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outgrown by the instincts of the Aryans, it had to leave India indeed
forever, but it contributed quite as much to Indian religion as it had
ever borrowed."]

[Footnote 15: Korean Repository, Vol. I., pp. 101, 131, 153; Siebold's
Nippon, Archiv; Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Education, 1890-91,
Vol. I., p. 346; Dallet's Histoire de l'Église de Corée, Vol. 1.,
Introd., p. cxlv.; Corea, the Hermit Nation, p. 331.]

[Footnote 16: See Brian H. Hodgson's The Literature and History of the
Buddhists, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which is
epitomized in The Phoenix, Vol. I.; Beal's Buddhism in China, Chap. II.;
T. Rhys Davids's Buddhism, etc. To Brian Houghton Hodgson, (of whose
death at the ripe age of ninety-three years we read in Luzac's Oriental
List) more than to any one writer, are we indebted for our knowledge of
Northern or Mahayana Buddhism.]

[Footnote 17: See the very accurate, clear, and full definitions and
explanations in The Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 18: This subject is fully discussed by Professor T. Rhys
Davids in his compact Manual of Buddhism.]

[Footnote 19: See Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 20: Jap. Mon-ju. One of the most famous images of this
Bodhisattva is at Zenkô-ji, Nagano. See Kern's Saddharma Pundarika, p.
8, and the many referents to Manjusri in the Index. That Manjusri was
the legendary civilizer of Nepaul seems probable from the following
extract from Brian Hodgson: "The Swayambhu Purana relates in substance
as follows: That formerly the valley of Nepaul was of circular form, and
full of very deep water, and that the mountains confining it were
clothed with the densest forests, giving shelter to numberless birds and
beasts. Countless waterfowl rejoiced in the waters....

"... Vipasyi, having thrice circumambulated the lake, seated himself in
the N.W. (Váyubona) side of it, and, having repeated several mantras
over the root of a lotos, he threw it into the water, exclaiming, 'What
time this root shall produce a flower, then, from out of the flower,
Swayambhu, the Lord of Agnishtha Bhuvana, shall be revealed in the form
of flame; and then shall the lake become a cultivated and populous
country.' Having repeated these words, Vipasyi departed. Long after the
date of this prophecy, it was fulfilled according to the letter....

"... When the lake was dessicated (by the sword of Manjusri says the
myth - probably earthquake) Karkotaka had a fine tank built for him to
dwell in; and there he is still worshipped, also in the cave-temple
appendant to the great Buddhist shrine of Swayambhu Nath....

"... The Bodhisatwa above alluded to is Manju Sri, whose native place is
very far off, towards the north, and is called Pancha Sirsha Parvata
(which is situated in Maha China Des). After the coming of Viswabhu
Buddha to Naga Vasa, Manju Sri, meditating upon what was passing in the
world, discovered by means of his divine science that
Swayambhu-jyotirupa, that is, the self-existent, in the form of flame,
was revealed out of a lotos in the lake of Naga Vasa. Again, he
reflected within himself: 'Let me behold that sacred spot, and my name
will long be celebrated in the world;' and on the instant, collecting
together his disciples, comprising a multitude of the peasantry of the
land, and a Raja named Dharmakar, he assumed the form of Viswakarma, and
with his two Devis (wives) and the persons above-mentioned, set out upon
the long journey from Sirsha Parvata to Naga Vasa. There having arrived,
and having made puja to the self-existent, he began to circumambulate
the lake, beseeching all the while the aid of Swayambhu in prayer. In
the second circuit, when he had reached the central barrier mountain to
the south, he became satisfied that that was the best place whereat to
draw off the waters of the lake. Immediately he struck the mountain with
his scimitar, when the sundered rock gave passage to the waters, and the
bottom of the lake became dry. He then descended from the mountain, and
began to walk about the valley in all directions." - The Phoenix, Vol.
II., pp. 147-148.]

[Footnote 21: Jap. Kwannon, god or goddess of mercy, in his or her
manifold forms, Thousand-handed, Eleven-faced, Horse-headed, Holy, etc.]

