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POMPEIANA:

THE

TOPOGRAPHY,
EDIFICES AND ORNAMENTS

OF

POMPEII,

THE RESULT OF EXCAVATIONS SINCE 1819.



By SIR WILLIAM GELL,

M. A. P. R. S. & F. S. A.



IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. I.



LONDON:
LEWIS A. LEWIS, 15, POULTP.Y.

MDCCCXSXVII.



LONDON !

PRINTED BV MAURICE, CLARK, AND CO ,

FENCHURCH STREET,



LIST OF PLATES.



Plate

I.
II.

111.
IV.

v.

•VI.

tVII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XI.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.

XXVI.



Vol. I. Vol. 11.
Page Page

PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR, opposite tht TiOrpaf

ILLUSTRATED FRONTISPIECE

GENERAL PLAN .... 1

SIDE OF A CUB1CULUM, IN THE HOUSE OF FUSCUS 3

SIDE OF A CHAMBER, IN THE HOUSE OF FUSCUS .

WALL OF AN ATRIUM ... 7

DOOR OF A HOUSE ... 5

PICTURE IN A HOUSE BEHIND THE PANTHEON 9

STAIRS OF THE CRYPTO-PORTICUS OF EUMACH1A 14



STATUE OF EUMACHIA

PEDESTALS IN THE FORUM

ALTAR OF JUPITER

MARS AND VENUS

GENERAL VIEW OF THE PANTHEON

WALL OF THE PANTHEON

PENELOPE AND ULYSSES

jETHRA AND THESEUS

THALIA

CELL OF THE TEMPLE OF AUGUSTUS

PLAN OF THE TEMPLE OF FORTUNE

TEMPLE OF FORTUNE

RKSTORATION OF THE TEMPLE OF FORTUNE

VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF THE THERMAE

PLAN OF THE THERMAE

GENERAL VIEW OF THE THERMAE

SECTION OF THE THERMS

COURT OF THE THERMS



21
31

37



70

79
82

89
108



68
70
73
75



• Referred to iu Vol. I. page 5, as No. VII.
+ Referred to in Vol. 1. page 9, as No. VI.



LIST OF PLATES.



Plate

XXVII.

XXVIII.

• XXIX

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.

♦ XXXIII.

XXXIV.
XXXV.

XXXVI.
XXXVII.

XXXVIII.

XXXIX.

XL.

XLI.

XLII.

XLIII.

XLIV.

XLV.

XLVI.

XLVII.

XLVIII.

XLIX.

L.

I.I.

LII.

L1II.

LIV.

LV.

LVI.

LVII.

LVIII.

LIX.

LX.

LXI.



Vol I.
Page

FR1GIDAR1UM . . 10"

NATAT10 ... . 102

TEP1DARIUM . • .107

VAULT OF THE TEPIDARIUM . 113

CALDARIUM (OR LACONICUM) . 114

SECTION OF THE CALDARIUM

FRIGIDARIUM AND PISCINA. IN THE WOMEN'S

BATHS . . . .133

WOMEN'S BATHS

PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF THE TRAGIC POET 143

HOUSE OF THE TRAGIC POET

POET'S HOUSE RESTORED

WINDOWS OF THE ATRIUM

ACHILLES AND BRISEIS

FACSIMILE OF HEAD OF ACHILLES

PIXEL'S AND THETIS

VENUS FISHING

ARIADNE

POET READING

MOSAIC PAVEMENT

SACRIFICE OF IPH1GENIA

SIDE OF THE CHAMBER OF LEDA

LEDA AND TYNDAREUS . . 171

THESEUS AND ARIADNE

FOUNTAIN OF THE FULLONICA . . 190

PICTURES IN THE FULLONICA

FOUNTAIN OF SHELLS
COMEDY

DWARF AND MONKEY
GARDEN AND PORTICO
PAINTING OF A PORT
PICTURE
PICTURE

PLAN OF THE STREET OF THE MERCURIES
STREET OF THE MERCURIES



Vol II.
Page





95




90




100


155




157




101)






1U9


109




107




174






no




118



I



127
128
4
130
132
1.14

8



* Referred to in Vol. I. page 107, as No. XXIV.

t Tlie gladiatorial ticket, mentioned in the reference to this plate in Vol. I. pa:;e 92.
will be found as a vignette at the end of Chapter XIII.



LIST OF PLATES.



Vol. I.



