William Forsyth.

A treatise on the culture and management of fruit trees ... To which is added, a new and improved edition of Observations on the diseases, defects and injuries of all kinds of fruit and forest trees .. online

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planted in the same manner, and for the same
purpose as the above, you can have the quarters
dear for crops for the kitchen, and a free air will
be admitted, which you can never have if you
plant espaliers : dwarf standards can be kept to
what size you please ; they look much handsomer
than espaliers, and produce a greater quantity of
fruit

On pruning and restoring old and decayed Plum* Trees*

I have restored plum-trees, some of which were
so far decayed as to have only from one to two or



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OF PLUMS. 33

three inches of bark left; they are now com-
pletely filled up with sound wood, with large
heads, which at four years growth filled a wall six-
teen feet high, and are at this time full of fine
fruit ; some of the stems are several inches in cir-
cumference, bearing treble the crops produced by
young trees that have been planted three times as
long as they have been headed down.

Where the trunks are become hollow, I always
cut out all the loose rotten parts, and also examine
the roots, cutting off what is rotten, injured, or
decayed. This method should be pursued with all
hollow and decayed trees ; and, if properly exe-
cuted, they may be so completely filled up, as
scarcely to leave a mark behind, even where the
wood is totally decayed.

I have had shoots from plum-trees which have
been headed, that have grown upwards of seven
feet long, and as large as a walking-stick, in one
summer; this should never be suffered; but they
should be pinched off with the finger and thumb,
in the beginning of June, close to an eye or a
bud; unless the wall be filled to the top; in
which case they should never be cut while they
continue to bear handsome fruit Before they
begin to cease from bearing, you must always
begin with shortening every other shoot, leaving
them only from six inches to a foot long, and hail
them in till the second year, taking care to rub
off the superfluous and strong fbreright shoots ;
by that time -they will begin to bear: then cut



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34 OP PLUMS.

out the others that have done bearing: by this
method you will keep the trees in a flourishing
state. When the branches are thus managed, they
will frequently throw out small dugs, or foreright
shoots, about an inch or two long, which will
flower next year. They should never be shortened
till after the fruit is set and become about the size
of a large pea; by that time the leaves will have
covered the fruit, and be able to protect it from
the inclemency of the weather. You may now
shorten these shoots close to the fruit, which will
leave them from one to two inches long. This
method I have practised with great success for
several years. By leaving these short foreright
shoots, the fruit is protected till it is out of danger
of being killed by the frost, or stunted by the cold
North and North-west winds that happen about
the latter end of March and beginning of April.
The cold chilling rain and snow, which are also
very injurious to the fruit, will be thrown off by
the brandies standing out from the trees. I by no
means like to see great spurs standing out from
the wall j for they are always sure to be injured
by the frost and cold winds. £ See Plate II. J$g. 9.
and 3.3 When the shoots are left naked, I have
often seen the plums turn yellow, and drop after
they have grown to a considerable size, from their
being exposed to the cold frosty winds and rain.*

* In cold and frosty weather, Plums must be covered in the
same manner as Apricots.



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OF PLUMS* 35

Plums are more tender than any other sort of stone
fruit, owing to the flower-cup dropping sooner than
that of Peaches, Nectarines, &a They are very
liable to decay, after cutting off large limbs or
branches, which always brings on the gum and
canker, if it be left to nature to perform the cure.
I would, therefore, recommend the application of
the composition (in the same manner as directed
for other sorts of fruit-trees) to every shoot where
the knife touches, as soon as the trees are cut and
nailed

If you wish your fruit to be large and fine, you
must take care to thin it where it is too thick ; but
that must not be done too soon, lest it should be
pinched by the cold. The fruit ought to be of the
size of a small marble, and well sheltered by the
leaves, before you attempt to do this. , Never puH
off the leaves that shelter the fruit, till it is full-
grown and begins to turn. This will be more fully
treated ofj when we come to the management of
Peaches and Nectarines.

