' (Nihongi) were
probably later growths, and perhaps indeed were inventions of individual
priests." - Kojiki, Introd., p. lxv. See also T.A.S.J., Vol. XXII., Part
I, p. 56. "Thus, not only is this part of the Kojiki pure twaddle, but
it is not even consistent twaddle."]

[Footnote 4: Kojiki, Section IX.]

[Footnote 5: Dr. Joseph Edkins, D.D., author of Chinese Buddhism, who
believes that the primeval religious history of men is recoverable, says
in Early Spread of Religious Ideas, Especially in the Far East, p. 29,
"In Japan Amatéras[)u], ... in fact, as I suppose, Mithras written in
Japanese, though the Japanese themselves are not aware of this
etymology." Compare Kojiki, Introduction, pp. lxv.-lxvii.]

[Footnote 6: Kojiki, p. xlii.]

[Footnote 7: T.A.S.J., Vol. III., Appendix, p. 67.]

[Footnote 8: E. Satow, Revival of Pure Shint[=o], pp. 67-68.]

[Footnote 9: This curious agreement between the Japanese and other
ethnic traditions in locating "Paradise," the origin of the human family
and of civilization, at the North Pole, has not escaped the attention of
Dr. W.F. Warren, President of Boston University, who makes extended
reference to it in his interesting and suggestive book, Paradise Found:
The Cradle of the Human Race at the North Pole; A Study of the
Prehistoric World, Boston, 1885.]

[Footnote 10: The pure Japanese numerals equal in number the fingers;
with the borrowed Chinese terms vast amounts can be expressed.]

[Footnote 11: This custom was later revived, T.A.S.J., pp. 28, 31.
Mitford's Tales of Old Japan, Vol. II., p. 57; M.E., pp. 156, 238.]

[Footnote 12: See in Japanese Fairy World, "How the Sun-Goddess was
enticed out of her Cave." For the narrative see Kojiki, pp. 54-59;
T.A.S.J., Vol. II., 128-133.]

[Footnote 13: See Choméi and Wordsworth, A Literary Parallel, by J.M.
Dixon, T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., pp. 193-205; Anthologie Japonaise, by Leon de
Rosny; Chamberlain's Classical Poetry of the Japanese; Suyémats[)u]'s
Genji Monogatari, London, 1882.]

[Footnote 14: Oftentimes in studying the ancient rituals, those who
imagine that the word Kami should be in all cases translated gods, will
be surprised to see what puerility, bathos, or grandiloquence, comes out
of an attempt to express a very simple, it may be humiliating,
experience.]

[Footnote 15: Mythology and Religious Worship of the Japanese,
Westminster Review, July, 1878; Ancient Japanese Rituals, T.A.S.J.,
Vols. VII., IX.; Esoteric Shint[=o], by Percival Lowell, T.A.S.J, Vol.
XXI.]

[Footnote 16: Compare Sections IX. and XXIII. of the Kojiki.]

[Footnote 17: This indeed seems to be the substance of the modern
official expositions of Shint[=o] and the recent Rescripts of the
Emperor, as well as of much popular literature, including the
manifestoes or confessions found on the persons of men who have
"consecrated" themselves as "the instruments of Heaven for punishing the
wicked," i.e., assassinating obnoxious statesmen. See The Ancient
Religion, M.E., pp. 96-100; The Japan Mail, _passim_.]

[Footnote 18: Revival of Pure Shint[=o], pp. 25-38.]

[Footnote 19: Japanese Homes, by E.S. Morse, pp. 228-233, note, p. 832.]

[Footnote 20: Chamberlain's Aino Studies, p. 12.]

[Footnote 21: Geological Survey of Japan, by Benj. S. Lyman, 1878-9.]

[Footnote 22: The Shell Mounds of Omori; and The Tokio Times, Jan. 18,
1879, by Edward S. Morse; Japanese Fairy World, pp. I78, 191, 196.]

[Footnote 23: Kojiki, pp. 60-63.]

[Footnote 24: S. and H., pp. 58, 337, etc.]

[Footnote 25: This study in comparative religion by a Japanese, which
cost the learned author his professorship in the Téi-Koku Dai Gaku or
Imperial University (lit. Theocratic Country Great Learning Place), has
had a tendency to chill the ardor of native investigators. His paper was
first published in the Historical Magazine of the University, but the
wide publicity and popular excitement followed only after republication,
with comments by Mr. Taguchi, in the Kéizai Zasshi (Economical Journal).
The Shint[=o]ists denounced Professor Kumi for "making our ancient
religion a branch of Christianity," and demanded and secured his
"retirement" by the Government. See Japan Mail, April 2, 1892, p. 440.]

