William Frederick Howat.

A standard history of Lake County, Indiana, and the Calumet region (Volume 1) online

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Educators — Foundation of System — Public Schools. 1892-1904 —
Points from Superintendent McDaniel — Friend of the Backward
Pupil — Hammond's Chamber of Commerce.

Although M. M. Towle managed to induce the postal authorities to
change the name of the postoffice at the Hammond slaughter house from
State Line to Hammond, in 1873, and platted the original town in 1875,
it did not receive a body corporate until the fall of 1883.

Short Town Regime

For some three months the town was governed by William H. Ver-
rill, Fritz Miller and Louis E. Hohman, as trustees, John F. Krost,
treasurer and clerk, and Edward Horst, marshal. It is not of record
that during this short life of the town government any notable ordinances
were passed, or any arrests made by the town marshal, or any money
handled by the treasurer; so that their honors seem to be purely

Municipal Incorporation

Hammond was incorporated as a city in the spring of 1884 and the
following officers were elected for the first municipal year: Marcus M.



Towle, mayor; George H. Boyntoii, clerk; Charles C. Smith, treasurer;
Donald McDonald, citj^ attorney; Allison A. Walker, marshal; Carrol
N. Towle, chief of the tire department. Coimcilmeu : First Ward —
Patrick AY. Mullins and S. F. Fogg-; Second Ward— William H. Gost-
lin and AA'illiam Kleihege; Third Ward — Henry AV. Sohl and Michael

Growth by Wards

Until 1894 the city had but three wards ; a fourth ward was added
during that year, a fifth in 1896, in 1908 it was divided into ten wards,
and in 1913 an eleventh was created.

Hammond's Seven Mayors

In all Hammond has had but seven mayors — men of sterling stock,
whose names and careers are identified with everything that stands for
progressive citizenship ; men whose names and activities are the corner-
stones of local history; and some there are who have a far l>roader
fame. Mr. Towle continued in mayoralty during the first four years of
Hammond's history as a municipality, and Thomas Hammond from
1888 to 1893. Patrick Reilley served in the following year and from
1898 to 1902 ; Fred R. Mott, in 1894-98 ; Armanis F. Knotts. from 1902
to 1904; Lawrence Becker from 1904 to 1911; aiid John D. Smalley,
since March, 1911. He was then appointed to succeed Judge Becker,
who had been elevated to the bench of the Lake County Superior
Court, and in November. 1913, was elected to head the municipal

Other City Officials

The other officials of the city since 1884 liave been as follows:

Clerks— George H. Boynton 1884-1886 ; Frank D. Merrill, 1886-1888 ;
J. B. AVoods, 1888-1892 ; Peter AA^ Meyn, 1892-1894 ; Frank Hess. 1894-
1898; Frank H. Lyons, 1898-1902; Thomas H. Jordan 1902-1906; Otto
H. Duelke, 1907-1914; AA^illiam E. J. Kolb, 1914—.

Treasurers— Charles C. Smith, 1884-1887 ; Alfred A. AVinslow, 1887-
1888; John B. Smith, 1888-1890; Henry Huehn, 1890-1894; AVilliam
Kleihege, 1894-1898; Peter W. Meyn, 1898-1902; Frank Hess. 1902-
1906 ; William H. Wolters, 1907-1914 ; Otto H. Duelke, 1914—.

City Attorneys— Donald McDonald, 1884-1885; Samuel Griffin,
1885-1887 ; John Burroughs, 1887-1888 ; Samuel Griffin, 1888-1889 ; John


Kreuter. 1890-1892; Robert Gregory, 1892-1894; Peter Crnmpaeker,
1894-1898; Lawrence Becker, 1898-1902; Virgil S. Reiter, 1902-1901;
LeGrand T. Meyer. 1904-1908; John A. Gavit, 1908—.

Chiefs of the Fire Department — Michael E. Clements, 1885-1887;
Jacob Kasper, 1887-1889; H. M. Godfrey, 1889-1893; Nicholas Kaiser,
1893-1894; A. N. Charapaigne, 1894-1898; Nicholas Haan, 1898-1902;
Benjamin L. P. Bell. 1902-1904; Peter J. Dilschneider. 1904—.

