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LIBRARY OF
WELLES LEY COLLEGE




PURCHASED FROM
LIBRARY FUNDS



70B44



Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries



http://www.archive.org/details/friendslibraryco07evan



V



THE



FRIENDS' LIBRARY:



COMPRISING



JOURNALS, DOCTRINAL TREATISES, AND OTHER WRITINGS



MEMBERS OF THE RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS.



EDITED BY WILLIAM EVANS AND THOMAS EVANS.



VOL. VII.



CONTAINING



MEMOIRS OF DANIEL WHEELER.— THE LIFE OF THOMAS ELLWOOD.

MEMORANDA OF MARY HAGGER.— MEMOIR OF ANN CROWLEY,

AND A SHORT ACCOUNT OF WILLIAM LEDDRA.



PHILADELPHIA:



PRINTED BY JOSEPH RAKESTRAW,

FOR THE EDITORS.
1843.



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170 5-^4



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INDEX TO VOL. VII.



A.
Alexander, Emperor: account of his death,
by D. Wheeler, page 55.

Address to the missionaries at New Zealand,
275.

B.

BoLABOLA, remarks of C. Wheeler respecting,
323.

C.

Crowley, Ann, Memoir of, 462; powerfully
visited by Divine grace, — ib ; death of her father
and sister Mary, 463; appears in the ministry,
464; religious visit in Wales, 466; joins S. Har-
rison in a religious visit in Worcestershire, &c.,
467; visit to Buckinghamshire, &lc., 468; joins
Phebe Speakman, 469; visit to Dorset, Hants,
Devon, &c., ib. ; unites with S. Home in a family
visit, and in attending meetings in Surry, Sussex,
Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, &c., 470; travels in the
ministry with P. H. Gurney, 471 ; visits the fami-
lies of her own meeting, with W. Forster, 473;
also Hampshire, Somerset and Bristol, ib. ; reli-
gious service with Wm. and R. Byrd, ib. ; illness
and death, 476.

Crov^ley, Rebecca, account of her sickness
and death, 477.

E.
EiMEO, remarks of C. Wheeler respecting, 320.

Ellwood, Thomas, his life, 347; testimo-
nies concerning him, 343 ; remarkable inci-
dent, 349; visits I. Pennington, 350; convinced
of Friends' principles, 352 ; effects thereof, 353 ;
suffers much from his father for his testimony
against hat honour and the corrupt language of
the world, 359 — 361 ; is arrested at Maidenhead,
363 ; his examination and discharge, 364 ; writes
a Warning to priests, 366 ; imprisoned at Oxford,
369; letter from Thomas Loe, 370; from I. Pen-
nington, 371 ; attempt of his father to prevent his
going to meeting, 373; introduction to Milton,
380; imprisonment at the Old Bailey, London,
382; removed to Newgate, 387; discharged, and
goes to I. Pennington's, 391 ; commences teach-
ing his children, ib. ; arrested again and sent to
prison, 394 ; returns home and examines Paradise
Lost, 396; imprisoned again, 397; memorable
meeting with the followers of J. Perrot, 398 ; his
marriage, 401 ; remarks on the Conventicle Act,
403 ; prosecution of two informers, 406 ; dispute
with T. Hicks, 409; writes against tithes, 410;
replies to W. Rogers' attack on Friends, 411 ; ar-
rested on account of a book he published, 412 ;
publishes his Seasonable Dissuasive from persecu-
tion, 416 ; pathetic description of Friends' suffer-
ings, 417; Epistle to JViends respecting the di-
viding spirit, 418 ; account of George Fox, 423 ;
controversy with G. Keith, 423 ; Epistle respect-
ing his separation, 424 ; reply to G. K.'s charge



of deism, 427; excessive distraint for tithes, —
death, 429.

F.
Faith in Christ, which is accompanied by good
works, necessary to realizing the benefits of his
coming, 21, 232; the importance of living faith, 40.

Friendly Isles, remarks of C. Wheeler on,
334.

H.