Plate "g

LXII. ATRIUM OP THE HOUSE OF CERES . 1

LXIII. PLAN AND ELEVATION OP THE HOUSE
OF THE DIOSCURI ....

LX1V. PERISTYLE OF THE HOUSE OF THE DIOSCURI

LXV. VIEW OF THE COURT OF THE PISCINA .

LXV1. JUPITER . ....

LXVII. PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA

LXV1II. HYGEIA

LX1X. ACHILLES IN SCYROS

•LXX. WALL OF TABLINUM IN THE HOUSE OF
THE DIOSCURI ....

LXXI. VICTORY

LXXII. PENELOPE

LXXIII. INFANT ACHILLES BATHED IN THE STYX

LXX1V. SATURN

LXXV. COMIC SCENE

LXXV1. COMIC SCENE

LXXVII. PH.EDRA AND HIPPOLYTUS

LXXVII1. BACCHUS AND FAUN

LXXIX. WALLANDDOOROFCORINTHIAN PERISTYLE

LXXX. DRINKING SCENE ....

LXXXI. WAGGON AND HORSES, INTHE LUPANARE

LXXXII. MARS AND VENUS .

LXXXIII. DREAM OF RHEA ....

LXXXIV. STAIRS FOR MOUNTING THE WALLS

LXXXV. GATE OF ISIS ....

tLXXXVI. PAVEMENTS

LXXXVII. PAVEMENTS

LXXXVIII. VIEW OF THE SITE OF POMPEII



Vol. II.

Page



20
143

24
26
23
147
38



149

150
42
34
IS
46

153
23

154

153
159
160
161
203

164
front.



• The drawing for this subject was unfortunately lost on its way to the engraver.
t Referred to in Vol. I. page 40, as No. LXXVIII.



%• These discrepancies between the letter-press and the plates escaped correction in
consequence of the Editor not having had, in every instance, an opportunity of com-
paring the illustration with the text, the drawings having been in the hands of a
variety of engravers while the work was at press.



LIST OF VIGNETTES.



VOL. I.



». 1.










, Pa t e i


2,








. . &X1V


3,










1


4,










12


a.










13


6,










26


7,










27


8,










45


9,










48


10,










68


11,










69


12,










82


13,










83


14,










130


Ift.










isi


lo,










141


IT,










142


18,










178


19,










179


20,










191


21










192


22,










198


VOL. II.


23, 1


44.






5


25,










6


C6,










13


27,










14


28,










50


■w,










1S7


311,










194



CONTENTS



VOL. I.



Preface.








Chap. I. General Plan




.


. Page 1


II. Chalcidicum




. ,


13


III. Forum




.


27


IV. Pantheon, or College of the A


ig-ust


ales


46


V. Temple of Fortune




.


69


VI. Thermse




.


83


VII. Women's Baths




,


131


VIII. House of the Tragic Poet




.


142


IX. Fullonica







379


X. House of the Fountain




«


192









V



PREFACE.



The favourable manner in which the
former part of this work was received by the
Public has been sufficiently demonstrated by
the extensive circulation and rapid sale of
two editions, which seem to have found their

VOL. I. B



11. PREFACE.

way, not only to every part of Great Britain,
but even to the Continent, where the collec-
tion of Pompeiana has been noticed with ap-
probation in many of the literary journals.
That portion contained an account of almost
every thing worthy of notice, which had been
laid open by the excavations till the period
of its publication ; and the present is in-
tended, not only to supply the omissions of
the former work, but to describe those more
recent discoveries which are by no means
inferior in interest or singularity.

Among these, the excavation of the Chal-
cidicum, which took place soon after the
publication of the former work, laid open
the only example of that species of edifice
which has existed in modern times. Not
long afterwards, the great area of the Pan-
theon was discovered, and the whole circuit
of the Forum was perfectly cleared.



PREFACE. iii

The excavations being continued, a wide
street occurred, beginning at the arch ad-
joining the back wall of the Temple of Ju-
piter in the Forum, and ending in a second
triumphal arch, near which were found the
bronze fragments of the equestrian statue
it had once supported. On the right was
discovered a temple of Fortune, doubly in-
teresting because founded by the illustri-
ous family of the Tullii, and, about the
centre of the left side of the same street,
an entrance was opened into an area
which proved to belong to the public
baths or Thermae of the city. Some of
the apartments of this edifice yet remained
covered by stone arches, which, having re-
sisted the pressure of the cinders and ac-
cumulated earth, retained, in all their ori-
ginal freshness of colour, those beautiful
ornaments and fretted ceilings, of which so
few have resisted the lapse of eighteen cen-
turies.

VOL. T.



B



IV PREFACE.

