Copyright
William Elliot Griffis.

Young people's history of Holland online

. (page 1 of 16)
Online LibraryWilliam Elliot GriffisYoung people's history of Holland → online text (page 1 of 16)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


>eoole. ' s v-vi-^bovy

cl .



gy PUBLIC LI
333:


BRARY THf

530V


L BRANC

194


H LIBRAR

9951


ES



. (frnffite, 5D.3D.



THE STORY OF NEW NETHERLAND. Illustrated.
I2mo, $1.25, net. Postage 12 cents.

YOUNG PEOPLE'S HISTORY OF HOLLAND. Illus-
trated. Crown 8vo, $1.50, net. Postage extra.

BRAVE LITTLE HOLLAND, AND WHAT SHE TAUGHT
US. Illustrated. i6mo, $1.25. In Riverside Library for
Young People. Small i6mo, 75 cents. In Riverside
School Library. Half leather, i6mo, 60 cents, net.

THE AMERICAN IN HOLLAND. Sentimental Ramblings
in the Eleven Provinces of the Netherlands. With a map
and illustrations. Crown 8vo, $1.50.

THE PILGRIMS IN THEIR THREE HOMES, ENG-
LAND, HOLLAND, AND AM ERICA. Illustrated. i6mo,
$1.25. In Riverside Library for Young People. Small
i6mo, 75 cents.

JAPAN: IN HISTORY, FOLK-LORE, AND ART. In
Riverside Library for Young People. Small i6mo, 75
cents.

MATTHEW CALBRAITH PERRY. A typical American

Naval officer. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, gilt top, $1.00.
TOWNSEND HARRIS, First American Envoy in Japan.

With portrait. Crown 8vo, $2.00.
THE LILY AMONG THORNS. A Study of the Biblical

Drama entitled The Song of Songs. i6mo, $1.25 ; white

cloth, gilt top, $1.50.

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

BOSTON AND NEW YORK




AMALIA VAN SOLMS (page 238)
Wife of Prince Frederick Henry



YOUNG PEOPLE'S

HISTORY OF

HOLLAND



BY



WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS




a



.

> ' )

.

,

, .





BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
Jftitoer^i&e pire?? Cambridge



THE NEW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY



A8TOR, LENOX AND
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.



COPYRIGHT 1903 BY WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Published March, iqoj



. , '

' < , c



, , .

C 6 t



< 1 1 1 .



' ' ' ,
' '




' .



i '
.. , i



' *

" '



Gr



To
SISTER MARGARET

FIRST COMRADE IN MY TRAVELS THROUGH
THE NETHERLANPS



; :



., > * c.

' ^



i

V i 3 O O



t c '

' ' ,

I ( C

c '



PREFACE



HOLLAND had a great part in the making
of the civilization of Europe. By a very un-
usual training amid the elements of nature,
the Dutch were educated to take a noble part
in bringing about the modern world of ideas
and forces. To win first their own land from
the waters, to make it habitable, and then to
gain the dominion of the seas, were notable
triumphs of mind over matter. To lead in
intellectual liberty and freedom in religion, in
the enlargement of the bounds of human
knowledge, and in the union and reconcilia-
tion of the Orient and the Occident, were
surely great things to be done by a country
so small in area and a people so few in num-
bers.

In this outline of Dutch history for young
people, I have laid emphasis upon things visi-
ble and tangible and upon persons and events
rather than upon theories and tendencies. I



VI 1



PREFACE

have given most space to the picturesque part
of the Netherlands story, to the early move-
ments of nations, the origin of cities, the cru-
sades, the counts, feudalism, the eighty years'
war for freedom, and those modern move-
ments that have shown the varied life, both of
the old republic and of the modern kingdom
which fulfilled the hopes of republican days.

Every American should know the history
of the Netherlands, the fatherland of millions
of Americans and the storehouse of prece-
dents in federal government from which those
who made our nation borrowed most freely.
Nowhere in Europe, except in England, can
one find the origin of so much that is deepest
and best in our national life including the
highest jewel of civilization, religious liberty
as in Holland, as John Adams and Benja-
min Franklin long ago confessed.