From the time Hammond was incorporatetl as a city up to 1898
the name of Allison A. AValker was associated witli ideas and memories
of enforced law and order. In the aforesaid year Matt Nichols suc-
ceeded Mr. Walker as marshal by election, A. F. Malo being appointed
Hammond's first chief of police and serving from 1894 to 1898. In
the latter year John Einsele was appointed chief of police, a position
which he held up to 1901. at which time a cliange was made, under tlie
new ^Metropolitan Police \jRw, by which Lawrence Cox became superin-
tendent of i:>olice and Thomas Hammond. Ileni-y ^l. Hicknell and Wil-
liam F. Bridge, police commissioner.s. This group of men. exc('i)ting Mv.
Bridge, who was succeeded by William Pepperdine as police connnis-
sioner. remained in office until 190") when Joseph J. Ruff. George P.
Pearson and Thomas E. Knotts becanu' conuiiissioners. In l!)()(i Fi-ed
Rimbach was appointed superintendent of police and .losei)h J. Ruff and
George P. Pearson continued as commissioner.s. Peter Austgen. the
present chief, succeeded Fred Rind)a('h as superintendent in li)()9, and
Anton H. Tapper, George Draekert and Thomas Swanton represented
the board and are known as "'the last of the eouunissioners. "" as thc^
police department again came under the control of tlie municij)<ility.
^latt Nichols served up to 1901 as thi^ second and the last of the mai'shals
of the City of Hammond.

Charles ]\Iorlock, in 1892. became the growing city's first .iudge, and
AYilliam F. Bridge the city's first civil engineer. In 1905, John F. Kuhl-
man. who used to Voam in the vicinity of Hannnond as a boy some forty
years ago when the city's business section was a prairie, when mud-
pools stood where pool rooms now abound, became and still is Ham-
mond's first street connnissioner.

The board of public works was also established in 1905. with John
L. Rhode. John F. KrovSt and William E. Russell as its representatives.
Hammond, which was always careful about its conditions of sanitation,
also established in that year a board of health, which was composed of
Dr. J. T. Clark, Dr. John C. Pannenborg and Dr. Thomas Kohr. Ham-
mond took over the waterworks, on which an option to purchase had
been reserved at the time of the granting of the franchise, with Clarence
N. Jewett as its first and present superintendent. John D. S>ma]ley.



present mayor of Hammond, became, in 1905, the city's first controller,
a position he held continuously until be became Hammond's chief execu-
tive, after which he was succeeded by Edward A. Aubry, who still holds
the office.

The City Hall

Hammond's city hall, remodeled in 1911, contains all the city depart-
ments, except the fire stations. The municipal home is yet inadequate
for a city of the size and wealth of Hammond, and will be replaced

HoHMAN Street, North froim Sibley. Hammond

within the next four years by one of the finest city halls in the state.
The present building represents an investment of $15,000.

Functions of the ^Municipal Government

in brief, the municipal government of Hannnond is conducted under
the provisions of the legislative act of ]\Iarch 14, 1867, or the general
law for the incorporation of cities, with amendatory and supplementary
acts since passed by the State Legislature. Like the governments of the
state and nation, it is divided into administrative, legislative and judicial.
The mayor, city clerk, city treasurer, city judge and members of the
common council are elected for a term of four years which expires in

The mayor, as the executive head, appoints the heads of all the admin-
istrative departments — those of finance, law, public works, public safety
and charities.


The city eoutroller is the head of the hiiance department aiid he pre-
scribes the methods of keeping the accounts in all departments, and issues
aU orders on the city treasurer, having, in short, charge of all matters
concerning the finances of the city. In case of the absence or disability
of the mayor, the city controller is the acting mayor, and in case of the
death, resignation or impeachment of the chief executive, he becomes the
mayor's regular successor.

From City Controller Aubry's last report, submitted in April, 1914,
for the year ending December 31, 1913, the present status of the different
departments of the municipal government is clearly set forth, as the
report embraces annual statements from the mayor, city treasurer, city
attorney, city clerk, board of public works, city civil engineer, street
commissioner, building inspection department, water and tire depart-
ments, depart of metropolitan police, city sealer, department of health,
city electrician and city judge. From these sources the facts following
are gleaned.

Receipts x\.nd Expenditures

In his report to the common council. Mayor SmaUey summarizes
the receipts and expenditures for 1913, as follows :


AVater fund $ 94,868.07

Library fund 5,566.45

Police pension fund 3,113.41

Firemen pension fund 3,966.70

All funds, except trust, library and water 252,690.78

Total $360,205.41


Water fund $ 92,280.51

Library fund 5,353.78

Police pension fund 2,872.00

Firemen pension fund 5,661.07

All funds, except trust, library and water. . . . 264,290.97

Total $370,458.33

Cash on hand January 1, 1913 $ 43,825.67

Cash on hand Januarv 1. 1914 $ 33,572.75


Oue wise comment by the mayor: "As the city increases in pop-
ulation, the financial requirement increases in proportion, and one of
the difficulties encountered in the administration of a growing city is
to solve the various problems of expenditure without increasing tax-
ation. This can only be done by a just and equitable readjustment of
the assessed valuation of the city."

