William Evans.

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who lived almost two hundred years after the
Carthagenian Council, that he caused many
Latin authors to be burned, as vain and las-
civious ; as Ca^cilianus, Affranius, Nsevius,
Licinus, Zeunius, Attilius, Victor, Livy's Dia-
logues. Nor did Plautus, Martial, and Terence,
so much in request both in the schools and
academies of the land, escape their honest
zeal, although the multitude of copies so far
frustrated their good intentions, that they are
multiplied of late.*

16. Gratian also had such like passages
as these, " We see that the priests of the Lord,
neglecting the gospel and the prophets, read
comedies or play-books and sing love-verses,
and read Virgil,"t a book in which are yet
some good expressions. Strange ! that these
things should have been so severely censured
of old, and that persons whose names are had
in so much reverence, should consider these
their censures as the plain construction of
Christ's precepts, and the natural consequen-
ces of the Christian doctrine ; and yet that
they should be so far neglected by this age,
as not to be judged worthy an imitation. But
let us hear what doctrine the Waldenses teach
in this affair.

17. Petrus Bellonius, that great and in-
quisitive traveller, when he came to mount
Athos, where there live in several monasteries
six thousand Coloeri, or religious persons, so
called, he did not so much as find there, no,
nor in all Greece, one man acquainted with
the conversation of those parts ; for though
they had several manuscripts of divinity in
their libraries, yet not one poet or historian ;
for the rulers of that church were such ene-
mies to that sort of learning, that they anathe-
matized all such priests and religious persons,
as should read or transcribe any books but
what treated of religion : and persuaded all
others, that it was not lawful for a Christian
to study poesy, &c., though nothing is more
grateful in these da5^s. Zeno was of the same
opinion against poetry.:}:

18. Waldenses, were a people so called,
from one Peter W^aldo, a citizen of Lyons, in
France, in the year 1160, who inhabited Pied-
mont, elsewhere called Albigenses, from the
country of Albia ; Lollards in England, from
one Reynard Lollard, who some time after
came into these parts, and preached boldly

* Cardan, de Sapient. L 2.

t Jac. Laurentio de lib. Gentil. p. 40, 41.

j Pet. Bell, obser. 1. 1. c. 35. ibid. c. 40. cap. 39.

against the idolatries, superstitions, and vain
conversation of the inhabitants of this island.
They had many other names, as Arnoldists,
Esperonists, Henricians, Siccars, Insabaches,
Patarenians, Turlupins, Lyonists, Fraticelli,
Hussites, Bohemians, still the same ; but
finally, by their enemies, damnable heretics,
though by the Protestants, The true church
of Christ. To omit many testimonies, I will
only instance bishop Usher, who in his dis-
course of the succession of the Christian
church, defends them not only as true reform-
ers, but makes the succession of the Protestant
church to be mainly evincible from their anti-
quity. I shall forbear all the circumstances
and principles they held, or in which he
strongly defends them against the cruelty and
ignorance of their adversaries, particularly
Rainerius, Rubis Capetaneis, &c.** only what
they held concerning our present subject of
apparel and recreations, I cannot be so inju-
rious to the truth, their self-denial, the good of
others, at whose reformation I aim, and my
own discourse, as to omit it. Therefore I
shall proceed to allege their faith and practice
in these matters, however esteemed but of a
trifling importance, by the loose, wanton and
carnal-minded of this generation, whose feel-
ing is lost by the enjoyment of their inordinate
desii'es, and who think it an high state of Chris-
tianity to be no better than the beasts that
pei'ish, namely, in not being excessive in New-
gate and mere kennel-enormities. That these
ancient reformers had another sense of these
things, and that they made the conversation
of the Gospel of a crucified Jesus, to intend
and require another sort of life, than what is
used by almost all those who account them-
selves members of his church, I shall show
out of their own doctrines, as found in their
most authentic histories.