[Footnote 26: T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI., p. 282.]

[Footnote 27: Kojiki, p. xxviii.]

[Footnote 28: For the use of salt in modern "Esoteric" Shint[=o], both
in purification and for employment as of salamandrine, see T.A.S.J., pp.
125, 128.]

[Footnote 29: In the official census of 1893, nine Shint[=o] sects are
named, each of which has its own Kwancho or Presiding Head, recognized
by the government. The sectarian peculiarities of Shint[=o] have been
made the subject of study by very few foreigners. Mr. Satow names the
following:

The Yui-itsu sect was founded by Toshida Kané-tomo. His signature
appears as the end of a ten-volume edition, issued A.D. 1503, of the
liturgies extracted from the Yengishiki or Book of Ceremonial Law, first
published in the era of Yengi (or En-gi), A.D. 901-922. He is supposed
to be the one who added the _kana_, or common vernacular script letters,
to the Chinese text and thus made the norito accessible to the people.
The little pocket prayer-books, folded in an accordeon-like manner, are
very cheap and popular. The sect is regarded as heretical by strict
Shint[=o]ists, as the system Yuwiitsu consists "mainly of a Buddhist
superstructure on a Shint[=o] foundation." Yoshida applied the tenets of
the Shingon or True Word sect of Buddhists to the understanding and
practice of the ancient god-way.

The Suiga sect teaches a system which is a combination of Yuwiitsu and
of the modern philosophical form of Confucianism as elaborated by Chu
Hi, and known in Japan as the Téi-shu philosophy. The founder was
Yamazaki Ansai, who was born in 1618 and died in 1682. By combining the
forms of the Yoshida sect, which is based on the Buddhism of the Shingon
sect, with the materialistic philosophy of Chu Hi, he adapted the old
god-way to what he deemed modern needs.

In the Déguchi sect, the ancient belief is explained by the Chinese Book
of Changes (or Divination). Déguchi Nobuyoshi, the founder, was
god-warden or _kannushi_ of the Géiku or Outer Palace Temple at Isé. He
promulgated his views about the year 1660, basing them upon the book
called Éki by the Japanese and Yi-king by the Chinese. This Yi-king,
which Professor Terrien de Laeouporie declares is only a very ancient
book of pronunciation of comparative Accadian and Chinese Syllabaries,
has been the cause of incredible waste of labor, time, and brains in
China - enough to have diked the Yellow River or drained the swamps of
the Empire. It is the chief basis of Chinese superstition, and the
greatest literary barrier to the advance of civilization. It has also
made much mischief in Japan. Déguchi explained the myths of the age of
the gods by divination or éki, based on the Chinese books. As late as
1893 there was published in T[=o]ki[=o] a work in Japanese, with good
translation info English, on Scientific Morality, or the practical
guidance of life by means of divination - The Takashima Ékidan (or
Monograph on the Éki of Mr. Takashima), by S. Sugiura.

The Jikko sect, according to its representative at the World's
Parliament of Religions at Chicago, is "the practical." It lays stress
less upon speculation and ritual, and more upon the realization of the
best teachings of Shint[=o]. It was founded by Haségawa Kakugi[=o], who
was born at Nagasaki in 1541. Living in a cave in Fuji-yama, "he
received inspiration through the miraculous power of the mountain." It
believes in one absolute Deity, often mentioned in the Kojiki, which,
self-originated, took the embodiment of two deities, one with the male
nature and the other female, though these two deities are nothing but
forms of the one substance and unite again in the absolute deity. These
gave birth to the Japanese Archipelago, the sun and moon, the mountains
and streams, the divine ancestors, etc. According to the teachings of
this sect, the peerless mountain, Fuji, ought to be reverenced as the
sacred abode of the divine lord, and as "the brains of the whole globe."
The believer must make Fuji the example and emblem of his thought and
action. He must be plain and simple, as the form of the mountain, making
his body and mind pure and serene, as Fuji itself. The present world
with all its practical works must be respected more than the future
world. We must pray for the long life of the country, lead a life of
temperance and diligence, cooperating with one another in doing good.

