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A.D. and 518 A.D.). The latter work contains a map.]

[Footnote 6: B.N., p. 3.]

[Footnote 7: B.N., p. 11.]

[Footnote 8: Three hundred and twenty million years. See Century

[Footnote 9: See the paper of Rev. Sh[=o]-hen Uéda of the Shingon sect,
in B.N., pp. 20-31; and R. Fujishima's Le Bouddhisme Japonais, pp. xvi.,
xvii., from which most of the information here given has been derived.]

[Footnote 10: M.E., p. 383; S. and H., pp. 23, 30. The image of Binzuru
is found in many Japanese temples to-day, a famous one being at Asakusa,
in T[=o]ki[=o]. He is the supposed healer of all diseases. The image
becomes entirely rubbed smooth by devotees, to the extinguishment of all
features, lines, and outlines.]

[Footnote 11: Davids's Buddhism, pp. 180, 200; S. and H., pp. (87) 389,

[Footnote 12: B.N., pp. 32-43.]

[Footnote 13: B.N., pp. 44-56.]

[Footnote 14: Japanese Fairy World, p. 282; Anderson's Catalogue, pp.

[Footnote 15: B.N., p. 62.]

[Footnote 16: Pfoundes, Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 102.]

[Footnote 17: B.N., p. 58. See also The Monist for January, 1894, p.

[Footnote 18: "Tien Tai, a spot abounding in Buddhist antiquities, the
earliest, and except Puto the largest and richest seat of that religion
in eastern China. As a monastic establishment it dates from the fourth
century." - Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 137-142.]

[Footnote 19: S. and H., p. 87. See the paper read at the Parliament of
Religions by the Zen bonze Ashitsu of Hiyéisan, the poem of Right
Reverend Shaku Soyen, and the paper on The Fundamental Teachings of
Buddhism, in The Monist for January, 1894; Japan As We Saw It, p. 297.]

[Footnote 20: See Century Dictionary, _mantra_.]

[Footnote 21: See Chapter XX. Ideas and Symbols in Japan: in History,
Folk-lore, and Art. Buddhist tombs (go-rin) consist of a cube (earth),
sphere (water), pyramid (fire), crescent (wind), and flame-shaped stone
(ether), forming the go-rin or five-blossom tomb, typifying the five

[Footnote 22: B.N., p. 78.]

[Footnote 23: To put this dogma into intelligible English is, as Mr.
Satow says, more difficult than to comprehend the whole doctrine, hard
as that may be. "Dai Nichi Ni-yorai (Vairokana) is explained to be the
collectivity of all sentient beings, acting through the mediums of
Kwan-non, Ji-z[=o], Mon-ju, Shaka, and other influences which are
popularly believed to be self-existent deities." In the diagram called
the eight-leaf enclosure, by which the mysteries of Shingon are
explained, Maha-Vairokana is in the centre, and on the eight petals are
such names as Amitabha, Manjusri, Maitreya, and Avalokitesvara; in a
word, all are purely speculative beings, phantoms of the brain, the
mushrooms of decayed Brahmanism, and the mould of primitive Buddhism
disintegrated by scholasticism.]

[Footnote 24: S. and H., p. 31.]

[Footnote 25: B.N., p. 115.]

[Footnote 26: Here let me add that in my studies of oriental and ancient
religion, I have never found one real Trinity, though triads, or
tri-murti, are common. None of these when carefully analyzed yield the
Christian idea of the Trinity.]



[Footnote 1: Tathagata is one of the titles of the Buddha, meaning "thus
come," i.e., He comes bringing human nature as it truly is, with perfect
knowledge and high intelligence, and thus manifests himself. Amitabha is
the Sanskrit of Amida, or the deification of boundless light.]

[Footnote 2: B.N., p. 104.]

[Footnote 3: Literally, I yield to, or I adore the Boundless or the
Immeasurable Buddha.]

[Footnote 4: A Chinese or Japanese volume is much smaller than the
average printed volume in Europe.]

[Footnote 5: Legacy of Iyéyas[)u], Section xxviii. Doctrinally, this
famous document, written probably long after Iyéyas[)u]'s death and
canonization as a _gongen_, is a mixture or _Riy[=o]bu_ of Confucianism
and Buddhism.]