I have taken up several old trees from the walls
when they have grown too near each other, and
planted them out as standards, at the same time
shortening their branches to form handsome head*,
which are now full of fine fruit. These trees
would, by any other person, have been thrown to
the faggot-pile.



d 2



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S6



CHAPTER III.



OF PEACHES.



Different Sorts of Peaches described. — Of the Soil. — Of
planting, headings pruning, and training. — Method of making
Incisions. — Of covering Peach-Trees, watering, Spc.

The Peach is probably a native of Persia, and was
introduced thence into Europe. It belongs to the
twelfth class of Linnaeus, Icosandria Monogynia ;
and is named Amygdahts Persica. It was culti-
vated here in 1562, according to Turner's Herbal,
part. 2.Jol. 48. verso.

TheJoU&ming aire the Sorts cultivated in this Country.

[N.B. Those marked with an Asterisk (*)
adhere to the stone, and are by the French called
Pavies.]

1. White Nutmeg. Duham. n. 1. t. 2. Pom.
Franc.2.f.824>. t.*J.f.\. This is a small white
Peach, with seldom any red ; the flesh is white to
the stone, which is small : and the juice is sugary
and sometimes musky. It is only esteemed as
being first ripe. It is in eating in July, and soon
grows mealy.

2. Red Nutmeg. Duham. n.£. t.S. Pom.
Franc. 2. p. 926. t. 7«/2. This is a great bearer,



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or PEACHES* $7

and valued for its early maturity. It is larger than
the white, somewhat round, of a bright vermillion
colour on the side next the sun, and clear yellow
on the other; the flesh is white, melting, and a
little tinged with red on the sunny side, but with-
out any red veins next the stone; it has a fine musky
flavour. This Peach is much esteemed, and ripens
about the beginning of August.

3. Early Purple Avant. Broom Nutmeg.
Avant Pechejaune. , Duham. n. 4. This is a small
fruit. Oh the side next the sun the skin is tinged
with a deep red brown, and on the other side with
a yellow gold colour, covered all over with a thiek
ruddy down: the flesh is golden yellow, except
near the stone, and sometimes under the skin*
where it is a carmine red. It is fine and melting,
with a sugary and rich juice ; it has an agreeable
flavour, and ripens in August, but is apt to be
stringy.

4. Small Mignonnb. Duham.iuS.t*4*. Pom*
Franc. 2. p. 326. /. 7.f.S. Poit. et Turp. Fr.
t. 101. This is a small round fruit* with a thin
skin, very red on the side next the sun, and yel-
lowish white on the other j the flesh is Ann, white,
and has sometimes red veins next the stone ; it has.
a rich vinous juice, and is ripe about the middle of
August

5. White Magdalen. Montague blanche. Du-
ham. n.8. /.6. Pom. Franc.%. p.3Q&. t.%.f.5+
This is a middle-sized round Peach, deeply cleft
on one side, with a thin skin readily peeling off} it is

d 3



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38 OF PEACHES.

white all over, inclining to yellow, has sometime*
a little red next the sun, and is covered with a very
fine down ; the flesh is whitish-yellow, melting, and
has at times a little red next the stone. It is sel-
dom high-flavoured unless it be forced, and then
it is excellent It ripens about the middle of
August

6. Yellow Alberge. Duham. n.5.t.5. Pom.
Franc. 2. p. 327. t. $.f.4t. This is of a tolerable
size and good taste, but should be perfectly ripe
before it is gathered, otherwise it is good for
nothing. It has a thin skin, not easily parting
from the flesh, except when full ripe : it is yellow
before it ripens, but afterwards becomes deep red :
the flesh is deep yellow, and very red at the stone.
It is ripe about the middle of August

7. Anne. Langley Pom. t. 22. f. 2. This is
said to have taken its name from Mrs. Anne Dunch,
of Pusey, in Berkshire, where it was first raised.
It is a fine early fruit, round, rather small, slightly
cleft on one side, the skin is of a yellowish-white
Cast on the shaded side, and tinged with red next
the sun : the flesh is whitish-yellow, melting, and
highly flavoured. It ripens about the middle or
latter end of August The tree shoots strong, and
is a good bearer, if well managed.