* * * * *

_Statistics of Shint[=o]ism._

From the official Résumé Statistique de l'Empire du Japon, 1894. In 1801
there were nine administrative heads of sects; 75,877 preachers,
priests, and shrine-keepers, with 1,158 male and 228 female students.
There were 163 national temples of superior rank and 136,652 shrines or
temples in cities and prefectures; a total of 193,153, served by 14,700
persons of the grade of priests. Most of the expenses, apart from
endowments and local contributions, are included in the first item of
the annual Treasury Budget, "Civil List, Appanage and Shint[=o]
Temples."]


CHAPTER IV

THE CHINESE ETHICAL SYSTEM IN JAPAN


[Footnote 1: "He was fond of saying that Princeton had never originated
a new idea; but this meant no more than that Princeton was the advocate
of historical Calvinism in opposition to the modified and provincial
Calvinism of a later day." - Francis L. Patton, in Schaff-Herzog
Encyclopædia, Article on Charles Hodge.]

[Footnote 2: We use Dr. James Legge's spelling, by whom these classics
have been translated into English. See Sacred Books of the East, edited
by Max Müller.]

[Footnote 3: The Canon or Four Classics has a somewhat varied literary
history of transmission, collection, and redaction, as well as of
exposition, and of criticism, both "lower" and "higher." As arranged
under the Han Dynasty (B.C. 206-A.D. 23) it consisted of - I. The
Commentary of Tso Kinming (a disciple who expounded Confucius's book,
The Annals of State of Lu); II. The Commentary of Kuh-liang upon the
same work of Confucius; III. The Old Text of the Book of History; IV.
The Odes, collected by Mao Chang, to whom is ascribed the test of the
Odes as handed down to the present day. The generally accepted
arrangement is that made by the mediaeval schoolmen of the Sung Dynasty
(A.D. 960-1341), Cheng Teh Sio and Chu Hi, in the twelfth century: I.
The Great Learning; II. The Doctrine of the Mean; III. Conversations of
Confucius; IV. The Sayings of Mencius. - C.R.M., pp. 306-309.]

[Footnote 4: See criticisms of Confucius as an author, in Legge's
Religions of China, pp. 144, 145.]

[Footnote 5: Religions of China, by James Legge, p. 140.]

[Footnote 6: See Article China, by the author, Cyclopaedia of Political
Science, Chicago, 1881.]

[Footnote 7: This subject is critically discussed by Messrs. Satow,
Chamberlain, and others in their writings on Shint[=o] and Japanese
history. On Japanese chronology, see Japanese Chronological Tables, by
William Bramsen, T[=o]ki[=o], 1880, and Dr. David Murray's Japan (p.
95), in the series Story of the Nations, New York.]

[Footnote 8: The absurd claim made by some Shint[=o]ists that the
Japanese possessed an original native alphabet called the Shingi
(god-letters) before the entrance of the Chinese or Buddhist learning in
Japan, is refuted by Aston, Japanese Grammar, p. 1; T.A.S.J., Vol. III.,
Appendix, p. 77. Mr. Satow shows "their unmistakable identity with the
Corean alphabet."]

[Footnote 9: For the life, work, and tombs of the Chinese scholars who
fled to Japan on the fall of the Ming Dynasty, see M.E., p. 298; and
Professor E.W. Clement's paper on The Tokugawa Princes of Mito,
T.A.S.J., Vol. XVIII., and his letters in The Japan Mail.]

[Footnote 10: "We have consecrated ourselves as the instruments of
Heaven for punishing the wicked man," - from the document submitted to
the Yedo authorities, by the assassins of Ii Kamon no Kami, in Yedo,
March 23, 1861, and signed by seventeen men of the band. For numerous
other instances, see the voluminous literature of the Forty-seven
R[=o]nins, and the Meiji political literature (1868-1893), political and
historical documents, assassins' confessions, etc., contained in that
thesarus of valuable documents, The Japan Mail; Kinsé Shiriaku, or Brief
History of Japan, 1853-1869, Yokohama, 1873, and Nihon Guaishi,
translated by Mr. Ernest Satow; Adams's History of Japan; T.A.S.J., Vol.
XX., p. 145; Life and Letters of Yokoi Héishiro; Life of Sir Harry
Parkes, London, 1893, etc., for proof of this assertion.]