[Footnote 22: Or, The Lotus of the Good Law, a mystical name for the
cosmos. "The good law is made plain by flowers of rhetoric." See Bernouf
and Kern's translations, and Edkin's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 43, 214.
Translations of this work, so influential in Japanese Buddhism, exist in
French, German, and English. See Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXI., by
Professor H. Kern, of Leyden University. In the Introduction, p. xxxix.,
the translator discusses age, authorship, editions, etc. Bunyiu Nanjio's
Short History of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects, pp. 132-134. Beal
in his Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, pp. 389-396, has translated
Chapter XXIV.]

[Footnote 23: At the great Zenk[=o]ji, a temple of the Tendai sect, at
Nagano, Japan, dedicated to three Buddhist divinities, one of whom is
Kwannon (Avalokitesvara, the rafters of the vast main hall are said to
number 69,384, in reference to the number of Chinese characters
contained in the translation of the Saddharma Pundarika.]

[Footnote 24: "The third (collection of the Tripitaka) was ... made by
Manjusri and Maitreya. This is the collection of the Mahayana books.
Though it is as clear or bright as the sun at midday yet the men of the
Hinayana are not ashamed of their inability to know them and speak evil
of them instead, just as the Confucianists call Buddhism a law of
barbarians, without reading the Buddhist books at all." - B.N., p. 51.]

[Footnote 25: See the writings of Brian Hodgson, J. Edkins, E.J. Eitel,
S. Beal, T. Rhys Davids, Bunyiu Nanjio, etc.]

[Footnote 26: See Chapter VIII. in T. Rhys Davids's Buddhism, a book of
great scholarship and marvellous condensation.]

[Footnote 27: Davids's Buddhism, p. 206. Other illustrations of the
growth of the dogmas of this school of Buddhism we select from Brian
Hodgson's writings.

1. The line of division between God and man, and between gods and man,
was removed by Buddhism.

"Genuine Buddhism never seems to contemplate any measures of acceptance
with the deity; but, overleaping the barrier between finite and infinite
mind, urges its followers to aspire by their own efforts to that divine
perfectibility of which it teaches that man is capable, and by attaining
which man becomes God - and thus is explained both the quiescence of the
imaginary celestial, and the plenary omnipotence of the real Manushi
Buddhas - thus, too, we must account for the fact that genuine Buddhism
has no priesthood; the saint despises the priest; the saint scorns the
aid of mediators, whether on earth or in heaven; 'conquer (exclaims the
adept or Buddha to the novice or BodhiSattwa) - conquer the importunities
of the body, urge your mind to the meditation of abstraction, and you
shall, in time, discover the great secret (Sunyata) of nature: know
this, and you become, on the instant, whatever priests have feigned of
Godhead - you become identified with Prajna, the sum of all the power and
all the wisdom which sustain and govern the world, and which, as they
are manifested out of matter, must belong solely to matter; not indeed
in the gross and palpable state of pravritti, but in the archetypal and
pure state of nirvritti. Put off, therefore, the vile, pravrittika
necessities of the body, and the no less vile affections of the mind
(Tapas); urge your thought into pure abstraction (Dhyana), and then, as
assuredly you can, so assuredly you shall, attain to the wisdom of a
Buddha (Bodhijnana), and become associated with the eternal unity and
rest of nirvritti.'" - The Phoenix, Vol. I., p. 194.

2. A specimen of "esoteric" and "exoteric" Buddhism; - the Buddha

"And as the wisdom of man is, in its origin, but an effluence of the
Supreme wisdom (_Prajná_) of nature, so is it perfected by a refluence
to its source, but without loss of individuality; whence Prajna is
feigned in the exoteric system to be both the mother and the wife of all
the Buddhas, '_janani sarva Buddkánám_,' and '_Jina-sundary_;' for the
efflux is typified by a birth, and the reflux by a marriage.

"The Buddha is the adept in the wisdom of Buddhism (_Bodhijnána_) whose
first duty, so long as he remains on earth, is to communicate his wisdom
to those who are willing to receive it. These willing learners are the
'Bodhisattwas,' so called from their hearts being inclined to the wisdom
of Buddhism, and 'Sanghas,' from their companionship with one another,
and with their Buddha or teacher, in the _Viháras_ or coenobitical

"And such is the esoteric interpretation of the third (and inferior)
member of the Prajniki Triad. The Bodhisattwa or Sangha continues to be
such until he has surmounted the very last grade of that vast and
laborious ascent by which he is instructed that he can 'scale the
heavens,' and pluck immortal wisdom from its resplendent source: which
achievement performed, he becomes a Buddha, that is, an Omniscient
Being, and a _Tathágata_ - a title implying the accomplishment of that
gradual increase in wisdom by which man becomes immortal or ceases to be
subject to transmigration." - The Phoenix, Vol. I., pp. 194, 195.