19. In their Exposition upon the Lord's
Prayer, that part of it which speaks thus,
" Give us this day our daily bread ;" where,
next to that spiritual bread, which they make
it to be the duty of all to seek more than life,
they come positively to deny the praying for
more than is requisite for outward necessities,
or that it is lawful to use more ; condemning
all superfluity and excess, out of fashion, pride
or wantonness, not only of bread, but all out-
ward things, which they judge to be thereby
comprehended; using Ezekiel's words, "That
fulness of bread, and abundance of idleness,
was the cause of the wickedness and the

** XII. Cap. Hist, de orig. Walden. Vignia Hist.
Bibl. p. 1.30. Dubran. Hist. Bohem. 14. Thuan. in.
Hist. sui. temp. p. 458. Mat. Paris. Hist, of Engl.
An. 1174. Bellar. torn. 2. lib. 1. cap. 26. co. 86.
Ecchius, com. loo. 28. Alp. 1. 6. Con. Hereit. p. 99.



abominations of Sodom, for which God by
fire destroyed them off the earth."* Where-
upon they conclude, with an ancient father of
the primitive church, after this manner, "That
costly apparel, superfluity in diet, (as three
dishes, when one will serve) play, idleness
and sleep, fatten the body, nourish luxury,
weaken the spirit, and lead the soul unto
death. But a spare diet, labour, short sleep,
plain and mean garments, help to purify the
soul, tame the body, mortify the lusts of the
flesh, and comfort the spirit." So severe were
they, that in the chapter on the instruction
of their children, they would not suffer them
to converse with those of strange places or
principles, whose conversation was gaming,
plays, and the like wanton recreations ; but
especially concerning young women, "A man,
say they, must have a great care of his
daughter. Hast thou daughters 1 keep them
within, to wholesome things; see they wander
not ; for Dinah, Jacob's daughter, was cor-
rupted, by being seen of strangers. "f They
affirm the general event of such conversation
to be no better.

To which I shall add their judgment and
practice concerning taverns, and public houses
for treats and pleasures, with which the land
swarms in our days.

20. " A tavern is the fountain of sin, the
school of the devil ; it works wonders fitting
the place ; it is the custom of God to show
his power in his church, and to work mira-
cles ; that is to say, to give sight to the spirit-
ually blind, to make the lame to leap, the dumb
to sing, the deaf to hear : but the devil doth
quite the contrary to all these in taverns, and
the like places of pleasures. For when the
drunkard goes to the tavern, he goes upright ;
but when he comes forth, he cannot go at all;
he has lost his sight, speech, and hearing too.
The lectures that are read in this school of the
devil, say these poor Waldenses and first re-
formers, are gluttonies, oaths, perjuries, lyings,
blasphemies, flatteries, and divers other wicked
villanies and pernicious effects, by which the
heart is withdrawn farther and farther from
God.:]: And, as the book of Ecclesiasticus
saith, ' The taverner shall not be freed from

But above other recreations, do but seri-
ously observe, of what danger and ill conse-

* Jo. Paul. Per. Hist. Wald. in cat. 1. 1. c. 3.
p. 37. 31. Dona nos le nostre pan quotidian, en.
choi. Memor. Morrel. Vign. Mem. f. 7. Ezek. xvi.
45. Thesaur. fed. Ap. Wald.

f Ibid. 1. 2. c. 3. Lifilli sign, naisson ali patrons
carnals. de non esser rendus, &c.

J Ibid. 1. 2. c. 3. La taverna de maisons de peli-
sirs es fortuna de pecca Eschola del Diavola, &c.
Vol. I.— No. 8.

quence these first reformers thought dancing,
music, and the like pastimes to be, which are
the greatest divertisements of the times, viz.

21. "Dancing is the devil's procession, and
he that enters into a dance, entereth into his
procession ; the devil is the guide, the middle,
and the end of the dance ; as many paces as
a man maketh in dancing, so many paces
doth he make to go to hell. A man sinneth
in dancing divers ways, for all his steps are
numbered ; in his touch, in his ornaments, in
his hearing, sight, speech and other vanities.
And therefore we will prove, first by the
Scripture, and afterwards by divers other rea-
sons, how wicked a thing it is to dance. The
first testimony that we will produce, is that
which we read in the Gospel, where it is said,
it pleased Herod so well, that it cost John Bap-
tist his life. The second is in Exodus, when
Moses coming near to the congregation, saw
the calf, he cast the tables from him, and
broke them at the foot of the mountain ; and
afterwards it cost three thousand their lives.
Besides, the ornaments which women wear in
their dances are as crowns for many victories,
which the devil hath got against the children
of God ; for the devil hath not only one sword
in the dance, but as many as there are beauti-
ful and well-adorned persons in the dance; for
the words of a woman are a glittering sword.
And therefore that place is much to be feared,
wherein the enemy hath so many swords,
since that only one sword of his may be
justly feared." Again, " The devil in this
place strikes with a sharpened sword ; for the
women, who make it acceptable, come not
willingly to the dance, if they be not painted
and adorned ; which painting and ornament is
as a whetstone, on which the devil sharpeneth
his sword. — They that deck and adorn their
daughters, are like those that put dry wood to
the fire, to the end it may burn the better : for
such women kindle the fire of luxury in the
hearts of men. As Sampson's foxes fired
the Philistine's corn ; so these women have
fire in their faces, and in their gestures and
actions, their glances and wanton words, by
which they consume the goods of men." They
proceed, " The devil in the dance useth the
strongest armour that be hath ; for his most
powerful arms are women : which is made
plain unto us, in that the devil made choice of
the woman to deceive the first man: so did
Balaam, that the children of Israel might be
rejected of God. By a woman he made Samp-
son, David and Absalom to sin. The devil
tempteth men by women three manner of
ways ; that is, by the touch, by the eye, by
the ear ; by these three means he tempteth
foolish men to dancing, by touching their
hands, beholding their beauty, hearing their