[Footnote 11: For proof of this, as to vocabulary, see Professor B.H.
Chamberlain's Grammars and other philological works; Mr. J.H. Gubbins's
Dictionary of Chinese-Japanese Words, with Introduction, three vols.,
T[=o]ki[=o] 1892; and for change in structure, Rev. C. Munzinger, on The
Psychology of the Japanese Language in the Transactions of the Gorman
Asiatic Society of Japan. See also Mental Characteristics of the
Japanese, T.A.S.J., Vol. XIX., pp. 17-37.]

[Footnote 12: See The Ghost of Sakura, in Mitfoid's Tales of Old Japan,
Vol. II, p. 17.]

[Footnote 13: M.E., 277-280. See an able analysis of Japanese feudal
society, by M.F. Dickins, Life of Sir Harry Parkes, pp. 8-13; M.E., pp.
277-283.]

[Footnote 14: This subject is discussed in Professor Chamberlain's
works; Mr. Percival Lowell's The Soul of the Far East; Dr. M.L. Gordon's
An American Missionary in Japan; Dr. J.H. De Forest's The Influence of
Pantheism, in The Japan Evangelist, 1894.]

[Footnote 15: T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., p. 96.]

[Footnote 16: The Forty Seven-R[=o]nins, Tales of Old Japan, Vol. I.;
Chiushiugura, by F.V. Dickens; The Loyal R[=o]nins, by Edward Greey;
Chiushiugura, translated by Enouyé.]

[Footnote 17: See Dr. J.H. De Forest's article in the Andover Review,
May, June, 1893, p. 309. For details and instances, see the Japanese
histories, novels, and dramas; M.E.; Rein's Japan; S. and H.; T.A.S.J.,
etc. Life of Sir Harry Parkes, p. 11 _et passim_.]

[Footnote 18: M.E. pp. 180-192, 419. For the origin and meaning of
hara-kiri, see T.J., pp. 199-201; Mitford's Tales of Old Japan, Vol. I.,
Appendix; Adams's History of Japan, story of Shimadz[)u].]

[Footnote 19: M.E., p. 133.]

[Footnote 20: For light upon the status of the Japanese family, see F.O.
Adams's History of Japan, Vol. II., p. 384; Kinsé Shiriaku, p. 137;
Naomi Tamura, The Japanese Bride, New York, 1893; E.H. House, Yoné
Santo, A Child of Japan, Chicago, 1888; Japanese Girls and Women, by
Miss A.M. Bacon, Boston, 1891; T.J., Article Woman, and in Index,
Adoption, Children, etc.; M.E., 1st ed., p. 585; Marriage in Japan,
T.A.S.J., Vol. XIII., p. 114; and papers in the German Asiatic Society
of Japan.]

[Footnote 21: See Mr. F.W. Eastlake's papers in the Popular Science
Monthly.]

[Footnote 22: See Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol. II, pp. 181-182. "It is
to be feared, however, that this reform [of the Yoshiwara system], like
many others in Japan, never got beyond paper, for Mr. Norman in his
recent book, The Real Japan [Chap. XII.], describes a scarcely modified
system in full vigor." See also Japanese Girls and Women, pp. 289-292.]

[Footnote 23: See Pung Kwang Yu's paper, read at the Parliament of
Religions in Chicago, and The Chinese as Painted by Themselves, by
Colonel Tcheng-Ki-Tong, New York and London, 1885. Dr. W.A.P. Martin's
scholarly book, The Chinese, New York, 1881, in the chapter Remarks on
the Ethical Philosophy of the Chinese, gives in English and Chinese a
Chart of Chinese Ethics in which the whole scheme of philosophy, ethics,
and self-culture is set forth.]

[Footnote 24: See an exceedingly clear, able, and accurate article on
The Ethics of Confucius as Seen in Japan, by the veteran scholar, Rev.
J.H. De Forest, The Andover Review, May, June, 1893. He is the authority
for the statements concerning non-attendance (in Old Japan) of the
husband at the wife's, and older brother at younger brother's funeral.]

[Footnote 25: A Japanese translation of Mrs. Caudle's Curtain Lectures,
in a T[=o]ki[=o] morning newspaper "met with instant and universal
approval," showing that Douglas Jerrold's world-famous character has her
counterpart in Japan, where, as a Japanese proverb declares, "the tongue
three inches long can kill a man six feet high." Sir Edwin Arnold and
Mr. E.H. House, in various writings, have idealized the admirable traits
of the Japanese woman. See also Mr. Lafcadio Hearn's Glimpses of
Unfamiliar Japan, Boston, 1894; and papers (The Eternal Feminine, etc.),
in the Atlantic Monthly.]