In a larger work, for adults, laying less stress
upon the picturesque and romantic elements,
I hope to show more fully what the northern
Netherlands have accomplished, what their
mark has been upon the world at large, what
have been their colonial experiences, what


Vlll



PREFACE

problems they have solved, and, in a word,
what they have contributed in many lines of
achievement to the sum of human civilization.

W. E. G.

ITHACA, N. Y., February, 1903.



ix



CONTENTS



CHAPTER PAGE

I. THE AGE OF THE TERPEN i

II. LIFE IN THE DAYS BEFORE LETTERS . 9

III. THE COMING OF THE ROMANS . . .17

IV. THE FRANKS AND THE FRISIANS . . 28
V. CHARLES THE GREAT 37

VI. FEUDALISM : THE LORD AND HIS VASSALS 44

VII. THE CRUSADERS IN ASIA ... 54

VIII. THE FIRST COUNTS OF HOLLAND . . 63

IX. THE HOUSE OF HAINAULT ... 80

X. THE CODS AND HOOKS .... 85

XI. JACQUELINE OF BAVARIA ... 90

XII. THE HOUSE OF BURGUNDY . . .107

XIII. THE CHARTER OF THE GREAT PRIVILEGE 116

XIV. THE DUTCH UNDER THE HOUSE OF AUS-

TRIA 122

XV. THE OLD WORLD BEFORE GUNPOWDER AND

PRINTING 129

XVI. THE SEVENTEEN STATES UNDER ONE HEAD 140

XVII. ORANGE AND THE BEGGARS . . . 147
XVIII. HEDGE PREACHING AND THE STORMING OF

IMAGES 156

XIX. MARCH OF THE SPANIARDS FLIGHT OF

THE FLEMINGS .... 164
XX. THE BATTLE OF HEILIGERLEE . . .171
XXI. THE VICTORIES OF THE WATER BEGGARS 179
XXII. NAARDEN, HAARLEM, ALKMAAR, AND LEY-
DEN 1 88

XXIII. ENGLAND HELPS HOLLAND .... 206

XXIV. PRINCE MAURICE THE UNION GENERAL . 222

xi



CONTENTS

XXV. THE BLOOM OF THE REPUBLIC . . . 237
XXVI. THE PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC . . 246
XXVII. DUTCH STADHOLDER AND BRITISH KING . 254
XXVIII. THE Two REPUBLICS DUTCH AND AMERI-
CAN ........ 262

XXIX. THE FALL OF THE REPUBLIC . . . 267
XXX. THE BATAVIAN REPUBLIC AND THE KING-
DOM OF HOLLAND .... 274

XXXI. " THE DUTCH HAVE TAKEN HOLLAND " . 283
XXXII. BELGIUM AND HOLLAND UNITED AND SEPA-
RATED 288

XXXIII. THE Two QUEENS, EMMA AND WILHEL-

MINA 295

XXXIV. THE REIGN OF QUEEN WILHELMINA . . 299

APPENDIX 37

INDEX 3*7



xn



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

AMALIA VAN SOLMS (page 238). . . . Frontispiece.
From an engraving after the painting by G. v. Honthorst

ESCAPE TO THE TERPEN FROM THE FLOODS. ... 6

From Arend's " Geschiedenis des Vaderland "

ROMAN ROADS AND ARCHITECTURE IN THE NETHER-
LANDS 20

From an engraving after the original by F. v. Bleyswyck

CLAUDIUS CIVILIS ATTACKING THE ROMAN CAMP . . 24

From an engraving after the original by L. F. du Bourg

THE REFUSAL OF RADBOD 34

From an engraving after the original by L. F. du Bourg

THE HAARLEM CRUSADERS CAPTURING DAMIETTA . 70

From an engraving of the eighteenth century

BATTLE ON THE ICE BETWEEN FRISIANS AND HOL-
LANDERS 82

From an engraving of the eighteenth century

THE WIDOW OF COUNT ALBERT RENOUNCING HER

CLAIM 9 2

From Arend's " Geschiedenis des Vaderland "