8. True Early Purple. Duham. n. 12. t. 8.
Pom. Franc. 2. p. SSI. t. 9.f.6. This fruit is large,
deeply cleft, with the skin covered with a thick
down, but easily peels off. It is of a deep red co-
lour next the sun, and sprinkled with small spots



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OF PEACHES. 39

of bright red on the other side ; the flesh is white,
melting, except near the stone, where it is bright
red ; the juice is plentiful, very fine, and delicious.
It is an excellent Peach, and is ripe about the latter
end of August

9. Early Purple. Vineuse. Duharru ru 15.
U 11. This fruit is of a middle size, round, a little
flat, and deeply cleft : the skin is fine, easily parts
from the flesh, of a very deep red even when not
exposed to the sun, and covered with a very fine
ruddy down : the flesh is firm, juicy, white, except
under the skin, and round the stone, where it is
very red; the juice is plentiful, vinous, but some-
times a little sharpish, particularly in cold soils*
It ripens the end of August

10. Neal's Early Purple, Hooker Pom. Lond,
U 23. This is a large irregularly formed Peach,
of a dark red colour next the sun, and pale yellow
on the other side, and spotted : the flesh is yellow-
ish-white, reddish at the stone, and of a sweet
melting flavour. It ripens about the end of Au-
gust, forces well, and is an excellent early Peach.

11. Old Royal George. This comes in soon
after the Anne; the flower is large and white;
the fruit large, round, with a cleft on one side,
rather flat; the skin of a dark-red towards the
sun, but white and speckled with red on the other
side : the flesh is very rich, white next the skin,
but very red at the stone, and full of a fine deli-
cious juice. It is ripe about the end of August or
beginning of September.

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40 OF PEACHES.

12. Royal Kensington. This is one of the
best Peaches we have, of a high red colour next
the sun, and of a yellowish colour next the wall.
It is a good bearer, and not liable to be blighted ;
the flesh is full of rich juice. It ripens about the
latter end of August or beginning of September. *

13. Large French Mignonne. Duham. n. 14.
*. 10. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 338. t. 9* £7* Po&et
Turp. Fr. 1. 135. This is a beautiful large Peach,
very round and deeply cleft, with a thin skin co-
vered with a fine satin down, and easily parts from
the flesh ; it is a bright green, inclining to yellow
on the shaded side, but deep brownish-red next the
sun : the flesh is fine, delicate, melting, and juicy ;
white, except under the skin next the sun and
found the stone, where it is marbled with bright
red ; the stone is very small, and comes from the
flesh. It has a sweet, vinous, high-flavoured juice.
This is one of the best French Peaches, and is ripe
the latter end of August.

14. Grimwood's New Royal George. Hooker
Pom. Lond. t. 41. This fruit is round, middle-
sized, rather flat, one side generally longer than
the other and deeply cleft : the skin is of a dark

* This handsome Peach, I am told, was with some others
sent from France to Her Majesty, upwards of twenty years
ago. I have therefore taken the liberty to give it the above
name, that it may not be confounded with Mr. Grimwood's
Kensington Peach, When I came to Kensington, in 1784, I
found it mentioned in the Catalogue as a new Peach from
France.



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OF PEACHES. 41

red colour, with streaks of deeper red next the sun j
flesh pale yellow, with a few streaks of red from
the skin, and blotches of a fine carmine round the
stone. It has a sweet, vinous juice, of excellent
flavour. It ripens the end of August to middle of
September.*

15. Montauban. Langley Pom. t. 28. f. 4.
This is a middle-sized roundish fruit, with a cleft
on one side, of a deep red inclining to purple
next the sun, but pale green towards the wall.
It has a mild melting flesh, white to the stone,
with sometimes a little red. It has a rich juice ;
and the tree is hardy and a plentiful bearer. It is
ripe the latter end of August

16. Early Chevbeuse. BeUe Chevreuse. Du-
ham. n. 17 & 18. /. 13. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 886.
1. 10. f. 8. This is a good peach, of a longish
shape, slightly cleft : the skin is of a yellow colour,
mostly all over, except next the sun, where it is a
beautiful red. It is covered with a thickish down :
the skin does not part from the flesh easily, except
when full ripe : the flesh is whitish-yellow, slightly
tinged with red under the skin on the sunny side,
and marbled with rose-colour round the stone : the
juice is rich and sweet It ripens about the be-
ginning of September, and is a plentiful bearer.