[Footnote 26: Summary of the Japanese Penal Codes, T.A.S.J., Vol. V.,
Part II.; The Penal Code of Japan, and The Code of Criminal Procedure of
Japan, Yokohama.]

[Footnote 27: See T.A.S.J., Vol. XIII., p. 114; the Chapter on Marriage
and Divorce, in Japanese Girls and Women, pp. 57-84. The following
figures are from the Résumé Statistique de L'Empire du Japon, published
annually by the Imperial Government:

MARRIAGES. DIVORCES.
Number. Per 1,000 Number. Per 1,000
Persons. Persons.

1887....334,149 8.55 110,859 2.84
1888....330,246 8.34 109,175 2.76
1889....340,445 8.50 107,458 2.68
1890....325,141 8.04 197,088 2.70
1891....352,051 8.00 112,411 2.76
1892....348,489 8.48 113,498 2.76
]

[Footnote 28: This was strikingly brought out in the hundreds of English
compositions (written by students of the Imperial University, 1872-74,
describing the home or individual life of students), examined and read
by the author.]

[Footnote 29: Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto - Héauton
Tomoroumenos, Act - , Scene 1, line 25, where Chremes inquires about his
neighbor's affairs. For the golden rule of Jesus and the silver rule of
Confucius, see Doolittle's Social Life of the Chinese.]

[Footnote 30: "What you do not want done to yourselves, do not do to
others." Legge, The Religions of China, p. 137; Doolittle's Social Life
of the Chinese; The Testament of Iyéyas[)u];, Cap. LXXI., translated by
J.C. Lowder, Yokohama, 1874.]

[Footnote 31: Die politische Bedeutung der amerikanischer Expedition
nach Japan, 1852, by Tetsutaro Yoshida, Heidelberg, 1893; The United
States and Japan (p. 39), by Inazo Nitobé, Baltimore, 1891; Matthew
Calbraith Perry, Chap. XXVIII.; T.J., Article Perry; Life and Letters of
S. Wells Williams, New York, 1889.]

[Footnote 32: See Life of Matthew Calbraith Perry, pp. 363, 364.]

[Footnote 33: Lee's Jerusalem Illustrated, p. 88.]


CHAPTER V

CONFUCIANISM IN ITS PHILOSOPHICAL FORM


[Footnote 1: See On the Early History of Printing in Japan, by E.M.
Satow, T.A.S.J., Vol. X., pp. 1-83, 252-259; The Jesuit Mission Press in
Japan, by E.M. Satow (privately printed, 1888), and Review of this
monograph by Professor B.H. Chamberlain, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., pp.
91-100.]

[Footnote 2: The Tokugawa Princes of Mito, by Ernest W. Clement,
T.A.S.J., Vol. XVIII., pp. 1-24, and Letters in The Japan Mail, 1889.]

[Footnote 3: Effect of Buddhism on the Philosophy of the Sung Dynasty,
p. 318, Chinese Buddhism, by Rev. J. Edkins, Boston, 1880.]

[Footnote 4: C.R.M., p. 200; The Middle Kingdom, by S. Wells Williams,
Vol. II., p. 174.]

[Footnote 5: C.R.M., p. 34. He was the boy-hero, who smashed with a
stone the precious water-vase in order to save from drowning a playmate
who had tumbled in, so often represented in Chinese popular art.]

[Footnote 6: C.R.M., pp. 25-26; The Middle Kingdom, Vol. I., pp. 113,
540, 652-654, 677.]

[Footnote 7: This decade in Chinese history was astonishingly like that
of the United States from 1884 to 1894, in which the economical theories
advocated in certain journals, in the books Progress and Poverty,
Looking Backward, and by the Populists, have been so widely read and
discussed, and the attempts made to put them into practice. The Chinese
theorist of the eleventh century, Wang Ngan-shih was "a poet and author
of rare genius." - C.R.M., p. 244.]

[Footnote 8: John xxi. 25.]

[Footnote 9: This is the opinion of no less capable judges than Dr.
George Wm. Knox and Professor Basil Hall Chamberlain.]

[Footnote 10: The United States and Japan, pp. 25-27; Life of Takano
Choyéi by Kato Sakayé, T[=o]ki[=o], 1888.]