JACQUELINE GOING FORTH TO SHOOT AT THE POPIN-
JAY ioo

From Arend's " Geschiedenis des Vaderland "

A BROKEN DIKE 112

From an engraving of the eighteenth century

RIOTS IN NORTH HOLLAND ON ACCOUNT OF HEAVY

TAXES 124

From an engraving after the original by T, Folkema

xiii



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PREACHING OUTSIDE THE WALLS OF ANTWERP . . 158

From an engraving of the eighteenth century

THE WOMEN SOLDIERS OF HAARLEM 192

From an engraving of the eighteenth century

NAVAL BATTLE IN THE ZUYDER ZEE, 1573 .... 196

From an engraving after the original by H. Vettewinkel

THE RELIEF OF LEYDEN 202

From an engraving after the original by H. P. Oosterhuis

THE ASSAULT ON COEVORDEN 226

From the original painting by Wouvermans

THE GREAT SYNOD OF DORT 234

From an engraving by B. Picart

WILLIAM V., HEREDITARY STADHOLDER 258

From an engraving after the original by P. v. Nymegen

JOHANNES DE GRAEFF 264

From the painting in the New Hampshire House of Re-
presentatives, Concord, N. H.

THE FRENCH BOMBARDING WILLEMSTAD 270

From an engraving after the original by Hausdorff and Bult-
huis

FOUNDERS OF THE CONSTITUTION 284

From an engraving after the original by J. W. Pieneman

ENTRY OF THE DUTCH ARMY INTO BRUSSELS . . . 290

From a lithograph after a sketch made at the time

QUEEN WILHELMINA 296

From a photograph

THE JOYOUS ENTRY INTO AMSTERDAM, 1898 . . . 300

From a photograph



XIV



YOUNG PEOPLE'S HISTORY OF
HOLLAND



HISTORY OF HOLLAND



CHAPTER I

THE AGE OF THE TERPEN

I AM about to tell you the story of a land that
is very wonderful, because it lies for the most
part below the level of the sea. One would
not suppose that there are people who dwell
beneath the line of low tide, but there are, and
they do not live in a mine or down at a ship's
bottom, either. They have farms and gardens
and cows and horses lower than the surface,
not only of the rivers, but of the ocean. The
tops of many of the houses are on a line with
the decks of steamers passing along, and in
some cases even the chimneys are lower than
the keels of rowboats. Down in the deep
polders, or bottoms of the drained lakes, it is
like living in a washbowl or a cellar, yet it is
bright, green, and sunny there.

The cows graze where the fishes used to



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

feed, and the flowers bloom where seaweed
once grew. To-day as we rush through that
country on the flying express train for one
can travel the whole length of the land in day-
light we see very few swamps, marshes, or
waste spaces. Having climbed up to the top
of the great church towers, and looking down,
we see the whole land dotted with cities, towns,
and villages. Hundreds of canals cross the
landscape, and there are many hollows, rich and
low, made of drained land, called " polders."
About five millions of people live and work and
enjoy themselves in this curious country, set be-
tween the sand hills and the sea, between Bel-
gium and Germany. Altogether the Nether-
lands are in area less than one fourth of Iowa.
One would hardly look in such a place for a
country fit for human beings to live in. Yet the
people are very happy in their cosy homes, and
the kingdom is like a garden. How was it
made ?

Long, long ago, before a baby cried or a boy
played in this part of the world, the great
rivers of Europe had begun to flow. Down
out of what is now Switzerland, and into and
through Germany, the Rhine forced its way.
The melting ice on the mountains kept the
stream always full and often in flood. From



THE AGE OF THE TERPEN

the south there were two rivers, called the
Maas and the Scheldt, which brought water
and mud from France and Belgium. These
three rivers, after descending from the high
to the low lands, rolled their waters over the
muddy flats, which they had already helped
to make by bringing down sand, gravel, and
different kinds of earth. Every year they
spread more soil over the low countries by
the sea.