HuAHiNE, remarks of C. Wheeler respecting,
321.

Hervey Isles, remarks of C. Wheeler, on, 330.

Hagger, Mary; her memoranda, 430; testi-
mony concerning her, ib. ; birth and education,
43-3; call to the ministry, 434; death of her hus-
band, and peculiar trials, 435; removal to Ashford,
436; religious visit to Bedfordshire, &c., 443; to
Nottinghamshire, 445; to Essex, 455; attends
the Yearly Meeting in London, 457; visits the
families of her own Monthly Meeting, ib.; ex-
pressions during an illness, 458 ; recovers so as to
get to meeting, 459; last sickness and death,
460-1.



Letter from the congregation at Teahupoo,
respecting D. Wheeler, 147; fi'om Tekori, a na-
tive boy, 235; from the missionaries, 227; from
the missionaries at Lifuka, 251 ; from the mission-
aries at New Zealand, 278; from the Empress
Elizabeth, relative to the illness and death of Al-
exander, 314 ; of Charles Wheeler to his family,
relative to the South Sea Isles, 316 ; from T. Loe
and I. Pennington, to T. Ellwood, 371.

Leddra, William ; account of his arrest and
martyrdom, 479; letter written by him shortly be-
fore he suffered, ib.

N.
New Zealand, remarks of C. Wheeler on, 337.

P.

Petersburg ; dreadful inundation there, 52.

Propitiatory Sacrifice of Christ, 7, 21, 40,
90, 144, 164, 204, 232, 233, 256, 257, 269.

R.

Raiatea, remarks of C. Wheeler respecting,
322;

S.

Scriptures of Truth not the Word of God,
40, 41, 111, 153; their value, 176, 260.

Sandwich Islands, Address to the Rulers of,
by D. Wheeler, 199.

Spirit of Truth, the necessity of its trans-
forming operations in the soul, 21, 41, 58, 83, 96,



INDEX.



144, 145, 153, 156, 170, 179, 189, 214, 233, 253,
257, 266, 270, 276.

Sandwich Isles, remarks of C. Wheeler re-
specting, 325.

T.

Testimony of Balby Monthly meeting respect-
ing Daniel Wheeler, 2 ; testimony of New York
Monthly meeting, 6.

Testimony borne by a Friend in London Yearly
meeting, 89.

Tahiti, remarks of C. Wheeler respecting, 317.

U.
Universality of Divine grace testified to by
the South Sea Islanders, 154.

W.
Wheeler, Daniel, Journal of— his birth and
education, 8, 9 ; goes to sea, 10 ; enters the Brit-
ish navy, 11 ; divine visitation, 12 ; joins the army
as a volunteer, ib. ; goes with his regiment to Ire-
land, 13 ; exposed to the danger of losing his life,
14; preserved from killing a fellow creature, ib. ;
ships for England with a regiment, 15; embarks
for the Continent, and lands at Ostend, 16 ; marches
to Ghent and Nimeguen, 17; is taken sick, 18;
illness at Rhenin, 19 ; reflections on his recovery,
21; returns to England, and embarks for the West
Indies, 22; remarkable preservation from ship-
wreck, 23; his conversion without outward means,
ib. ; retires from a military life, ib. ; resides with
his sister in Yorkshire, ib. ; is received among
Friends, ib. ; settles in Sheffield, and is married,
24; retires to the country, 25; appears in the
ministry, 26 ; goes to Russia, 29 ; intervievi' with
Prince Galitzin, 31 ; interview with the Emperor,
32; returns to England, 33; removes with his
family and settles at Ochta, near Petersburg, 34 ;
Address to Balby Monthly meeting, 36, 39, 43,
46, 48, 57, 60, 63 ; is visited by the Emperor, 46 ;
awful inundation at Petersburg, 52; visits Eng-
land, 53 ; do. in company with his wife, 73 ; at» '
tends meetings in Durham, Devon, Cornwall, &c.,
73, 74, 75 ; goes to Dublin Yearly meeting, 78 ;
returns to Russia, 79; cholera at Petersburg and
vicinity, 79, 80 ; Address to York Quarterly meet-
ing, 82; prepares to quit Russia, 86; arrives in
England, 87 ; is liberated to visit the South Seas,
89 ; illness in his family, 93 ; death of his wife,
94; journey to Russia, 99; returns to England
and embarks for the South Pacific, 100 ; voyage
to Rio Janeiro, 105; religious services there, 110;
voyage to Vandiemen's land, 112; remarkable cir-
cumstance of the vessel's being protected from the
fury of the sea by whales, 115; arrival at Hobart