3. Is God all, or is all God?

"What that grand secret, that ultimate truth, that single reality, is,
whether all is God, or God is all, seems to be the sole _proposition_ of
the oriental philosophic religionists, who have all alike sought to
discover it by taking the high _priori_ road. That God is all, appears
to be the prevalent dogmatic determination of the Brahmanists; that all
is God, the preferential but sceptical solution of the _Buddhists_; and,
in a large view, I believe it would be difficult to indicate any further
essential difference between their theoretic systems, both, as I
conceive, the unquestionable growth of the Indian soil, and both founded
upon transcendental speculation, conducted in the very same style and
manner." - The Phoenix, Vol. II., p. 45.

4. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.

"In a philosophical light, the precedence of Buddha or of Dharma
indicates the theistic or atheistic school. With the former, Buddha is
intellectual essence, the efficient cause of all, and underived. Dharma
is material essence, the plastic cause, and underived, a co-equal
biunity with Buddha; or else the plastic cause, as before, but dependent
and derived from Buddha. Sangha is derived from, and compounded of,
Buddha, and Dharma, is their collective energy in the state of action;
the immediate operative cause of creation, its type or its agent. With
the latter or atheistic schools, Dharma is _Diva natura_, matter as the
sole entity, invested with intrinsic activity and intelligence, the
efficient and material cause of all.

"Buddha is derivative from Dharma, is the active and intelligent force
of nature, first put off from it and then operating upon it. Sangha is
the _result_ of that operation; is embryotic creation, the type and sum
of all specific forms, which are spontaneously evolved from the union of
Buddha with Dharma." - The Phoenix, Vol. II., p. 12.

5. The mantra or sacred sentence best known in the Buddhadom and abroad.

"_Amitábha_ is the fourth _Dhyani_ or celestial _Budda: Padma-pani_ his
_Æon_ and executive minister. _Padma-pani_ is the _praesens Divus_ and
creator of the _existing_ system of worlds. Hence his identification
with the third member of the _Triad_. He is figured as a graceful youth,
erect, and bearing in either hand a _lotos_ and a jewel. The last
circumstance explains the meaning of the celebrated _Shadakshári
Mantra_, or six-lettered invocation of him, viz., _Om! Manipadme hom!_
of which so many corrupt versions and more corrupt interpretations have
appeared from Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and other sources. The
_mantra_ in question is one of three, addressed to the several members
of the _Triad_. 1. _Om sarva vidye hom_. 2. _Om Prajnáye hom_. 3. _Om
mani-padme hom_. 1. The mystic triform Deity is in the all-wise
(Buddha). 2. The mystic triform Deity is in Prajna (Dharma). 3. The
mystic triform Deity is in him of the jewel and lotos (Sangha). But the
praesens Divus, whether he be Augustus or _Padma-pani_, is everything
with the many. Hence the notoriety of this _mantra_, whilst the others
are hardly ever heard of, and have thus remained unknown to our
travellers." - The Phoenix, Vol. II., p. 64.]

[Footnote 28: "Nine centuries after Buddha, Maitreya (Miroku or Ji-shi)
came down from the Tushita heaven to the lecture-hall in the kingdom of
Ayodhya (A-ya-sha) in Central India, at the request of the Bodhisattva
Asamga (Mu-jaku) and discoursed five Sastras, 1, Yoga-karya-bhumi-sastra
(Yu-ga-shi-ji-ron), etc.... After that, the two great Sastra teachers,
Asanga and Vasubandhu (Se-shin), who were brothers, composed many
Sastras (Ron) and cleared up the meaning of the Mahayana" (or Greater
Vehicle, canon of Northern Buddhism). - B.N., p. 32.]

[Footnote 29: Buddhism, T. Rhys Davids, pp. 206-211.]