Other forces helped to make the Dutch do-
main and get it into shape. The sun shone
hot in summer and dried up the waters, and so,
here and there, above the swamps and fens,
land was seen. By and by something like a
seashore appeared. By the work of the wind
and the waves, great lines and heaps of sand
began to form into banks or dunes. In course

o

of time these dunes, or hills of sand, have be-
come like great sea walls, to make a coast and
keep out the ocean. They rise from fifty to
three hundred feet in height, and are many
rods wide. The dunes furnish homes for birds
and rabbits. Sometimes they give soil enough
for the raising of potatoes, provided no storm
comes up to blow the farm away or ingulf it
with more sand.

Within this country, birds, beasts, and reptiles

3



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

lived before men. At first there was hardly
anything except swamps within and rivers,
lakes, and lagoons near the seashore. Wher-
ever the land did come nearly up to or just
above the water, there was a thick growth of
reeds, rushes, and grasses, in which millions of
wild fowl lived, feeding upon the fishes and in-
sects that were to be found on the sand and in
the vegetation. Wherever patches of dry land
appeared, formed of sand and sand only, there
was little or no growth of trees, but wherever
the rivers overflowed, leaving a top dressing of
mud, or " sea clay " mixed with the sand, there
trees grew, so that by and by great forests
arose. Ages afterward, when men spoke a
language in which " holt ' or " hout ' meant
wood, then the holt-land or hout-land, that is,
wood-land, was called Holland.

Many animals roamed in these forests.
There were wild boars, with hard and sharp
tusks, terrible to their enemies. Shaggy, fierce,
and bold, these fellows, swift on the hoof and
strong in the snout, lived on acorns, beechnuts,
and what they could root up out of the ground.
Then there were wolves, swift, strong, with terri-
ble teeth, and able to stand a good deal of hunger
and cold. There were bears that fed on many
kinds of food. Having warm coats, they could

4



THE AGE OF THE TERPEN

stand the bitterly cold winters in this part of
the world. Finding some hollow tree or hole
in the ground, the brown bear could live all
winter, eating nothing, but sleeping most of
the time.

Looking at the map of the Netherlands to-
day, you \vill see that Zeeland consists of a net-
work of islands formed chiefly by the Scheldt
river finding its way to the sea. Then from
the point where the Rhine enters Gelderland
you will find another wonderful network of
streams flowing with the Maas and the Waal
westward to the sea, making more islands.
Further north is the Zuyder Zee, with the Ijssel
and the Eem and the Vecht rivers flowing into
it. Beyond North Holland and Friesland
again is a line of half a dozen islands. Where

o

there are no natural rivers the Dutch dig
canals, for their inland commerce is very great.
Every morning the newspapers announce the
depth of water in each stream, so that the men
may know whether they can sail, row, or pole
their boats where they want to go. When they
meet in the morning their greeting is not " How
do you do ? ' but, literally, " How do you
sail ? "

What was the appearance of the country
when the first human beings came into it?



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

Who were they ? How did they look ? What
did they wear ? What did they find to eat ?
How did they work, build, fight, and hunt?
Above all, how did they defend themselves
against the water from heaven and earth, the
rain and the waves, the river and the sea
floods ?

We cannot tell exactly, but we know that
the men of that time had to work hard for a
living, and to find food and clothes for their
children. In such a country, with more water
than solid land, their first care was not to get
drowned. Perhaps it took more thought to be
able to guard against the waters than to fight
the wolves and bears. Sometimes the wind
would blow long and hard from the west and
drive the ocean waves over the land. In the
spring time, when in Switzerland the snow
melted and in the French mountains the rain
fell heavily, the waters spread over the coun-
try and the land was lost from sight again.
Then between storm and flood these shaggy
men, half naked or dressed in wolf or bear
skins, had to fight for their lives against the
water as their foe.

How did they do it ? And how were their
wives able to guard their babies, rear their

children, and dwell in safety till the waters

6




en
Q
O
O



W



w
a,

06

w
H

W



t- 1
O

w



u

c/)

w



THE NEW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY



A8TOR, LENOX AND
TU.OEN FOUNDATION*.

o



THE AGE OF THE TERPEN

went down, so that they could live once more
in their huts and hunt and fish, or perhaps cul-
tivate the ground ? Yet it is from the cold,
stormy lands of northwestern Europe we get
our dear word " home."