[Footnote 6: At first glance a forcible illustration, since the Japanese
proverb declares that "A sea-voyage is an inch of hell." And yet the
original saying of Ry[=u]-ju, now proverbial in Buddhadom, referred to
the ease of sailing over the water, compared with the difficulty of
surmounting the obstacles of land travel in countries not yet famous for
good roads. See B.N., p. 111.]

[Footnote 7: Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 108; Descriptive Notes on the Rosaries
as used by the different Sects of Buddhists in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol.
IX., pp. 173-182.]

[Footnote 8: B.N., p. 122.]

[Footnote 9: S. and H., p. 361.]

[Footnote 10: S. and H., pp. 90-92; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II.,
pp. 242-253.]

[Footnote 11: These three sutras are those most in favor with the
J[=o]-d[=o] sect also, they are described, B.N., 104-106, and their
tenets are referred to on pp. 260, 261.]

[Footnote 12: For modern statements of Shin tenets and practices, see
E.J. Reed's Japan, Vol. I., pp. 84-86; The Chrysanthemum, April, 1881,
pp. 109-115; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II., 242-246; B.N., 122-131.
Edkins's Religion in China, p. 153. The Chrysanthemum, April, 1881, p.

[Footnote 13: S. and H., p. 361; B.N., pp. 105, 106. Toward the end of
the Amitayus-dhyana sutra, Buddha says: "Let not one's voice cease, but
ten times complete the thought, and repeat Namo'mit[=a]bh[=a]ya
Buddh[=a]ya (Namu Amida Butsu) or adoration to Amitb[=a]ha Buddha."]

[Footnote 14: M.E., pp. 164-166.]

[Footnote 15: Schaff's Encyclopaedia, Article, Buddhism.]

[Footnote 16: On the Tenets of the Shin Shiu, or "True Sect" of
Buddhists, T.A.S.J., Vol. XIV., p. 1.]

[Footnote 17: The Gobunsho, or Ofumi, of Renny[=o] Sh[=o]nin, T.A.S.J.,
Vol. XVII., pp. 101-143.]

[Footnote 18: At the gorgeous services in honor of the founder of the
great Higashi Hongwanji Western Temple of the Original Vow at Asakusa,
T[=o]ki[=o], November 21 to 28, annually, the women attend wearing a
head-dress called "horn-hider," which seems to have been named in
allusion to a Buddhist text which says: "A woman's exterior is that of a
saint, but her heart is that of a demon." - Chamberlain's Hand-book for
Japan, p. 82; T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., pp. 106, 141; Sacred Books of the
East, Vol. XXI., pp. 251-254.]

[Footnote 19: Review of Buddhist Texts from Japan, The Nation, No. 875,
April 6, 1882. "The _Mah[=a]y[=a]na_ or Great Vehicle (we might fairly
render it 'highfalutin') school.... Filled as these countries (Tibet,
China, Japan) are with Buddhist monasteries, and priests, and nominal
adherents, and abounding in voluminous translations of the Sanskrit
Buddhistic literature, little understood and wellnigh unintelligible
(for neither country has had the independence and mental force to
produce a literature of its own, or to add anything but a chapter of
decay to the history of this religion)...."]

[Footnote 20: M.E., pp. 164, 165; B.N., pp. 132-147; Mitford's Tales of
Old Japan, Vol. II., pp. 125-134.]



[Footnote 1: T.J., p. 71. Further illustrations of this statement may be
found in his Classical Poetry of the Japanese, especially in the
Selection and Appendices of this book; also in T.R.H. McClatchie's
Japanese Plays (Versified), London, 1890.]

[Footnote 2: See Introduction to the Kojiki, pp. xxxii.-xxxiv., and in
Bakin's novel illustrating popular Buddhist beliefs, translated by
Edward Greey, A Captive of Love, Boston, 1886.]

[Footnote 3: See jade in Century Dictionary; "Magatama, so far as I am
aware, do not ever appear to have been found in shell heaps" (of the
aboriginal Ainos), Milne's Notes on Stone Implements, T.A.S.J., Vol.
VIII., p. 71.]