17* Chancellor. Duham. n. 19. Pom. Franc. 2.
p. 342. This much resembles the Chevreuse. It

* This is said to be the same as the large French Mig-
nonne.



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42 OF PBACHBS.

is one of the best sort of Peaches. The skin is
very thin, and of a fine red colour next the sun ;
the flesh is white, melting, red at the stone, and
the juice is very rich and excellent* It ripens
about the middle of September.

18. Red Magdalen. Duham. n. 10. /. 7* Pom.
Franc. 2. p. 839. /• 10. / 9. Pott, et Turp. Fr.
t. 26. This is a large round fruit, sometimes flat
at the stalk, of a deep red colour next the sun ;
the flesh white, with red veins at the stone, and
full of a rich sugary juice, of excellent flavour. It
is a very good Peach, and ripens the beginning of
September.

19. * Early Newington. Smith's Nemngton.
Pavie Mane. Duham. n. 9. Langley Pom. p. 101.
/. 28. f. 4. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 342. /. 12. f. 11.
This is middle-sized, roundish; the skin of a
beautiful red colour next the sun, but white or
pale green on the other : the flesh is firm, like all
the Pavies, white, juicy, adhering to the stone,
where there are streaks of red. It is full of a
plentiful juice, which is very vinous when the
fruit is full ripe. It ripens the beginning of Sep-
tember.

20. Malta. Italian. Belle de Paris. Duham,
n. 11. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 343. Langley Pom. 107.
/. 33. / 2. This is a middle-sized, flattish Peach,
and nearly round ; the skin is of a fine red colour
next the sun, marbled with a deeper red, and
bright green on the shaded side ; it has a white
melting flesh, a little musky, and red at the stone.



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OF PEACHES. 4f$

The tree is a good bearer, and the fruit ripens the
beginning of September. It much resembles the
White Magdalen in leaves, flowers, and fruit It
may be raised from the stone.

21. Noblesse. Langley Pom. t. 28. f. 8»
Hooker Pom. Lond. t. 2. This is a large Peach,
generally round, sometimes longish, with a very
small nipple at the end. The skin is marbled with
red and dull purple, when fully exposed to the
sun j it is thin, easily peels off the flesh, and in
very hot weather is subject to blister : the flesh is
very white, with some faint yellow in it, and white
to the stone ; the juice is sweet, melting, and very
rich in a good season. The tree is hardy, easy to
be trained, a good bearer, and forces well. It
ripens the beginning of September.

22. Bourdine. Boudbi, Narborme. Dvham.
n. 16. /. 12. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 34$. /. 15. f. 16.
Poit. et Turp. Fr. U 1*7. Hooker Pom. Lond. 1. 16.
Tins is a very fine large fruit, nearly round, and
deeply cleft; the skin is of a fine dark red colour,
easily parts from the flesh, and is covered with a
very fine down ; the flesh is fine, melting, whitish
yellow, except near the stone, where it is very red,
and sometimes that red extends into the flesh $
the juice is rich and vinous, without any of that
sharpness in it which sometimes diminishes the
value of the large Mignonne. The tree is hardy,
and a good bearer, especially when old, and the
fruit highly esteemed. It will do very well in
standards, and produce plenty of good fruit It



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44 OP PEACHES.

may be rawed from the stone without budding.
The fruit ripens about the middle of September.