Tax Levy and Taxable Property

The controller's report indicates that for the year 1912 the tax levy,
upon which the receipts and expenditures of the succeeding year were
based, was as follows, on each $100 valuation : for general
purposes, $1.18 ; waterworks, 10 cents ; bonds and interest, 18 cents ;
street lighting, 18 cents ; library, 5 cents ; parks, 5 cents ; police pension
fund, 1 cent; firemen pension fund, 1 cent; judgments, 13 cents; sink-
ing fund, 1 cent. Total, $1.90.

The total taxable property within the City of Hammond, as returned
by the assessor, after deducting mortgage exemptions, amounts to
$10,513,135 ; number of taxable polls, 2,689.

BoxDEi) Indebtedness and Apprui'kiations

The bonded indebtedness of the city on January 1, 1911, was as fol-
lows : Old refunding bonds, $33,000 ; purchasing and repayment bonds,
$56,000; waterworks extension bonds. $36,000; waterworks refunding
bonds, $25,000. Total, $150,000.

In the following table is presented a summary of the appropriations,
expenditures and balances for 1913 in connection with the various munic-
ipal departments :

Departments — Aj)propriations Expenditures Balance

Finance $ 37,781.46 $ 34,650.46 $ 3,131.00

Public safety 84,289.00 78,146.15 6,142.85

Public works 101,033.22 94,918.40 6,114.82

Health and charitv 2,646.00 2.499.82 146.18

Total $225,749.68 .$210,214.83 $15,534.85

Hammonds Future TERRrroRV

City Attorney Gavit reports the following interesting matter as hav-
ing come within liis jurisdiction in 1913: "During the year 1911 an


ordinance was passed by the City of Hammond annexing all territoiy in
North Township to the City of Hammond as far south as the Little
Calumet River, and east to the township line dividing North Township
from Calumet Township. A remonstrance was filed in the Circuit Court
to the annexation by the owners of property residing in the territory
sought to be annexed. During the year 1913 the question was sub-
mitted to the judge of the Circuit Court at Crown Point, and there was
a finding made by him that the territory included in the ordinance
should be annexed to the City of Hammond, but that the annexation
should not be complete, or the judgment effective, until five years from
the date of its rendition. This judgment precludes any possibility of
any other municipality acquiring jurisdiction over this territory, as it is
now a part of the City of Hammond, but cannot be assessed for city pur-
poses until the five years have expired."

Eleventh Ward Created

Ordin&nce No. 1159, as reported by the city clerk, creates the Eleventh
Ward of the City of Hammond, and adds certain territory to the Sixth
and Ninth wards.

Sewers, Pavements and Sidewalks

Peter J. Lyons, city civil engineer, has condensed much valuable
information in his report. From it we learn that Hammond has over
fifty-one miles of sewers, of which thirty-three miles is of the 18-inch
size and of vitrified pipe ; that it has more than forty-eight miles of
macadam and brick pavement and eighty-eight miles of cement and brick

Area of City Parks

The area of the eity parks is thus divided: Harrison, 24.32 acres;
Douglas. 19.95; Columbia. 11.87; Lake Front, 3.50; Franklin, 2.60;
Central, 1.56. Total in parks. 63.80 acres.

Railroads in the City

The following railroads run through LEammond : Trunk lines —
Michigan Central ; Lake Shore & Michigan Southern ; Baltimore & Ohio ;
Pittsburg, Fort "Wayne & Chicago ; Chicago, Indiana & Louisville ; Chi-
cago & Erie; New York, Chicago & St. Louis; Chesapeake & Ohio;
AVabash ; Chicago, Indiana & Southern ; Pere Marquette.


Belt lines — Chicago, Lake Shore & Eastern; Baltimore & Ohio Chi-
cago Terminal ; vState Line & Indiana City ; Chicago Jnnetion ; Elgin,
Joliet & Eastern; Indiana Harbor; East Chicago Belt.

Electric street railroads — Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago: Chi-
cago, Lake Shore & Sonth Bend Internrban ; Gary (t Jnternrl)an.

^ New Buildings

The building inspector issued permits for tlie erection of 72o struc-
tures, classified and valued as follows: Business and faetory buildings,
$337,945; dwellings, $751,788; public buildings. $36,300. Total valu-
ation, $1,126,033.