[Footnote 4: Concerning this legendary, and possibly mythical, episode,
which has so powerfully influenced Japanese imagination and politics,
see T.A.S.J., Vol. XVI., Part I., pp. 39-75; M.E., pp. 75-85.]

[Footnote 5: See Corea, the Hermit Nation, pp. 1, 2; Persian Elements in
Japanese Legends, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVI., Part I, pp. 1-10; Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society, January, 1894. Rein's book, The Industries of
Japan, points out, as far as known, the material debt to India. Some
Japanese words like _beni-gari_ (Bengal) or rouge show at once their
origin. The mosaic of stories in the Taéktori Monogatari, an allegory in
exquisite literary form, illustrating the Buddhist dogma of Ingwa, or
law of cause and effect, and written early in the ninth century, is made
up of Chinese-Indian elements. See F.V. Dickins's translation and notes
in Journal of the Royal Oriental Society, Vol. XIX., N.S. India was the
far off land of gems, wonders, infallible drugs, roots, etc.; Japanese
Fairy World, p. 137.]

[Footnote 6: M.E., Chap. VIII.; Klaproth's Annales des Empereurs du
Japon (a translation of Nippon 0 Dai Ichi Ran); Rein's Japan, p. 224.]

[Footnote 7: See Klaproth's Annales, _passim_. S. and H. p. 85. Bridges
are often symbolical of events, classic passages in the shastras and
sutras, or are antetypes of Paradisaical structures. The ordinary native
_hashi_ is not remarkable as a triumph of the carpenter's art, though
some of the Japanese books mention and describe in detail some
structures that are believed to be astonishing.]

[Footnote 8: Often amusingly illustrated, M.E., p. 390. A translation
into Japanese of Goethe's Reynard the Fox is among the popular works of
the day. "Strange to say, however, the Japanese lose much of the
exquisite humor of this satire in their sympathy with the woes of the
maltreated wolf." - The Japan Mail. This sympathy with animals grows
directly out of the doctrine of metempsychosis. The relationship between
man and ape is founded upon the pantheistic identity of being. "We
mention sin," says a missionary now in Japan, "and he [the average
auditor] thinks of eating flesh, or the killing of insects." Many of the
sutras read like tracts and diatribes of vegetarians.]

[Footnote 9: See The Art of Landscape Gardening in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol.
XIV.; Theory of Japanese Flower Arrangements, by J. Conder, T.A.S.J.,
Vol. XVII.; T.J., p. 168; M.E., p. 437; T.J., p. 163.]

[Footnote 10: _The_ book, by excellence, on the Japanese house, is
Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings, by E.S. Morse. See also
Constructive Art in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol. II., p. 57, III., p. 20;
Feudal Mansions of Yedo, Vol. VII., p. 157.]

[Footnote 11: See Hearn's Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, pp. 385, 410,
and _passim_.]

[Footnote 12: For pathetic pictures of Japanese daily life, see Our
Neighborhood, by the late Dr. T.A. Purcell, Yokohama, 1874; A Japanese
Boy, by Himself (S. Shigémi), New Haven, 1889; Lafcadio Hearn's Glimpses
of Unfamiliar Japan, Boston, 1894.]

[Footnote 13: Klaproth's Annales, and S. and H. _passim_.]

[Footnote 14: See Pfoundes's Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 130, for a list of
grades from Ho-[=o] or cloistered emperor, Miya or sons of emperors,
chief priests of sects, etc., down to priests in charge of inferior
temples. This Budget of Notes, pp. 99-144, contains much valuable
information, and was one of the first publications in English which shed
light upon the peculiarities of Japanese Buddhism.]

[Footnote 15: Isaiah xl. 19, 20, and xli. 6, 7, read to the dweller in
Japan like the notes of a reporter taken yesterday.]

[Footnote 16: T.J., p. 339; Notes on Some Minor Japanese Religious
Practices, _Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, May, 1893;
Lowell's Esoteric Shint[=o], T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI.; Satow's The Shint[=o]
Temples of Isé, T.A.S.J., Vol. II., p. 113.]

[Footnote 17: M.E., p. 45; American Cyclopaedia, Japan,
Literature - History, Travels, Diaries, etc.]

[Footnote 18: That is, no dialects like those which separate the people
of China. The ordinary folks of Satsuma and Suruga, for example,
however, would find it difficult to understand each other if only the
local speech were used. Men from the extremes of the Empire use the
T[=o]ki[=o] standard language in communicating with each other.]