Town, 120; illness there, 122; sails for Port Jack-
son, 123 ; religious services, 125 ; sails for Norfolk
Island, 127 ; voyage to Tahiti, 129 ; arrival there,
130; religious engagements there, 131 to 140;
visit to Bunaauia, 141 ; to Papara, 145 ; to Tau-
tira, 149 ; sails for Eimeo, 162 ; sails for Huahine,
169 ; goes to Raiatea, 173 ; to Bolabola, 177 ;
visit to a rebel chief and his party, 179 ; sails for
Sandwich Islands, 181 ; arrival there, 185 ; meetings
at Honolulu, 186, 188 ; interview with the Queen,
196 ; Address to the Rulers, 199 ; sails for Haw-
aii, 206 ; Waimea, 210 ; Koloa, 211 ; remarkable-
volcano and waterfall, 215; sails with the mission
families for Maui, ib. ; arrival at Lahina, 217 ;
at Oahu, 219; interview with the missionaries,
221 ; sails for Tawai, 222 ; meeting there, 223 ;
goes to Hanarei, 224 ; sails for the Hervey Islands,
227; Farewell Address of the missionaries, ib. ;
his answer, 228 ; arrival at Rarotonga, 228 ; visit
to the schools, 230 ; goes to Aroragne, 233 ; reli-
gious service there, ib. ; sails for Vavau, 235 ;
meeting at Feletoa, 238 ; Neiafu and Otea, 241 ;
meeting at Hihifo, 242; goes to Matika, 243;
parting meeting at Neiafu, 246 ; sails for Lifuka,
ib. ; meeting with the missionaries, 249 ; letter
from them, 251 ; departure for Tongataboo, ib. ;
arrival at Nukulofa, 252; meeting with the na-
tives there, 253; a kava party, 254; interview
with a heathen chief and his party, at Mua, 255 ;
sails for New Zealand, 262; religious services
there, 265 ; visit to Waimate, 269 ; meeting with
the members of the mission at Paihia, 272; Ad-
dress to the missionaries at New Zealand, 275;
letter from them to him, 278; sails for New South
Wales, 279 ; arrival at Sydney, 281 ; death of his
son William, 284; sails for Hobarton, 286; ser-
vices there, 287; returns to England, 288; attends
London Yearly meeting, 289 ; opens his concern
to visit America, ib. ; sails from Liverpool to New
York, 290 ; arrival there, 291 ; goes to Philadel-
phia, 292; attends the Yearly meeting there, 294;
goes to Wilmington, 295; to Baltimore, 296; to
Virg-inia Yearly meeting, 297 ; to New York and
New England Yearly meetings, 298 ; goes north-
ward to Portland, and then to Nova Scotia, 301-2
-3 ; goes to Ohio Yearly meeting, 304 ; embarks
for home, 305; alarming illness of his son Charles,
306 ; his death, 307 ; embarks again for America,
308; arrival at New York, 309; illness and death,
310 to 312; concluding remarks, 313.

Wheeler, Jane, account of her illness and
death, 314.

Wheeler, Charles, letters to his family re-
specting the South Sea Isles, 316.

Will-worship, 354.



MEMOIRS



THE LIFE AND GOSPEL LABOURS



OF THE LATE



DANIEL WHEELER,



A MINISTER OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS.



"He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, and estab-
lished my goings. And He hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our God."— Psalm xl. 2, 3.



PREFACE.