Well, these men first won a shelter by build-
ing mounds of tough clay which they raised a
few feet above the level of some piece of hard
ground. Sometimes they drove in stakes of
wood to keep the mound or little hill firm when
the waters rushed in around it. These mounds
were called " terpen." In time, many hundreds
of these terpen dotted the land, and, in the
course of history, when men became more
numerous, stronger, and more civilized, the
terp became the centre of the town. On it
houses were built or the great church rose up
toward the sky. Yet on many of the terpen
no village rose, and these became grassy knolls
that look very pretty on the flat landscape.
Trees have grown on their rich soil, the cattle
have grazed up and down upon them and used
them for shade in summer, and to-day picnic
parties play and dance and eat luncheon there.
The terpen are the relics of the early Dutch
world before history was written.

Let us get acquainted with the men and wo-
men, the boys and girls, who lived upon these

7



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

mounds. Even in our day we can see just how
many kinds of people have dwelt upon or
visited the terpen, from the earliest to the lat-
est times, from the men who saw the now ex-
tinct reindeers, antelopes, and beavers down to
those who have looked upon Queen Wilhel-
mina and her inauguration. In later times
chemists have found that the earth in these
terpen is very rich in black mould, for much of
it is the prized sea clay, which everywhere in
the Netherlands makes the soil that the farmer
values most. Large areas of the Netherlands
consist only of sand, which is nearly worthless ;
but the clays deposited by the sea, river, and
stream, and the drained fen land, can always be
made into good pasture or grain fields. When
the sea clay, out of the old marshes, is put
upon the sand, then rye, oats, and grass grow
finely. This is the reason why the terpen,
once out in the country beyond the towns or
cities, are not now often to be seen. They
have been cut down and sold at so much a cart
load. I have seen men with spades digging
them down and hauling away this " pay dirt'
to enrich their fields.



8



CHAPTER II

LIFE IN THE DAYS BEFORE LETTERS

WHAT else do we find in the terpen ?

Many things, for each one is like a layer
cake or plum pudding, rich in delights to the
men on the outlook for curiosities of past ages.
Under the first two or three feet we find bits
of crockery or porcelain, buttons, horseshoes,
or such things as are modern and have been
known only in recent times. In the next few
feet below we find coins minted in the old
days when many Dutch cities had the right to
stamp money, together with images of the
saints, crosses, and things belonging to the
middle ages. A yard or so further down we
are very apt to fall upon Roman coins and
images of Mars, Venus, and Apollo, with odds
and ends of things used in the time when the
Roman soldier camped in the land. Toward
the bottom we reach relics of the very ancient
days, before the time of iron and steel, such
as bronze swords, daggers, and spearheads.
Either with these, or still lower down, are

9



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

things made of stone and bone, such as we
may pick up among our fields where the red
Indians lived. The earth or the animals fur-
nished material for the needles, combs, scra-
pers, chisels, arrowheads, fishhooks, tools, and
ornaments which the people used who lived
long ago before the time of written history.

These terpen are to be seen especially in
Friesland and Groningen. Perhaps the men
who first made them lived about the same time
as those who raised the dolmens, or heaped
stones, in Drenthe, called Hunnebeden, or
" giants' graves." There are fifty or sixty of
these dolmens left yet, and We see them best at
Rolde. Each one consists of a dozen stones,
more or less, which are laid around to form a
kind of wall, or huge box, and on top of these
are placed two or three of the larger boulders,
each as big as a cart. How did these great
rocks get where they are ?

Well, ages aor>, when most of Holland was

' O O

under the water of the ocean, great glaciers,
from which icebergs are made, extended all the
way down from Norway to France and the
Netherlands. They brought with them, as ice-
bergs do, large masses of rock, besides millions
of pebbles and many cubic miles of gravel.
In later ages they floated around and above

10



LIFE IN THE DAYS BEFORE LETTERS

the land that was to be, and sometimes they
grounded. When the ice melted, this stony
material from Sweden and Norway was left on
Dutch soil. Thus, whether by iceberg or by
glacier or both, Drenthe was covered with
these boulders, and other parts of the country
were filled with the " drift," or small stones and
gravel.