[Footnote 19: For some names of Buddhist temples in Shimoda see Perry's
Narrative, pp. 470-474, described by Dr. S. Wells Williams; S. and H.

[Footnote 20: The Abbé Huc in his Travels in Tartary was one of the
first to note this fact. I have not noticed in my reading that the
Jesuit missionaries in Japan in the seventeenth century call attention
to the matter. See also the writings of Arthur Lillie, voluminous but
unconvincing, Buddha and Early Buddhism, and Buddhism and Christianity,
London, 1893.]

[Footnote 21: M.E., p. 252.]

[Footnote 22: T.J., p. 70.]

[Footnote 23: See The Higher Buddhism in the Light of the Nicene Creed,
T[=o]ki[=o], 1894, by Rev. A. Lloyd.]

[Footnote 24: "I preach with ever the same voice, taking enlightenment
as my text. For this is equal for all; no partiality is in it, neither
hatred nor affection.... I am inexorable, bear no love or hatred towards
anyone, and proclaim the law to all creatures without distinction, to
the one as well as to the other." - Saddharma Pundarika.]

[Footnote 25: Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II., p. 247.]

[Footnote 26: For the symbolism of the lotus see M.E., p. 437; Unbeaten
Tracks in Japan, Vol. I., p. 299; M.E. index; and Saddharma Pundarika,
Kern's translation, p. 76, note:

"Here the Buddha is represented as a wise and benevolent father; he is
the heavenly father, Brahma. As such ho was represented as sitting on a
'lotus-seat.' How common this representation was in India, at least in
the sixth century of our era, appears from Varâhamihira's
Brihat-Sainhita, Ch. 58, 44, where the following rule is laid down for
the Buddha idols: 'Buddha shall be (represented) sitting on a
lotus-seat, like the father of the world.'"]

[Footnote 27: See The Northern Buddhist Mythology in _Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society_, January, 1894.]

[Footnote 28: See The Pictorial Arts of Japan, and Descriptive and
Historical Catalogue, William Anderson, pp. 13-94.]

[Footnote 29: See fylfot in Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 30: The word _vagra_, diamond, is a constituent in scores of
names of sutras, especially those whose contents are metaphysical in
their nature. The Vajrasan, Diamond Throne or Thunderbolt seat, was the
name applied to the most sacred part of the great temple reared by Asoka
on the site of the bodhi tree, under which Gautama received
enlightenment. "The adamantine truths of Buddha struck like a
thunderbolt upon the superstitious of his age." "The word vagra has the
two senses of hardness and utility. In the former sense it is understood
to be compared to the secret truth which is always in existence and not
to be broken. In the latter sense it implies the power of the
enlightened, that destroys the obstacles of passions." - B.N., p. 88. "As
held in the arms of Kwannon and other images in the temples," the vagra
or "diamond club" (is that) with which the foes of the Buddhist Church
are to be crushed. - S. and H., p. 444. Each of the gateway gods Ni-[=o]
(two Kings, Indra and Brahma) "bears in his hand the tokko (Sanskrit
_vagra_), an ornament originally designed to represent a diamond club,
and now used by priests and exorcists, as a religious sceptre
symbolizing the irresistible power of prayer, meditation, and
incantation." - Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p. 31.]

[Footnote 31: Jiz[=o] is the compassionate helper of all in trouble,
especially of travellers, of mothers, and of children. His Sanskrit name
is Kshiugarbha. His idol is one of the most common in Japan. It is
usually neck-laced with baby's bibs, often by the score, while the
pedestal is heaped with small stones placed there by sorrowing
mothers. - S. and H., p. 29, 394; Chamberlain's Handbook of Japan, 29,
101. Hearn's Japan, p. 34, and _passim_.]

[Footnote 32: Sanskrit _arhat_ or _arhan_, meaning worthy or deserving,
i.e., holy man, the highest rank of Buddhist saintship. See Century

[Footnote 33: M.E., p. 201. The long inscription on the bell in
Wellesley College, which summons the student-maidens to their hourly
tasks has been translated by the author and Dr. K. Kurahara and is as

1. A prose preface or historical statement.

2. Two stanzas of Chinese poetry, in four-syllable lines, of four verses
each, with an apostrophe in two four-syllable lines.