In presenting to the public the following
Memoirs, a few explanatory remarks may be
requisite.

For some years previous to the decease of
our honoured parent, it was evidently a mat-
ter which he had much at heart, to leave be-
hind him some narrative of his life; no doubt
believing that a record, in which might be
traced so many instances of divine mercy and
interposition, could not but be instructive and
strengthening to others. This work, how-
ever, though commenced in the year 1831,
was never completed ; and it has been our
duty to supply the deficiency from whatever
sources lay within our reach. From the pe-
riod at which the auto-biography abruptly
terminates, to the time of his removal to
Russia, the recollections of his family, and,
in some instances, the memoranda of his in-
timate friends, have furnished the only data :
but it must be observed, that nothing has been
allowed a place, which could not be stated
with entire confidence ; more might undoubt-
edly have been given, by including incidents
not so distinctly remembered, and matter de-
rived from traditional, rather than personal
knowledge, which in the present instance has
been carefully avoided.

Of the succeeding sixteen years, viz. : from
1817, the private correspondence of the de-
ceased affords almost the only materials ; but
as this was tolerably copious, and generally
written with the entire openness of friendship,
it constitutes not the least valuable part of the
work.

Vol. VII.— No. 1.



The narrative of his religious visit to the
South Sea Islands, &c., has been carefully re-
vised since its last publication, and some addi-
tional matter from the original notes has been
interspersed.

For the closing years of his life, the private
journal has again been quoted. The brevity
of the American portion of it, will perhaps
be regretted, though easily explained by the
increasing age and infirmities of the writer ;
but although short, it was thought to contain
matter of sufficient interest to warrant its in-
sertion. The record of his last illness has
been furnished by the amiable family, who
were then his kind attendants.

The appendix will be found to contain se-
veral articles which, though not actually a
part of the narrative, are yet interesting in
connexion with it. The extracts from the
notes of our brother Charles, written whilst
accompanying his father amongst the islands
of the Pacific, exhibit a somewhat succinct
view of the condition of their inhabitants, and
are the more worthy of notice, as their la-
mented author was not only himself well quali-
fied to observe, but also to estimate the evi-
dence of others.

It will be seen, that the present work is to
be regarded chiefly in the light of a compila-
tion. From the nature of some of the mate-
rials, it will also be evident, that it has occa-
sionally been as much a duty to omit, as in
other instances to insert ; but the reader may
be assured, that the selection has been fairly
and impartially made : and that whenever
any alteration has been attempted, it has been
merely a verbal correction, without affecting



MEMOIRS OF DANIEL WHEELER.



the sense of the passage. It is hardly possi-
ble that so near a relation to the deceased
should be an entirely impartial Editor, and if
any passages should be found indebted for
their insertion rather to feeling than to judg-
ment, it is hoped that both the judgment and
feeling of the reader will combine to induce
him to make some charitable allowance.

It remains for me to acknowledge my obli-
gations to all those who have in any way as-
sisted in the present work, and particularly to
my esteemed friend A. R. Barclay, who has
kindly superintended its publication.

In conclusion I would express my hope that
no passage occurring in the present volume
may give just cause of offence to any; but
that on the contrary, many may derive from
it edification and comfort.

Daniel Wheeler.

Tamerfors, Eighth month 18th, 1842,



A Testimony of Balhy monthly meeting in the
county of York, concerning Daniel Wheeler,
deceased.

Our beloved friend Daniel Wheeler was the
youngest son of William and Sarah Wheeler
of Conduit street, Hanover square, London ;
and was born there the 27th day of eleventh
month, 1771.

His parents were rather above the middle
rank in society, and being consistent members
of the established church, were strict in con-
forming to its rites and ceremonies, punctual
in attending their place of worship, and care-
ful to train up their children to devotional ex-
ercises.

Before he was twelve years old, he was de-
prived of parental restraint by- the death of
his father and mother ; and was placed at a
school at Fulham, for the purpose of learning
navigation, to prepare him for his future sea-
faring life.