The discovery of the baths is perhaps
of greater consequence than may at first
appear, for, notwithstanding the enormous
ruins of the Roman Thermae, their compo-
nent parts seem to have been little under-
stood, and even variously named by the au-
thors who have undertaken their elucidation.
At Pompeii, on the contrary, the absence of
Xystus, Theatre, Palaestra, and an infinite
number of other intricate divisions which
render the Thermae of the great capital so
complicated and unintelligible, leaves a sa-
tisfactory and defined idea of the use and
meaning of every other portion of the fabric.

Previously to the discovery of the baths,
the whole of a narrow alley behind the Chal-
cidicum had been cleared and a passage
opened to the street running between the
Forum and the Thermae. From that alley
a still smaller avenue ran between the Chal-
cidicum and the building which is known



PREFACE. V

on the spot by the name of the Pantheon ;
thus adding to the former map of Pompeii
an entire square or island of public edifices
and habitations, and forming, in itself, no
mean acquisition to the antiquary. This
excavation was also remarkable for the dis-
covery of an ancient well of considerable
depth, and still retaining fifteen feet of
water, which, from its situation, might pos-
sibly have been there before the destruction
of the city.

These various objects, with the house,
named that of the Tragic Poet, situated op-
posite to the northern side of the Thermae,
cover a plot of ground advancing nearer to
the centre of Pompeii than any which had
formerly been cleared, and, in consequence
of a greater depth of superincumbent soil,
the)^ have, generally, been found in a better
state of preservation. They form, altoge-
ther, the connexion of two portions of the



VI PREFACE.

plan of the city, which were scarcely united
by the unfinished excavation of the Forum
at the period of the former publication.
The house of the Tragic Poet has exhibited
superior specimens of painting-, while the
subject of ancient art itself is exciting more
of the public attention, and meeting with
merited though tardy admiration, through
the zeal and industry of M. Ternite, who is
engraving at Berlin a superb collection of
the pictures of Herculaneum and Pompeii
under the auspices of the King of Prussia.

With such an accession of new materials,
the Author of the present work has thought
it advisable to lay them before the public
without delay, aware that time will in-
calculably diminish the freshness of those
objects, which, when stripped of their ex-
ternal coats by the rains of winter or the
burning suns of summer, lose by far the
greater portion of their interest and identity.



PREFACE. Vll

Another motive for the immediate pub-
lication of whatever can be collected, is the
great and increasing difficulty of obtaining
permission to draw and measure the newly-
discovered antiquities, by which a foreigner
is reduced to snatch from eternal oblivion
only such morsels as a favourable moment
may enable him to delineate. An astonish-
ing number of interesting objects is an-
nually and hourly destroyed by the action
of the weather upon substances and surfaces
which have been once subjected to the
operation of heat and moisture ; and this
unavoidable decay is the more to be la-
mented, as strangers are seldom allowed to
draw till the decomposition both of colour
and substance has taken place to a great ex-
tent ; while, even if they were delineated by
a native artist, there are no engravers on the
spot of sufficient skill to multiply the copies,
nor a public sufficiently educated to encou-
rage the sale of them.



VUi PREFACE.

An instance of the delay which takes
place in the native publications may be ob-
served in the description of the Temple of
lsis, which, though discovered at so early a
period, is only at this moment in the pro-
gress of illustration by the care of the Ca-
valiere Carelli, whose elaborate account of
that interesting relic, with drawings made
at the time of the excavation, is only now
in preparation ; while the monument it-
self has already lost the last vestiges of
the beauty and freshness in which it first
appeared.

It has often been noticed, during the
winter months, that the stuccos which had
been observed perfect, during a first visit to
any newly-discovered edifice, had entirely
disappeared on a second examination ; so
that, no traces being left, many of the pret-
tiest fancies of antiquity are irrecoverably
lost ; while the order continues to prevent



1'REFACE. IX

strangers from drawing till three or four
years have expired, and the objects become
defaced. At the present moment, in the
year 1826, only those parts of Pompeii can
be drawn and measured with the consent ot
those immediately concerned, which have
been discovered prior to the year 1823, or
which, in other words, after the publication
of the former portion of this work, have little
or no novelty to recommend them. A fo-
reign antiquary can only hope for better
times and a more liberal policy with regard
to Pompeii ; at present, while a sort of patent
exists, by which a very eminent architect and
scene-painter possesses the exclusive privi-
lege of publishing antiquities, to which it
does not appear that he has ever particularly
turned his attention, a stranger meets with
almost insurmountable difficulties, and no-
thing is known to the literary world of the
most important discoveries. For a time,
the gentlemanly feeling of those who were