3. The chronology.

4. The names of the composer and calligraphist, and of the

The characters in vertical lines are read from top to bottom, the order
of the columns being from right to left. There are in all 117

The first tablet reads:

Lotus-Lily Temple (of) Law-Grove Mountain; Bell-inscription (and)

"Although there had been of old a bell hung in the Temple of the
Lotus-Lily, yet being of small dimensions its note was quickly
exhausted, and no volume of melody followed (after having been struck).
Whereupon, for the purpose of improving upon this state of affairs, we
made a subscription, and collected coin to obtain a new bell. All
believers in the doctrine, gods as well as devils, contributed freely.
Thus the enterprise was soon consummated, and this inscription prepared,
to wit:

"'The most exalted Buddha having pitiful compassion upon the people,
would, by means of this bell, instead of words, awaken them from earthly
illusions, and reveal the darkness of this world.

"'Many of the living hearkening to its voice, and making confession, are
freed from the bondage of their sins, and forever released from their
disquieting desires.

"'How great is (Buddha's) merit! Who can utter it? Without measure,

"Eleventh year of the Era of the Foundation of Literature (and of the
male element) Wood (and of the zodiac sign) Dog; Autumn, seventh month,
fifteenth day (A.D. August 30,1814).

"Composition and penmanship by Kaméda Koyé-sen. Cast by the artist
Sugiwara Kuninobu."

(The poem in unrhymed metre.)

Buddha in compassion tender
With this bell, instead of words,
Wakens souls from life's illusions,
Lightens this world's darkness drear.

Many souls its sweet tones heeding,
From their chains of sin are freed;
All the mind's unrest is soothed,
Sinful yearnings are repressed.

Oh how potent is his merit,
Without bounds in all the worlds!

[Footnote 34: Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 129.]

[Footnote 35: M.E., pp. 287-290, 513-514; Perry's Narrative, pp. 471,
472; Our Neighborhood, pp. 119-124. The following epitaphs are gathered
from various sources:

"This stone marks the remains of the believer who never grows old."

"The believing woman Yu-ning, Happy was the day of her departure."

"Multitudes fill the graves."

"Only by this vehicle - the coffin - can we enter Hades."

"As the floating grass is blown by the gentle breeze, or the glancing
ripples of autumn disappear when the sun goes down, or as a ship returns
to her old shore - so is life. It is a vapor, a morning-tide."

"Buddha himself wishes to hear the name of the deceased that he may
enter life."

"He who has left humanity is now perfected by Buddha's name, as the
withered moss by the dew."

"Life is like a candle in the wind."

"The wise make our halls illustrious, and their monuments endure for

"What permanency is there to the glory of the world? It goes from the
sight like hoar-frost in the sun."

"If men wish to enter the joys of heavenly light,
Let them smell the fragrance of the law of Buddha."

"Whoever wishes to have his merit reach even to the abode of demons, let
him, with us, and all living, become perfect in the doctrine."]

[Footnote 36: Rev. C.B. Hawarth in the _New York Independent_, January
18, 1894.]

[Footnote 37: In 781 the Buddhist monk Kéi-shun dedicated a chapel to
Jizo, on whom he conferred the epithet of Sho-gun or general, to suit
the warlike tastes of the Japanese people. - S. and H., p. 384. So also
Hachiman became the god of war because adopted as the patron deity of
the Genji warriors. - S. and H., p. 70.]

[Footnote 38: Corea, the Hermit Nation, p. 90.]

[Footnote 39: Dixon's Japan, p. 41; S. and H., Japan, _passim_; Rein's
Japan; Story of the Nations, Japan, by David Murray, p. 201, note;
Dening's life of Toyotomi Hidéyoshi; M.E., Chapters XV., XVI., XX.,
XXIII., XXIV.; Gazetteer of Echizen; Shiga's History of Nations,
T[=o]ki[=o], 1888, pp. 115, 118; T.A.S.J., Vol. VIII., pp. 94, 134,

[Footnote 40: T.A.S.J., Vol. VIII., Hidéyoshi and the Satsuma Clan in
the Sixteenth Century, by J.H. Gubbins; The Times of Taik[=o], by R.
Brinkley, in _The Japan Times_.]