Thus left an orphan, through the interest
of a relative, he was entered on the King's
books as midshipman at an early age : whilst
he was preparing for the service, and before
he had completed his thirteenth year, circum-
stances led to the breaking up of the family
circle, giving rise to a long separation from
his brothers and sisters, to whom he was very
warmly attached.

He now sailed for the first time, cruising
on the coast of Portugal ; and after remaining
six years in the navy, he finally quitted his
ship, and entered the ranks of the army as a
private soldier.

' When about sixteen years of age,' he says,
* having been unwell, and probably led to re-



flect a little on that account, I was made sen-
sible of a divine visitation extended to me at
that time ; disclosing, with indubitable clear-
ness, the vanity and emptiness of every earth-
ly station, tarnishing the pride and glory
of this perishing world in my sight ; and
which, though little understood and less re-
garded at the moment, has since, at different
times been brought to my remembrance by
Him that declareth unto man Avhat is his
thought ; that maketh the morning darkness,
and treadeth upon the high places of the earth,
the Lord, the God of Hosts is his name !
When this occurred, although then entered
into the bond of iniquity, yet I had not launch-
ed so fully into its awful abyss, as was after-
wards most lamentably the case ; and from
what I have since witnessed, in unutterable
mercy, of the strength and power of redeem-
ing love, a belief is induced, that, if this warn-
ing voice, then sounded in the secret of my
sinful heart, had been hearkened unto and
waited upon, my footsteps, even mine, would
have been conducted from the horrible pit to
which they were fast verging.'

It was after long exposure to the severity
of the weather, during a harassing service in
one of most unhealthy districts of Europe,
that Daniel Wheeler was seized with a pre-
vailing fever, which swept away many of his
fellow-soldiers; and after all prospect of reco-
very seemed to be gone, he was in mercy
raised up from the hospital, where numbers
were daily perishing round him, to become,
in future years, the messenger of mercy and
glad tidings to others. At this period, how-
ever, although he maintained a fair character
among his fellow-men, he was living in a state
of much estrangement of heart from God, and
often striving against his own secret convic-
tions. In the discharge of those duties be-
longing to his station, he had acquitted him-
self to the satisfaction of his superiors ; he had
been advanced to the rank of serjeant-major,
and was afterwards further promoted.

In 1794 or 1795, he paid a short visit to
his eldest sister residing near Sheffield, who
was married, and had become a member of
the Society of Friends by convincement. He
was not long allowed to enjoy this interval of
quiet, before he was summoned to join the re-
giment, in which he had obtained a commis-
sion, on its departure for the West Indies.
They set sail ; twice the fleet put to sea, and
as often encountered a dreadful hurricane ;
several of the vessels were lost, the troops
perishing in them: but Daniel Wheeler was
providentially spared, experiencing a narrow
escape.

Reflecting on these disasters, and the renew-
ed occurrence of wonderful preservation, so



MEMOIRS OF DANIEL WHEELER.



unexpected and so undeserved, his heart was
touched ; he could not resolve a third time to
expose his life as he had done, but determined
to quit the army, so soon as he could meet
with suitable employment. He communicated
this resolution to his sister at Woodhouse near
Sheffield, and returned thither, having given
up his commission, i 1796.

His mind was now opened to embrace the
principles of Friends, and he attended our
meeting at Woodhouse, This excited the ri-
dicule of some of his nearest relatives and
companions, whose astonishment was great at
the thorough change that soon appeared in
him. The work was not suffered to be long
on the wheel ; the effect was decisive and per-
manent, affording a display of divine power,
not less remarkable in this rapid conversion,
than where there has been a more gradual ac-
complishment of its purposes.

He made an application to be admitted into
membership with Friends: and after a suitable
time, his request was complied with, in the
second month, 1799.

It is worthy of notice, that but little, if any,
instrumental means was concerned in th s re-
markable change. Whilst attending the small
and generally silent meetings of Woodhouse,
Daniel Wheeler had felt the truth of our prin-
ciples, and had yielded to the conviction. His
was a stability and growth in religion of no
ordinary measure. In a very kw years after
his convincement he was appointed an over-
seer, and he was indeed a bright example of
zeal, sincerity, and love to his friends, in that
responsible station.