songs and music." — Again, "They that dance
break that promise and agreement they made
with God in baptism, wlien their godfathers
promise for them, That they shall renounce
the devil and all his pomp : for dancing is the
pomp of the devil; and he that danceth, main-
taineth his pomp, and singeth his mass. For
the woman that singeth in the dance, is the
prioress, or chiefess of the devil, and those
that answer are the clerks, and the beholders
are the parishioners, and the music are the
bells, and the fiddlers the ministers of the
devil. For, as when hogs are strayed, if the
hogherd call one, all assemble themselves to-
gether ; so the devil causeth one woman to
sing in the dance, or to play on some instru-
ment, and presently gather all the dancers to-
gether." Again, " In a dance, a man breaks
the Ten Commandments of God : as first,
'Thou shalt have no other gods but me, &c.'
for in dancing a man serves that person whom
he most desires to serve, after whom goes his
heart :* and therefore Jerom saith, " Every
man's God is that he serves and loves best,
and that he loves best, which his thoughts
Avander and gad most after." He sins against
the second commandment, when he makes an
idol of that he loves. Against the third ; in
that oaths, and frivolously using God's name,
are frequently amongst dancers. Against the
fourth; for that by dancing the sabbath day is
profaned. Against the fifth ; for in the dance
parents are many times dishonoui'ed, since
thereby many bargains are made without
their counsel. Against the sixth ; a man kills
in dancing ; for every one that sets about to
please another, he kills the soul as oft as he
persuades unto lust. Against the seventh ; for
the party that danceth, be it male or female,
committeth adultery with the party they lust
after ; ' for he that looketh on a woman to
lust after her, hath already committed adultery
with her in his heart.' Against the eighth ;
a man sins in dancing, when he withdraweth
the heart of another from God. Against the
ninth ; when in dancing he speaks falsely
against the truth, and for some little honour,
or secret lascivious end, denies what is true,
or affirms what is false. Against the tenth ;
when women affect the ornaments of others,
and men covet the wives, daughters, and
servants of their neighbours, which undenia-
bly attends all such plays and sports." Again,
"A man may prove how great an evil dancing
is, by the multitude of sins that accompany
those who dance, for they dance without mea-

* La Bales la profef. del Diavol. & qui intra an
la Bal. &c. Sp. Aim. fol. 50, 51, 52, 53, -54. Job.
xiv. 16. Ps. xxxvii. 23. Prov. xvi. 9. Jer. x. 23.
Mark vi. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Exod. xxxii. 4, 5,

sure or number : and therefore," saith Augus-
tine, " the miserable dancer knoAvs not, that as
many paces as he makes in dancing, so many
leaps he makes to hell.**' They sin in their
ornaments after a five-fold manner : First, by
being proud thereof. Secondly, by inflaming
the hearts of those that behold them. Thirdly,
when they make those ashamed, who have not
the like ornaments, giving them occasion to
covet the like. Fourthly, by making women
importunate in demanding the like ornaments
of their husbands : and, fifthly, when they
cannot obtain them of their husbands, they
seek to get them elsewhere by sin. They sin
by singing and playing on instruments ; for
their songs bewitch the hearts of those that
hear them with temporal delight, forgetting
God ; uttering nothing in their songs but lies
and vanities; and the very motion of the body,
which is used in dancing, gives testimony
enough of evil. Thus you see, that dancing
is the devil's procession ; and he that enters
into a dance enters into the devil's procession.
Of dancing, the devil is the guide, the middle,
and the end ; and he that entereth a good and
wise man into the dance, if it can be that such
an one is either good or wise, cometh forth a
corrupt and a wicked man : Sarah, that holy
woman, was none of these."'('f Behold the
apprehensions of those good old reformers,
touching those things that are so much in
practice and reputation in these times, with
such as profess their religion ; thus far ver-
batim. But I cannot leave off here till I have
yet added the conclusion of their Catechism
and direction, with some passages out of one
of their pastor's letters, fit to the present