28. Admirable. Duham. n. 29. t. 21. Pom.
Franc 2. p. 348. /• 16. / 17- This is a very
large, round, beautiful Peach, slightly cleft ; the
don is finely coloured with red towards the sun,
and bright yellow or straw colour on the shaded
side ; the flesh is firm, white, melting, pale red
next the stone. The juice is sweet, sugary, and
of an exquisite taste. It ripens about the middle
of September.

24. Bellegarde. Galande. Duham. n. 28. /. 90.
Pom. Franc. 2. p. 341. *. 11. / 10. Poit. et
Turp. Fr. t. 139. Hooker Pom. JLond. t.S. This
is a very large fruit, roundish, rather more in
breadth than length, and slightly cleft ; the skin
is tinged all over with a deep red, inclining to a
purple colour towards the sun; it is hard, ad-
heres closely to the flesh, and is covered with a
very fine down ; the flesh is whitish, with a tinge
of very pale yellow, of a rose colour at the stone,
melting, and full of a rich vinous juice. It ripens
about the beginning or middle of September. It
forces well, and is one of the best peaches for our
climate.

25. Rosanna. Purple Alberge. Langky Pom.
t. 9tf.f.3.and t. SO. f. 5. Duham. n. 6. This is
of a fine purple colour next the sun j the flesh is
yellow, red at the stone, and has a rich vinous
juice. It is reckoned a good Peach, and is ripe
about the middle of September.



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OF PEACHES. 45

26. • Lisle. This is of a middle size, roundish,
and of a fine violet colour next the sun j the flesh
is pale yellow, melting, adheres to the stone, where
it is very red. It is full of a vinous juice. It
ripens about the middle of September.

27. Nivette. Duham. n. 9J. U 28. Pom.
Franc. 2. p. 358. t. 21. f. 25. This is a large
fruit, round, and somewhat longish; the skin is
firm, adheres to the flesh, except when full ripe.
It has a greenish look, but when perfectly ripe
turns yellow, except on the shaded side, where
there remains a tinge of green. It is washed with
bright and faint red, and sprinkled with deep red
spots. It is covered with a fine white down, like
velvet, which easily rubs off with the hand ; the
flesh is white, yet juicy, inclining to green, with
veins of bright red next the stone. It is melting,
and full of a rich sugary juice ; sometimes it has a
Ettle sharpness. It is an excellent Peach, and
ripens about the middle of September.

28. • Old Newington. Langley Pom. p. 104.
t. 31. f. 1. This is a large, fine, round fruit, of a
delicate red colour next the sun, but whitish on the
other side ; the flesh is firm, whitish yellow, deep
red at the stone, has a fine high vinous tasted
juice, aid is esteemed a good Pavie. It ripens
about the latter end of September.

29* Rambouillbt. RumbuUhn. Langley Pom.
t. 83. J18. This is pretty large, longish, and
deeply cleft j of a fine red colour next the sun,
and yellow on the shaded side ; the flesh is bright



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46 OF PEACHES.

yellow, melting, deep red at the stone, and the
juice vinous and rich. It ripens about the end of
September or beginning of October.

SO. Royale. La Royale. Duham. n. S3. /♦ 24.
Pom. Franc.%. p.357. t.20.f24^ This fruit in
part resembles the Admirable and the Teton de
Venus. It is large, nearly round, and slightly cleft.
It has often swellings on it like warts : the skin is
covered all over with a whitish down, is deeper
coloured than the Admirable: on the side next the
sun, it is washed with bright red, charged with a
deeper red ; on the shaded side it is almost green,
inclining to yellow, when full ripe: the flesh is
fine, white, except near the stone, where it is redder
than the Admirable. Sometimes it has a slight
.tinge of red under the skin on the sunny side : the
juice is sugary and high-flavoured. It ripens the
end of September.

31. Superb Royal. This is a fine large Peach,
of a red colour towards the sun, and pale on the
other side. It ripens in September.