An opening to begin business in a small
way at Sheffield presenting itself, was readily
embraced ; and in this, as in his future under-
takings, the divine blessing appeared to attend
him, and to crown his exertions with success.

In the sixth month, 1800, he was married
to Jane Brady, the daughter of Thomas and
Rachel Brady of Thorne, in whom he found
a helpmate indeed, of sound judgment, guile-
less and faithful. He remarks in a letter
written afler her death, « the heavenly Mas-
ter's love has never ceased to follow us through
all the vicissitudes of time, during a life, not
a little chequered, for a term of more than
thirty-two years and a half, when He was
pleased to deprive me of my greatest earthly
treasure, and to take back that which He
gave; but it was His own, I verily believe,
even His, — the same who enabled me to say,
in the moment of my greatest distress, "Bles-
sed be the name of the Lord.'"

As a tradesman, he was diligent in busi-
ness ; he was also " fervent in spirit, serving
the Lord." By the strictest attention to in-
tegrity in all his dealings, he gained the es-



teem of all with whom he had to do. Yet it
was easy to see where his heart was fixed :
his Bible was his favourite companion, and
the few minutes that could be spared at a time
amidst his daily concerns, were spent in the
perusal of the inspired writings.

For some time previous to 1813, the impres-
sion had become strong upon his mind, that
he would be called to advocate the cause of
truth and righteousness upon the earth. Very
deep were his conflicts, and very close was
his application of soul to his heavenly Father
for strength to perform his will ; and it was
his practice, when he lived in the country, to
withdraw early in the morning to a small
field near his house, for the purpose of reli-
gious retirement and prayer.

He was very watchful lest he should be led
away from the grace vouchsafed to him; fre-
quently refraining from conversation apparent-
ly inncocent, and in which he delighted, lest
at any unguarded moment he might grieve
that Holy Spirit, whom he felt to be his com-
forter and guide. He was recorded as an ap-
proved minister in the sixth month, 1816.

About this period our friend was made sen-
sible that some sacrifice would be called for
on his part, as an evidence of his gratitude
for the unutterable mercy and great conde-
scension of the Almighty, in having plucked
him as a brand from the burning; and he saw
clearly that it was indispensable for him, as
much as might be, to separate himself from
the world and the things of the world, by de-
clining his prosperous trade, and retiring with
his family into a smaller compass. The ex-
tent of his business was becoming a burden.
He felt the force of our Lord's declaration,
" Ye cannot serve God and mammon ;" and his
obedience to the requirement was full and un-
reserved. ' Not,' said he, < that I have ac-
quired a sufficiency, without doing something
for my livelihood ; far from it. 1 have still
a prospect of maintaining my family comfor-
tably with care and industry, leaving the
event to Him who knows the thoughts and
intents of the heart. I have no desire to ac-
cumulate riches for my children, the blessing
seldom attends it; and the baneful effects
thereof are too oflen visible, even in our
Society.'

His mind was thus disposed to withdraw
from his concerns in trade, and he was in a
state of waiting preparation, when an inquiry
was made, on behalf of the Emperor Alex-
ander of Russia for a member of the Society
of Friends, to superintend some works of
drainage and of agriculture in the neighbour-
hood of Petersburg. Daniel Wheeler offered
himself for the service, and finally accepted
the appointment.



MEMOIRS OF DANIEL WHEELER.



On the 18th of sixth month, 1818, he at-
tended the meeting at Sheffield, when he took
an afFectionate leave of Friends there. He
told them that nothing less than apprehended
duty could have induced him to take the pre-
sent step ; that four years ago it was clearly
intimated to him, that it would be required of
him to remove into Russia ; and though the
prospect was very trying to the natural part,
yet endeavouring to obtain resignation, he
had been favoured to feel sweet peace. His
mind had been deeply affected while sitting



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