[Footnote 41: The Copy of the Buddhist Tripitaka, or Northern
Collection, made by order of the Emperor, Wan-Li, in the sixteenth
century, when the Chinese capital (King) was changed from the South
(Nan) to the North (Pe), was reproduced in Japan in 1679 and again in
1681-83, and in over two thousand volumes, making a pile a hundred feet
high, was presented by the Japanese Government, through the Junior Prime
Minister, Mr. Tomomi Iwakura, to the Library of the India Office. See
Samuel Beal's The Buddhist Tripitaka, as it is known in China and Japan,
A Catalogue and Compendious Report, London, 1876. The library has been
rearranged by Mr. Bunyin Nanjio, who has published the result of his
labors, with Sanskrit equivalents of the titles and with notes of the
highest value.]

[Footnote 42: "Neither country (China or Japan) has had the independence
and mental force to produce a literature of its own, and to add anything
but a chapter of decay to the history of this religion." - Professor
William D. Whitney, in review of Anecdota Oxoniensia, Buddhist Texts
from Japan, in _The Nation_, No. 875.]

[Footnote 43: Education in Japan, A series of papers by the writer,
printed in _The Japan Mail_ of 1873-74, and reprinted in the educational
journals of the United Status. A digest of these papers is given in the
appendix of F.O. Adams's History of Japan; Life of Sir Harry Parkes,
Vol. II., pp. 305, 306.]

[Footnote 44: Japan: in Literature, Folk-Lore, and Art, p. 77.]

[Footnote 45: Japanese Education at the Philadelphia Exposition, New
York, 1876.]

[Footnote 46: See Japanese Literature, by E.M. Satow, in The American

[Footnote 47: The word bonze (Japanese _bon-so_ or _bozu_, Chinese
_fan-sung_) means an ordinary member of the congregation, just as the
Japanese term _bon-yo_ or _bon-zuko_ means common people or the ordinary
folks. The word came into European use from the Portuguese missionaries,
who heard the Japanese thus pronounce the Chinese term _fan_, which, as
_bon_, is applied to anything in the mass not out of the common.]

[Footnote 48: See On the Early History of Printing in Japan, by E.M.
Satow, T.A.S.J., Vol. X., Part L, p. 48; Part II., p. 252.]

[Footnote 49: Japanese mediaeval monastery life has been ably pictured
in English fiction by a scholar of imagination and literary power,
withal a military critic and a veteran in Japanese lore. "The Times of
Taik[=o]," in the defunct Japanese Times (1878), deserves reprint as a
book, being founded on Japanese historical and descriptive works. In Mr.
Edward's Greey's A Captive of Love, Boston, 1880, the idea of ingwa (the
effects in this life of the actions in a former state of existence), is
illustrated. See also S. and H., p. 29; T.J., p. 360.]

[Footnote 50: It is curious that while the anti-Christian polemics of
the Japanese Buddhists have used the words of Jesus, "I came to send not
peace but a sword," Matt, x. 34, and "If any man ... hate not his father
and mother," etc., Luke xiv. 26, as a branding iron with which to stamp
the religion of Jesus as gross immorality and dangerous to the state,
they justify Gautama in his "renunciation" of marital and paternal

[Footnote 51: See Public Charity in Japan, Japan Mail, 1893; and The
Annual (Appleton's) Cyclopaedia for 1893.]

[Footnote 52: I have some good reasons for making this suggestion. Yokoi
Héishiro had dwelt for some time in Fukui, a few rods away from the
house in which I lived, and the ideas he promulgated among the Echizen
clansmen in his lectures on Confucianism, were not only Christian in
spirit but, by their own statement, these ideas could not be found in
the texts of the Chinese sage or of his commentators. Although the
volume (edited by his son, Rev. J.F. Yokoi) of his Life and Letters
shows him to have been an intense and at times almost bigoted
Confucianist, he, in one of his later letters, prophesied that when
Christianity should be taught by the missionaries, it would win the
hearts of the young men of Japan. See also Satow's Kinsé Shiriaku, p.
183; Adams's History of Japan; and in fiction, see Honda The Samurai, p.

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