Water System

From the report of C. N. Jewett. superintendent of the water depart-
ment, all the material facts are extracted concerning the waterworks,
pumping station and the system of water distribution in general. In
the early part of 1914 there were nearly eighty-two miles of water pipe
in use of different sizes, as Avell as more than four hundred hydrants.
The pipe was valued at more than four hundred and seventy-six thousand
dollars; the six and a half acres comprising Lake Front Park, with the
new waterworks for which it was the site, over fifty-six thousand dollars ;
three pumping engines, with a combined capacity of 22,000,000 gal-
lons, and the old pumping station building, nearly fifty thousand dol-
lars; triple expansion engine and two condensers, nearly twenty thou-
sand dollars, and other equipment and minor buildings, which brought
the total valuation of the system up to $742,940.

The early history of the Hammond waterworks is closely allied witli
that of the fire department. In the days of 1884, when the new town
used the old-fashioned hand engines, the waterworks consisted of scat-
tered surface wells from which water was drawn to extinguish the fire,
but in 1887, when a steam engine was purchased, the old inadequate
method was supplanted by an attempt at real waterworks.

The first building of the new plant was a one-story brick, 30 by
40 feet, which stood on the present site of the city hall. Its smoke-
stack was sixty feet high. The original system comprised two Worth-
ington compound pumps, each of 750,000 gallons capacity, two horizontal
tubular boilers, one artesian well 1.700 feet deep, one standpipe, and
water mains and fire plugs — all of which cost the city about sixty thou-
sand dollars.

In 1892, because of city growth and increased requirements, there


was a shortage of supply and also dissatisfaction because of the quality
of the water. Jacob H. Kasper was called upon to improve the system
and up to this day he has remained as chief engineer and head of the
department. In response to popular demand, in 1903 a new station was
constructed on the lake front on two acres of land purchased for the
purpose, and another one-story brick building 38 by 64 feet
was erected with one 60-foot brick smokestack. The new works
contained two boilers 5 feet in diameter and 16 feet in length, one
Worthington compound condensing pumping engine with a capacity of
3,000,000 gallons per day. The intake and crib were 1,600 feet from the
shore. The new main, which was a 16-inch cast-iron pipe over five miles
in length, was laid, but every time it was tested it blew open, until
Mr. Kasper made a successful test. This plant, which cost $120,000, was
adequate for about four j^ears only, when another boiler and a Gordon
pump were installed, the latter having a 4,000,000 gallon daily capacity
and costing about twenty thousand dollars.

But the City of Hammond was growing, and even this plant soon
became inadequate and another works was constructed on the same
grounds with an addition of two adjacent lots. The building was a
one-story brick, 40 by 76 feet, with an 80-foot smokestack.
The works installed four horizontal tubular boilers and one Worthing-
ton compound duplex triple expansion condensing pumping engine, with
a daily capacity of 6,000,000 gallons, making a total capacity of 78,000,-
000 gallons per day. The cost of the pump was $50,000.

Fire Department

Chief Peter Dilschneider, of the fire department, conveys the infor-
mation that there were four stations in his system — that on Truman
Avenue (No. 1) being headquarters for the chief and the members of
Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 and Engine Company No. 1— altogether
seventeen men ; Station No. 2, on Indiana Boulevard, is the home of Hook
and Ladder and Hose Company No. 2, wdth six men ; Station No. 3, located
on Calumet Avenue, houses Hose Company No. 3, with four men, and
Station No. 4, on Calumet Avenue, is headquarters for Engine Company
No. 4, comprising six men, and the assistant chief, William Nill.

About forty-five thousand dollars is expended yearly in the mainte-
nance of the department, whose total equipment is given as follows:
Two hook and ladder wagons, ^^dth 55-gallon chemical tanks ; three com-
bination wagons, with 40-gallon chemical tanks; two hose wagons; two
Metropolitan steam fire engines, second size ; twelve shut-off and seven
open nozzles; six shut-off chemical nozzles; ten No. 2 hand extinguishers;


seventeen head of horses; over nine thousand feet of hose; two cellar
pipes ; one revolving cellar hose ; two Eastman deluge sets ; all apparatus
being equipped with swinging harness and engines with heaters. The
Gamewell tire alarm system connected with the department has over
forty boxes and thirty miles of wire. The total fire department prop-
erty is valued at $86,000.