[Footnote 30: Prayer-wheels in Japan are used by the Tendai and Shingon
sects, but without written prayers attached, and rather as an
illustration of the doctrine of cause and effect (ingwa); the prayers
being usually offered to Jizo the merciful. - S. and H., p. 29; T. J., p.

[Footnote 31: For this see Edkins's Chinese Buddhism; Eitel's Three
Lectures, and Hand-book; Rev. S. Beal's Buddhism, and A Catena of
Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese; The Romantic Legend of Sakya
Buddha, from the Chinese; Texts from the Buddhist canon commonly known
as the Dhammapeda; Notes on Buddhist Words and Phrases, the
Chrysanthemum, Vol. I.; The Phoenix, Vols. I-III.

See, also, a spirited sketch of Ancient Japan, by Frederick Victor
Dickins, in the Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol. II., pp. 4-14.]

[Footnote 32: S. and H., pp. 289, 293; Chamberlain's Hand-book for
Japan, p. 220; Summer's Notes on Osaka, T.A.S.J., Vol. VIL, p. 382;
Buddhism, and Traditions Concerning its Introduction into Japan,
T.A.S.J., Vol. XIV., p. 78.]

[Footnote 33: S. and H., p. 344.]

[Footnote 34: T.J., p. 73.]

[Footnote 35: Vairokana is the first or chief of the five
personifications of Wisdom, and in Japan the idol is especially
noticeable in the temples of the Tendai sect. - "The Action of Vairokana,
or the great doctrine of the highest vehicle of the secret union," etc.,
B.N., p. 75.]

[Footnote 36: S. and H., p. 390; B.N., p. 29.]

[Footnote 37: "Hinduism stands for philosophic spirituality and emotion,
Buddhism for ethics and humanity, Christianity for fulness of God's
incarnation in man, while Mohammedanism is the champion of
uncompromising monotheism." - F.P.C. Mozoomdar's The Spirit of God,
Boston, 1894, p. 305.]



[Footnote 1: Is not something similar frankly attempted in Rev. Dr.
Joseph Edkins's The Early Spread of Religious Ideas in the Far East
(London, 1893)?]

[Footnote 2: M.E., p. 252; Honda the Samurai, pp. 193-194.]

[Footnote 3: See The Lily Among Thorns, A Study of the Biblical Drama
Entitled the Song of Songs (Boston 1890), in which this subject is
glanced at.]

[Footnote 4: See The Religion of Nepaul, Buddhist Philosophy, and the
writings of Brian Hodgson in The Phoenix, Vols. I., II., III.]

[Footnote 5: See Century Dictionary, Yoga; Edkins's Chinese Buddhism,
pp. 169-174; T. Rhys Davids's Buddhism, pp. 206-211; Index of B.N.,
under Vagrasattwa; S. and H., pp. 85-87.]

[Footnote 6: T.J., p. 226; Kojiki, Introduction.]

[Footnote 7: See in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1893, a
very valuable paper by Mr. L.A. Waddell, on The Northern Buddhist
Mythology, epitomized in the Japan Mail, May 5, 1894.]

[Footnote 8: See Catalogue of Chinese and Japanese Paintings in the
British Museum, and The Pictorial Arts of Japan, by William Anderson,

[Footnote 9: Anderson's Catalogue, p. 24.]

[Footnote 10: S. and H., p. 415; Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan;
T.J.; M.E., p. 162, etc.]

[Footnote 11: The names of Buddhist priests and monks are usually
different from those of the laity, being taken from events in the life
of Gautama, or his original disciples, passages in the sacred classics,
etc. Among some personal acquaintances in the Japanese priesthood were
such names as Lift-the-Kettle, Take-Hold-of-the-Dipper,
Drivelling-Drunkard, etc. In the raciness, oddity, literalness, realism,
and close connection of their names with the scriptures of their system,
the Buddhists quite equal the British Puritans.]

[Footnote 12: Kern's Saddharma-Pundarika, pp. 311, 314; Davids's
Buddhism p. 208; The Phoenix, Vol. I., p. 169; S. and H., p. 502; Du
Bose's Dragon, Demon, and Image, p. 407; Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 134;
Hough's Corean Collections, Washington, 1893, p. 480, plate xxviii.]