32. * Belle de Vitry. Lata Admirable. Bellis.
Duham.n.34. t.%5. Pom.Franc.2. p.865. U 19.

f. 21. This is a large fruit, rounder than the Ni-
vette, the skin is firm and adheres to the flesh*
like the Nivette, but is of a deeper green ; it is of
a bright red towards the sun, marbled with deeper
red, and the whole skin is covered with a white
down, which easily rubs off with the hand: the
flesh is firm, juicy, white inclining to green, and
turns yellow when ripe, with some very red veins



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OF PEACHES* 47

near the stone : the juice is vinous, rich, and high-
flavoured. It is ripe the latter end of September,

33. Tein Dou. TeinDoux. Duham. n.36. f.27.
Pom. Franc. 2. p. 356. t. 19. /22. This is large and
nearly round ; the skin is thin, covered with a very
light and fine down. On the side next the sun it is
of a faint red ; the flesh is firm and white, and has
some veins of faint red near the stone : the juice is
sugary and of a delicate flavour. It ripens the end
of September or beginning of October.

34. Teton de Venus. Duham. n. 32. /. 23.
Pom. Franc. 2. p. 357. t. 20. f. 28. This is a middle-
sized fruit, somewhat longish, and takes its name
from its shape : the skin is covered with a fine
down : it has but little colour on the side next the
sun, and is straw-coloured cm the shaded side; the
flesh is fine, melting, white; rose-coloured at the
stone, and the juice sugary and very rich. It
ripens about the latter end of September.

35. # Portugal. This is a very large round
Peach, of a beautiful red towards the sun, and ge-
nerally spotted : the flesh is firm, white pale red
at the stone, which is small, and the juice rich and
vinous. It ripens late in September.

36. Late Chevreuse. Povrprte. Duham. n.20.
1. 14. This is a longish fruit, of a good size, mo-
derately cleft, and has a nipple at the end ; the
skin is greenish near the wall, but of a very fine
deep red next the sun, hence the name PovrprSe.
The flesh is white, except round the stone : the



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48 OF PEACHES.

juice is excellent and very agreeable. It ripens the
beginning of October.

87. Late Purple. PourprSe Tardive. Duham.
n. 13. /. 9. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 359. t. 22. f. 26.
This fruit is large, round, sometimes a little flattened,
at the head ; the skin is covered with a fine down,
tinged with a dark red or purple colour next the
sun, and pale straw-yellow on the other side : the
flesh is white, very red at the stone, melting, and
the juice sugary and rich. It ripens the beginning
of October.

38. Yellow Admirable. PecJie Abricotfe.
Orange Peach. Duham. n. SO. t. 22. Pom.
Franc. 2. p. 362. t. 24. f. 29. This is a large ex-
cellent peach, round, slightly cleft. The skin is
of a bright smooth yellow colour, covered with a
fine down ; it has a little red towards the sun ; the
flesh is yellow, of an Apricot colour, except near
the stone, and under the skin on the sunny side,
where it is red. It is firm, sometimes a little dry
and woolly in cold autumns. The juice is agree-
able with a little of the perfume of the Apricot in
warm autumns. It ripens about the middle of
October. It may be raised from the stone.

39. Persiqus. Duham. n. 38. /. 29* Pom.
Franc.2. p.8&). /.22. f.Vf- This is alarge ob-
long fruit, and has small knots or warts on it ; at
the stalk there is a remarkable one like an excres-
cence : the skin is of a pale yellow colour, with
deep red next the sun ; the flesh is firm yet juicy ;
white, and bright red round the stone. The juice



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OF PEACHES. 49

is high-flavoured, fine, very agreeable, and some-
times a little sharpish. It makes a fine tree, and
bears well. It ripens the beginning of October.
It may be raised from the stone. This has been
frequently confounded with the Nivette.

40. * Monstrous Pavy of Pomponne. Royal
Pavy. Duham. n. 35. /.26. Pom. Franc. 2. p. 861.
/. 23. f. 28. This peach is round and of an extra-
ordinary size, slightly cleft; it has a thin skin



Online LibraryWilliam ForsythA treatise on the culture and management of fruit trees ... To which is added, a new and improved edition of Observations on the diseases, defects and injuries of all kinds of fruit and forest trees .. → online text (page 4 of 29)