This time of the world's history has been
named Ragnarok, or " The Twilight of the
Gods." In the mythology or fairy tales of the
Norsemen, we are told about Woden, who was
a great hero living during the age of the gla-
ciers, and of Thor, who, with his mighty ham-
mer, helped to shape the world.

No doubt the men who lived in Drenthe
and raised these tombs, or altars, or whatever
they were, worked very hard with the lever and
the roller, prying and turning over these huge
stones. It must have cost great labor to get
them into position. We can imagine the boys
and girls of this wild age looking on and being
interested, while the women cooked the food
and worked equally hard to take care of the
babies and to make the husbands and fathers
comfortable.

We can only guess how people lived in

those far-away times by studying tribes of

n



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

savages whose ways of life are somewhat like
those of the terpen folks. This we know, how-
ever, that they had to toil hard to live. With
stone knives they skinned the animals killed
with spear or arrow, and cut the flesh into
pieces for boiling or roasting. Their axes
were made of chipped or sharpened flints
tied to wooden handles, and with these they
cracked open the marrow bones.

To split wood, make boats, and provide fuel
for warmth with such tools meant a good deal
of labor. Yet even in those days the people
played as well as worked. We can see in the
museums, from what has been found in the
terpen, that boys and girls, men and women,
were as fond of adorning themselves then as
we are now. They bound up their hair, first
with withes or cords, and then with bands of
bronze. We can handle their hairpins, hair-
rings, bracelets, finger rings, necklaces, dia-
dems, and various ornaments and implements
made to hold clothing together. The girls
and women in those days, as in ours, liked to
look pretty. The men took great pains and
care with their weapons to make them sharp
and powerful.

With the clay, which they could easily dig
up all around them, they moulded urns, jars,



12



LIFE IN THE DAYS BEFORE LETTERS

plates, cups, and many kinds of cooking and
drinking vessels. By baking the clay in the
fire, they made it hard, so that they were able
to keep not only food but water and liquids.
To grind their grain they made hand-mills
out of stones. In summer the men hunted
and fished, enjoying the sweet breath of the
woods and meadows. In winter they tied on
their feet skates made of bone and glided over
the smooth ice. I have no doubt that though

o

we could not, yet they did enjoy their kind of
life.

In religion these people worshiped gods
who were a good deal like themselves, yet per-
haps they were as truly religious, according to
their light, as we are. They had no temples
or sacred buildings, but certain trees were holy,
and no one must tread in those parts of the
forest that were counted sacred, without being
clean in body and pure in thought. The trees
in the groves of the gods were believed to have
powers of healing. Many a mother brought
her sick baby before the sacred fir or the vine-
covered oak, praying to the god Woden to
heal the child. Often men in disease were
carried a long distance by their friends and
laid before the holy trees, hoping for health
again. Sometimes their religion took what



HISTORY OF HOLLAND

seems to us a very cruel form. They feared
the wrath of the gods, who, they thought, de-
lighted in war and death. Very tall figures,
made in human shape of plaited osiers or wil-
low branches, were filled with prisoners taken
in battle, or with people who were believed to
have wrought witchcraft, or who were supposed
to have made the gods angry. Then this great
wooden framework, full of human beings, was
set on fire and all within were burned to ashes.
This was supposed to please the gods, who
loved blood and slaughter, even as the warriors
themselves did. When a chief or great man
died, they laid his body upon a very high pile
of wood and ranged around him his servants,
who were then put to death. They led up his
horse and his dog, and these also they killed
with their stout knives. Then they placed all
the dead bodies on the heap, setting the whole
on fire. All this they did in the hope that the
master would not be lonely, but have company


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Online LibraryWilliam Elliot GriffisYoung people's history of Holland → online text (page 1 of 16)