[Footnote 13: Japan in History, Folk-lore and Art, pp. 86, 80-88; A
Japanese Grammar, by J.J. Hoffman, p. 10; T.J., pp. 465-470.]

[Footnote 14: This is the essence of Buddhism, and was for centuries
repeated and learned by heart throughout the empire:

"Love and enjoyment disappear,
What in our world endureth here?
E'en should this day it oblivion be rolled,
'Twas only a vision that leaves me cold."

[Footnote 15: This legend suggests the mediaeval Jewish story, that
Ezra, the scribe, could write with five pens at once; Hearn's Glimpses
of Unfamiliar Japan, pp. 29-33.]

[Footnote 16: Brave Little Holland, and What She Taught Us, p. 124.]

[Footnote 17: T.J., pp. 75, 342; Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p.
41; M.E., p. 162.]

[Footnote 18: T.A.S.J., Vol. II., p. 101; S. and H., p. 176.]

[Footnote 19: It was for lifting with his walking-stick the curtain
hanging before the shrine of this Kami that Arinori Mori, formerly
H.I.J.M. Minister at Washington and London, was assassinated by a
Shint[=o] fanatic, February 11, 1889; T. J., p. 229; see Percival
Lowell's paper in the Atlantic Monthly.]

[Footnote 20: See Mr. P. Lowell's Esoteric Shint[=o], T.A.S.J., Vol.
XXI, pp. 165-167, and his "Occult Japan."]

[Footnote 21: S. and H., Japan, p. 83.]

[Footnote 22: See the Author's Introduction to the Arabian Nights'
Entertainments, Boston, 1891.]

[Footnote 23: B.N., Index and pp. 78-103; Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, p.

[Footnote 24: Satow's or Chamberlain's Guide-books furnish hundreds of
other instances, and describe temples in which the renamed kami are

[Footnote 25: S. and H., p. 70.]

[Footnote 26: M.E., pp. 187, 188; S. and H., pp. 11, 12.]

[Footnote 27: San Kai Ri (Mountain, Sea, and Land). This work,
recommended to me by a learned Buddhist priest in Fukui, I had
translated and read to me by a Buddhist of the Shin Shu sect. In like
manner, even Christian writers in Japan have occasionally endeavored to
rationalize the legends of Shint[=o], see Kojiki, p. liii., where Mr. T.
Goro's Shint[=o] Shin-ron is referred to. I have to thank my friend Mr.
C. Watanabé, of Cornell University, for reading to me Mr. Takahashi's
interesting but unconvincing monographs on Shint[=o] and Buddhism.]

[Footnote 28: T.J., p. 402; Some Chinese Ghosts, by Lafcadio Hearn, p.

[Footnote 29: S. and H., Japan, p. 397; Classical Poetry of the
Japanese, p. 201, note.]

[Footnote 30: The Japanese word Ry[=o] means both, and is applied to the
eyes, ears, feet, things correspondent or in pairs, etc.; _bu_ is a term
for a set, kind, group, etc.]

[Footnote 31: Rein, p. 432; T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI., pp. 241-270; T.J., p.

[Footnote 32: The Chrysanthemum, Vol. I., p. 401.]

[Footnote 33: Even the Takétori Monogatari (The Bamboo Cutter's
Daughter), the oldest and the best of the Japanese classic romances is
(at least in the text and form now extant) a warp of native ideas with a
woof of Buddhist notions.]

[Footnote 34: Mr. Percival Lowell argues, in Esoteric Shint[=o],
T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI., that besides the habit of pilgrimages,
fire-walking, and god-possession, other practices supposed to be
Buddhistic are of Shint[=o] origin.]