They conclude with this direction; namely.
How to rule their bodies, and live in this world,
as becomes the children of God. Not to serve
the mortal desires of the flesh. To keep their
members, that they be not arms of iniquity and
vanity. To rule their outward senses. To
subject the body to the soul. To mortify their
members. To fly idleness. To observe a
sobriety and measure in eating and drinking,
in their words and the cares of this life. To
do works of mercy. To live a moral, or just
life by faith. To fight against the desires.
To mortify the works of the flesh. To give
themselves to the exercise of religion. To
confer together touching the will of God.
To examine diligently the conscience. To
purge, and amend, and pacify the spirit.:}::]:

** Jerom. in dec. int. oper.

ft August, de Civit. Dei.

JJ Ibid. 1. ii. Concl. p. 68. Encaren qual maniere,
tidel. debian. regir. li ler. corps. Non eervali desi-
rier mort., &c.



To which I shall add the epistle of one of
their pastoi-s, as I find it recorded amongst
other matters relating to those poor afflicted

22. An epistle of Pastor Bartholomew Tertian,
written to the Waldensian churches of the
valley of Pragela, thus translated :


" To all our faithful and well-beloved bre-
thren in Christ Jesus, health and salvation be
with you all, Amen. These are to put you in
remembrance, and to admonish you, my bre-
thren, hereby acquitting myself of that duty
which I owe unto you all, in the behalf of God,
principally touching the care of your souls
salvation, according to that light of the truth
which the most high God hath bestowed on
us, that it would please every one of you to
maintain, increase and nourish, to the utter-
most of your power, without diminution, those
good beginnings and examples, which have
been left unto us by our forefathers, whereof
we are no ways worthy. For it would little
profit us to have been renewed by the fatherly
visitation, and the light which hath been given
us of God, if we give ourselves to worldly
carnal conversations, which are diabolical,
abandoning the principle which is of God,
and the salvation of our souls, for this short
and temporal life.* For the Lord saith,
' What doth it profit a man to gain the whole
world, and to lose his own soul?' For it would
be better for us never to have known the way
of righteousness, than having known it, to do
the contrary. Let me therefore entreat you,
by the love of God, that you decrease not, nor
look back : but rather increase the charity,
fear and obedience, which is due unto God,
and to yourselves, amongst yourselves. Stand
fast in all these good principles, which you
have heard and understood of God by our
means ; and remove from amongst you all
vain conversation and evil surmises, ti'oubling
the peace, the love, the concord, and whatso-
ever M'ould indispose or deaden your minds to
the service of God, your own salvation, and
the administration of the truth, if you desire
that God should be merciful to you in your
goods temporal and spiritual : For you can do
nothing without him ; and if you desire to be
heirs of his glory, do that which he command-
eth : ' If you would enter into life, keep my

" Likewise be careful, that there be not nou-
rished among you, any sports, gluttony, whore-
dom, dancings, or any lewdness, or riot, nor
questions, nor deceits, nor usury, nor discords;
neither support nor entertain any persons of a

* Hist. Wald. 1. 4. c. 11. p. 55, 56, 57.

wicked conversation, or that give any scandal
or ill example ; but let charity and fidelity
reign amongst you, and all good example ;
doing one to another as every one desires
should be done unto him ; for otherwise it is
impossible that any should be saved, or can
have the grace of God, or be good men in this
world, or have glory in another. And there-
fore, if you hope and desire to possess eternal
life, to live in good esteem and credit, and to
prosper in this world, in your goods temporal
and spiritual, purge yourselves from all dis-
orderly ways, to the end that God may be
always with you, who forsakes not those who
trust in him. But know this for certain, that
God heareth not, nor dwelleth with sinners,
nor in the soul that is given to wickedness,
nor in the man that is subject to sin. And
therefore let every one cleanse the ways of his
heart, and fly the danger, if he would not
perish therein. I have no other thing to write
at present, but that you would put in practice
these things ; and the God of peace be with
you all, and go along with us, and be present
among us, in our sincere, humble and fervent
prayers ; and that he will be pleased to save
all those his faithful, who trust in Christ
Jesus. ,

"Entirely yours, ready to do you service
in all things possible, according unto
the will of God.