[Footnote 11: Note on Japanese Schools of Philosophy, by T. Haga, and
papers by Dr. G.W. Knox, Dr. T. Inoué, T.A.S.J., Vol. XX, Part I.]

[Footnote 12: A religion, surely, with men like Yokoi Héishiro.]

[Footnote 13: See pp. 110-113.]

[Footnote 14: _Kinno_ - loyalty to the Emperor; T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., p.
147.]

[Footnote 15: "Originally recognizing the existence of a Supreme
personal Deity, it [Confucianism] has degenerated into a pantheistic
medley, and renders worship to an impersonal _anima mundi_ under the
leading forms of visible nature." - Dr. W.A.P. Martin's The Chinese, p.
108.]

[Footnote 16: Ki, Ri, and Ten, Dr. George Wm. Knox, T.A.S.J., Vol. XX.,
pp. 155-177.]

[Footnote 17: T.J., p. 94.]

[Footnote 18: T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., p. 156.]

[Footnote 19: Matthew Calbraith Perry, p. 373; Japanese Life of Yoshida
Shoin, by Tokutomi, T[=o]ki[=o], 1894; Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol.
II., p. 83.]

[Footnote 20: "The Chinese accept Confucius in every detail, both as
taught by Confucius and by his disciples.... The Japanese recognize both
religions [Buddhism and Confucianism] equally, but Confucianism in Japan
has a direct bearing upon everything relating to human affairs,
especially the extreme loyalty of the people to the emperor, while the
Koreans consider it more useful in social matters than in any other
department of life, and hardly consider its precepts in their business
and mercantile relations."

"Although Confucianism is counted a religion, it is really a system of
sociology.... Confucius was a moralist and statesman, and his disciples
are moralists and economists." - Education in Korea, by Mr. Pom K. Soh,
of the Korean Embassy to the United States; Report of U.S. Commissioner
of Education, 1890-91, Vol. I., pp. 345-346.]

[Footnote 21: In Bakin, who is the great teacher of the Japanese by
means, of fiction, this is the idea always inculcated.]


CHAPTER VI

THE BUDDHISM OF NORTHERN ASIA


[Footnote 1: See his Introduction to the Saddharma Pundarika, Sacred
Books of the East, and his Buddhismus.]

[Footnote 2: Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by Buddhism;
Non-Christian Religious Systems - Buddhism.]

[Footnote 3: The sketch of Indian thought here following is digested
from material obtained from various works on Buddhism and from the
Histories of India. See the excellent monograph of Romesh Chunder Dutt,
in Epochs of Indian History, London and New York, 1893; and Outlines of
The Mahayana, as Taught by Buddha ("for circulation among the members of
the Parliament of Religions," and distributed in Chicago), Toki[=o],
1893.]

[Footnote 4: Dyaus-Pitar, afterward _zeus patêr_. See Century
Dictionary, Jupiter.]

[Footnote 5: Yoga is the root form of our word yoke, which at once
suggests the union of two in one. See Yoga, in The Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 6: Dutt's History of India.]

[Footnote 7: The differences between the simple primitive narrative of
Gautama's experiences in attaining Buddhahood, and the richly
embroidered story current in later ages, may be seen by reading, first,
Atkinson's Prince Sidartha, the Japanese Buddha, and then Arnold's Light
of Asia. See also S. and H., Introduction, pp. 70-84, etc. Atkinson's
book is refreshing reading after the expurgation and sublimation of the
same theme in Sir Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia.]

[Footnote 8: Romesh Chunder Dutt's Ancient India, p. 100.]

[Footnote 9: Origin and Growth of Religion by T. Rhys Davids, p. 28.]

[Footnote 10: Job i. 6, Hebrew.]

[Footnote 11: Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 29.]

[Footnote 12: "Buddhism so far from tracing 'all things' to 'matter' as
their original, denies the reality of matter, but it nowhere denies the
reality of existence." - The Phoenix, Vol. I., p. 156.]

[Footnote 13: See A Year among the Persians, by Edward G. Browne,
London, 1893.]

[Footnote 14: Dutt's History of India, pp. 153-156. See also Mozoomdar's
The Spirit of God, p. 305. "Buddhism, though for a long time it
supplanted the parent system, was the fulfilment of the prophecy of
universal peace, which Hinduism had made; and when, in its turn, it was



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