[Footnote 35: The native literature illustrating Riy[=o]buism is not
extensive. Mr. Ernest Satow in the American Cyclopædia (Japan:
Literature) mentions several volumes. The Tenchi Réiki Noko, in eighteen
books contains a mixture of Buddhism and Shint[=o], and is ascribed by
some to Sh[=o]toku and by others to K[=o]b[=o], but now literary critics
ascribe these, as well as the books Jimbetsuki and Tenshoki, to be
modern forgeries by Buddhist priests. The Kogoshiui, written in A.D.
807, professes to preserve fragments of ancient tradition not recorded
in the earlier books, but the main object is that which lies at the
basis of a vast mass of Japanese literature, namely, to prove the
author's own descent from the gods. The Yuiitsu Shint[=o] Miyoho Yoshiu,
in two volumes, is designed to prove that Shint[=o] and Buddhism are
identical in their essence. Indeed, almost all the treatises on
Shint[=o] before the seventeenth century maintained this view. Certain
books like the Shint[=o] Shu, for centuries popular, and well received
even by scholars, are now condemned on account of their confusion of the
two religions. One of the most interesting works which we have found is
the San Kai Ri, to which reference has been made.]

[Footnote 36: T.J., p. 224.]

[Footnote 37: "Human life is but fifty years," Japanese Proverb; M.E.,
p. 107.]

[Footnote 38: Chamberlain's Classical Poetry of the Japanese, p. 130.]

[Footnote 39: S. and H., p. 416.]

[Footnote 40: Things Chinese, by J. Dyer Ball, p. 70; see also Edkins
and Eitel.]

[Footnote 41: The Japan Weekly Mail of April 28, 1893, translating and
condensing an article from the Bukky[=o], a Buddhist newspaper, gives
the results of a Japanese Buddhist student's tour through China - "Taoism
prevails everywhere.... Buddhism has decayed and is almost dead."]

[Footnote 42: Vaisramana is a Deva who guarded, praised, fed with
heavenly food, and answered the questions of the Chinese D[=o]-sen
(608-907 A.D.) who founded the Risshu or Vinaya sect. - B.N., p. 25.]

[Footnote 43: Anderson, Catalogue, pp. 29-45.]

[Footnote 44: Some of those are pictured in Aimé Humbert's Japon
Illustré, and from the same pictures reproduced by electro-plates which,
from Paris, have transmigrated for a whole generation through the
cheaper books on Japan, in every European language.]



[Footnote 1: On the Buddhist canon, see the writings of Beal, Spence
Hardy, T. Rhys Davids, Bunyiu Nanjio, etc.]

[Footnote 2: Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 43, 108, 214; Classical
Poetry of the Japanese, p. 173.]

[Footnote 3: See T.A.S.J., Vol. XIX., Part I., pp. 17-37; The Soul of
the Far East; and the writings of Chamberlain, Aston, Dickins,
Munzinger, etc.]

[Footnote 4: Much of the information as to history and doctrine
contained in this chapter has been condensed from Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio's A
Short History of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects, translated out of
the Japanese into English. This author, besides visiting the old seats
of the faith in China, studied Sanskrit at Oxford with Professor Max
Müller, and catalogued in English the Tripitaka or Buddhist canon of
China and Japan, sent to England by the ambassador Iwakura. The nine
reverend gentlemen who wrote the chapters and introduction of the Short
History are Messrs. K[=o]-ch[=o] Ogurusu, and Shu-Zan Emura of the Shin
sect; Rev. Messrs. Sh[=o]-hen Uéda, and Dai-ryo Takashi, of the Shin-gon
Sect; Rev. Messrs. Gy[=o]-kai Fukuda, Keu-k[=o] Tsuji, Renj[=o]
Akamatsu, and Zé-jun Kobayashi of the J[=o]-d[=o], Zen, Shin, and
Nichiren sects, respectively. Though execrably printed, and the English
only tolerable, the work is invaluable to the student of Japanese
Buddhism. It has a historical introduction and a Sanskrit-Chinese Index,
1 vol., pp. 172, T[=o]ki[=o], 1887. Substantially the same work,
translated into French, is Le Bouddhisme Japonais, by Ryauon Fujishima,
Paris, 1889. Satow and Hawes's Hand-book for Japan has brief but
valuable notes in the Introduction, and, like Chamberlain's continuation
of the same work, is a storehouse of illustrative matter. Edkine's and
Eitel's works on Chinese Buddhism have been very helpful.]

[Footnote 5: M. Abel Remusat published a translation of a Chinese
Pilgrim's travels in 1836; M. Stanislais Julien completed his volume on
Hiouen Thsang in 1858; and in 1884 Rev. Samuel Beal issued his Travels
of Fah-Hian and Sung-Yun, Buddhist Pilgrims from China to India (400

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