Police Dep^vrtment

The police of Hammond have had several homes, the first of which was
a little station, "a mere lock-up in a little shanty on Plummer Avenue
and Morton Court."' When the city hall was built the police were given
a little hall-space in front, from which place, by a special arrangement
with the county, they moved to the county building, where they remained
until 1912, when they were given their j^resent quarters in the city hall,
Avhich quarters are pleasant, ample and well equipped. The jail, which
occupies the rear of the building, is clean, sanitary and adequate. In
March, 1911, an auto-patrol and a motorcycle were purchased and in
January, 1914, a second motorcycle was purchased. The Gamewell signal
and telegraph system was installed by means of which the chief can come
almost in instant communication with his whole working force. The
Metropolitan police system obtains, only the appointments are now made
by the mayor instead of by the governor, as formerly.

The city police force consists of a superintendent, two captains, a
secretary, a sergeant, a chauft'eur, a l)ailifT(:', twenty-six patrolmen and a
merchant policeman. During the year 1913, 1,042 arrests were made,
only IS offenders being females ; 361 were married and 681 single,
and of the total number of arrests 618 offended on account of intoxication.
Another division : Americans, 650 ; foreigners, 392. More than thirty-
five thousand dollars is expended in the maintenance of the department.

Parks and the Public Health

Hammond has made progress in providing suitable recreation grounds
for her people, as has been noted heretofore. A visitor thus describes
them, in brief : ' ' Seven restful places 'of this character have been estab-
lished in Hammond, and at all hours of the day these are frequented by
those who wish to get away from the heat and dust of the busy streets.

''Douglas Park, a wooded plot of twenty acres on Wolf Lake, is a
favorite picnic ground. A shelter here affords protection in inclement
weather. Harrison Park, twenty-four acres, is greatly enjoyed by the
childen because of its wading pond. The depth of the water is such that


small children are quite safe, and they spentl many happy hours here
away from harm and amidst healthful surroundings. Tennis courts and
a baseball diamond also help to make this park a popular place.

•'Columbia Park of twelve acres, Franklin, Central and May wood
parks, totaling four and one-third acres, are each enjoyed by the public
according as they may be found convenient.''

The number of births reported by the department of health for 1913
was 599 ; deaths, 418. Pneumonia caused the greatest number of deaths,
52 ; then came diseases of the heart and blood vessels, 44, and stomach
troubles, 40.

The Public Library

The Hammond Public Library, whose site is in Central Park facing
Hohman Street, is a Carnegie institution and a high credit to the intel-
ligent and progressive people of the cit}'. The building, which was
erected in 1904 at a cost of $28,000, is a tasteful two-story structure of
cut stone, 'with tile roof, is handsomely furnished, and contains besides
two beautiful reading rooms and a well-selected library of 14,000 vol-
umes, a reception and business room for librai-y officers and literary
meetings, and a section devoted to the Youche collection of antiquities
and historic relies. The public library is an interesting and restful place
for both the resident and the visitor. It is maintained by an annual tax,
which amounts to more than five thousand dollars.

The Hammond Public Library is governed b}^ a board, of which Dr.
W. F. Howat is president and Mrs. John F. Riley, secretary. Th*^
librarian, Mrs. Jennie L. Sawyer, has two assistants.

First Movement of Shakespeare Club

Doctor Howat, who has been president of the library board since its
organization, thus describes the preliminary steps which led to the organ-
ization of 1904: "Sporadic efforts in the direction of establishing a
library in Hammond had been several times made liefore the Shakespeare
Club, a group of young ladies and gciitlcmen, most of whom were public
school teachers, conceived the idea in the autuum of 1902 of founding a
public library. With commendable energy and the courage born of
enthusiasm and ignorance of the obstacles that were to beset their path,
they proceeded to carry out their project. Here and there from time to
time they were assisted in small measure by those of our citizens to whom
the movement seemed practicable, and the nucleus of our present library
was established with a collection of about fiftv volumes. The infant


library was cared for by Miss Bloomhof, and was kept in her millinery
parlors. At this stage of its existence the library was not absolutely free,
but was for the use of its membership — an honor and privilege obtained
on the payment of yearly dues of one dollar. So far the movement was
purely a 'side-line' with the Shakespeare Club. But it was a 'side-line'
that bade fair to overset all other functions pertaining to that organiza-
tion, and as a consequence the Library Committee of the club was super-
seded by an Advisory Board, which consisted of the original Library
Committee plus three 'outsiders' interested in the work. About this time a
very substantial addition was made to the library by Otto Negele, who
donated $100, the proceeds from a musicale gotten up and directed by
himself. This money went to the purchase of historical works.

First Public Library

"A few months later it appeared proper to the Advisory Board to
organize a public library in accordance with the Indiana statutes,

Online LibraryWilliam Frederick HowatA standard history of Lake County, Indiana, and the Calumet region (Volume 1) → online text (page 33 of 44)