" Bartholomew Tertian."

23. Behold the life and doctrine, instruction
and practice of the ancient Waldenses ! how
harmless, how plain, how laborious, how ex-
ceeding serious, and heavenly in their conver-
sation! These were the men, women, aye, and
children too, who, for above five hundred
years, have valiantly, but passively, main-
tained a ci'uel war, at the expense of their
own innocent blood, against the unheard-of
cruelties and severities of several princes,
nuncios and bishops ; but above all, of certain
cruel inquisitors, of whom their historians re-
port, that they held it was a greater evil to
conceal an heretic, than to be guilty of per-
jury ; and for a clergyman to marry a wife,
than to keep a mistress. In short, to dissent,
though never so conscientiously, was worse
than open immorality. It was against the like
adversaries these poor Waldenses fought, by
sufferings throughout the nations, by prisons,
confiscations, banishments, wandering from
hill to valley, from den to cave, being mock-
ed, whipped, racked, thrown from rocks and
towers, driven on mountains, and in one night
hundreds perished by excessive frosts and
snows, smothered in caves, starved, imprison-
ed, ripped up, hanged, dismembered, rifled,
plundered, strangled, broiled, roasted, burned;



and whatsoever could be invented to ruin men,
women and children.* These Waldenses,
you Protestants pretend to be your ances-
tors ; from them you say you have your re-
ligion ; and often, like the Jews of the pro-
phets, are you building their praises in your
discourses: but oh! look back, I beseech you,
how unlike are you to these afflicted pilgrims !
What resemblance is there of their life in
yours? Can you think they helped to pur-
chase and preserve you a liberty and religion
at the loss of all that was dear to them, that
you might pass away your days and years in
pride, wantonness and vanity? What propor-
tion bears your excess with their temperance?
your gaudiness with their plainness? your
luxury and flesh-pleasing conversations, with
their simplicity and self-denial ? But are you
not got into that spirit and nature which they
condemned in their day? into that carnality
and worldly-mindedness they reproved in their
persecutors ? nay, into a strain of persecution
too, whilst you seem to hide all under a cloak
of reformation ? How can you hope to confute
their persecutors, whose worst part perhaps
was their cruelty, who turn persecutors your-
selves ? What have you, besides their good
words, that is like them ? And do you think
that words will fend off the blows of eternal
vengeance ? that a little by-rote repetition,
though of never so good expressions in them-
selves, shall serve your turn at the great
day?f No, from God I tell you, that whilst
you live in the wantonness, pinde, and luxury
of the world, pleasing and fulfilling the lust of
the eye, the lust of the flesh, and the pride of
life, God detests you all, and laughs you and
your worship to scorn. Never tell me, I am
too rash, it is the devil that says so : he has
got two Scriptures by the end in these days ;
one, " there is none that doeth good ;" and
why ? that he may persuade all, it is impossi-
ble to overcome him ; which is the reason
so many are overcome : although glory is
promised to none but conquerors. The se-
cond, " That we must not judge, lest we be
judged ;" that is, whilst we are guilty of the
same, or of things that are equivalent, lest we
be judged.:}: But away with satan and his
hypocrisy too : I know what I say, and from
whom I speak : once more I tell you all,
whether you will hear or forbear, that unless
you forsake your pride, luxury, avarice and

* Bern, de Gir. lord de Hail. Hist, de la Fr. 1.
10. vesemb. Orat. in Wald. Baza Hist. horn. dig.
virer. de ver. & falsa Rel. 1. 4. c. 13. p. 249. Cat.
Test. ve. 534. Vigin. Bib. Hist. p. 1. Vieaux.
Mem. fol. 6, 7. Mat. Par. in Hen. 3. An. 1220.
Sigonius de Reg. Ital. 1. 7.

t Sernay, c. 47. Chef. 1. 3. c. 7.

\ The devil a scripturian sometimes.

variety of vanities, and diligently mind the
eternal light of God in your hearts, to obey it,
wrath will be your portion for ever. Trust
not your souls upon misapplied Sci'iptures.
He that is a child of God, must be holy, for
God is holy, and none are his sons and daugh-
ters, but those who are adopted by the eternal
spirit, and led thereby. It was an holy, plain,
humble, divine life, these poor suffering Chris-
tians both professed and practised, refusing to
converse with such as lived in the superfluities
and excess of the world ; for which, if you

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