X PREFACE.

employed in the execution of this seeming
monopoly of antiquarian research, induced
them to overlook some occasional violations
of the rigid order for exclusion from the
latest discoveries ; but, on a recent change
in the department, the acting Superintendent,
having done the present work the honour
to consider it as the principal means of con-
veying to the public a faithful account of
the latest discoveries of Pompeii, has made
the interdiction of it the subject of a par-
ticular injunction ; a circumstance very cre-
ditable to the work, but at the same time
rendering its execution more difficult.*



* Not believing it possible that any order could emanate from
persons in high authority, which proclaimed a jealous or vin-
dictive spirit, the writer mentioned the circumstance to the
Cavaliere Carelli, secretary of the Royal Academy. The secre-
tary, with the members, immediately signed a petition, stating
that the author being a member of the Academy, and one who, on
all occasions, opened his portfolios and MSS. for the use of those
who wanted information on subjects connected with Grecian art,
they requested that some return might be made, by permission
being granted him to visit the excavations at his pleasure, and
that, being infirm, he should be allowed to ride at Pompeii.



PREFACE. XI

In the course of the year 1825 three new
works appeared on Pompeii, of which that of
Mr. Goldicutt, of London, seems to possess a
considerable degree of splendour. One, un-
dertaken by Captain de Goro, in folio, under
the patronage of the Emperor of Austria, is
written in German, and was received with
approbation by his learned countrymen. The
other is by Signor Carlo Bonucci, the Nea-
politan architect, now, in 1827, director of
the new excavations at Herculaneum, and
nephew of Signor Bonucci, formerly the ex-



This petition, passing through the hands of the Marchese Ruffo,
secretary of state, was immediately and most graciously acceded
to by his Majesty, and the necessary orders were issued.

It seemed, indeed, highly improbable that any thing unge-
nerous in principle could have been intended by the government,
and the learned Cavaliere Arditi, who is at the head of the an-
tiquarian department, had often interested himself in behalf of
the Author so far as to have had his authority disputed by the
underling. It is right to show where the blame really attaches,
and that low and ungenerous minds should be deprived of the
power of palming their own littleness upon the world as the
edicts of their betters.



C



Xll PREFACE.

cellent and indefatigable director of the ex-
cavations at Pompeii. This volume, which
has been twice printed, is intended as a
pocket companion and guide to those who
visit the spot, and is both convenient as to
size, and replete with every information
which might be expected from the enthu-
siasm, talents, and opportunities of an author
whose whole occupation is the study of Pom-
peii, where he became director in 1828. It
is to him that we are indebted for the com-
munication of what appears to be the just
interpretation of all those inscriptions at
Pompeii which have an accusative termi-
nation, and which have hitherto so much
puzzled the antiquary.

The letters AED, which had been sup-
posed to refer to the house, seem really to
signify the aedile whose favour was invoked
by the owner of the shop : an easy and satis-



PREFACE. XI11

factory interpretation, which leaves no fur-
ther doubt on the subject. As an example
that of Paratus may be given :

Pansam. JEd. Paratus. rog.
Paratus invokes Pansa the jEdile.

The editors of the Museo Borbonico have
also announced their intention of publishing
an account of the recent discoveries at Pom-
peii, and will, doubtless, communicate many
particulars which their official situation ena-
bles them only to collect. To these may be
added the magnificent map of M. Bibent,
on so large a scale that the details of every
house are represented, but not at present,
February, 1827, containing the latest ex-
cavations.

It may not be quite uninteresting to no-
tice the progress of the excavations, which,
notwithstanding all that has been said on the
subject to the contrary, seem to have been



XIV PREFACE.



as well conducted, and as steadily pursued,
as times and circumstances have permitted.
Since the return of the legitimate sovereign,
more than half of the Forum has been cleared,
the Senaculum or Temple of Jupiter, the.
Chalcidicum, the Temple of Mercury, the
Pantheon, the Temple of Venus, that of For-
tune, the Thermae, and innumerable private
houses have been disinterred ; and, though
it be true that more labourers might have
been employed, it is not less so that the
work ought not to proceed, till the objects
already explored are roofed and fortified
against the weather. At present, consider-
able expense attends the excavation, on ac-
count of the greater depth of soil which
occurs toward the centre of the citv. The
preservation of the vaults of the Thermae
has been a work of no trifling importance ;
and both time and skill are necessary in the
application of the means best calculated to
hand down to posterity whatever can be



PREFACE. XV

saved of these crumbling relics of antiquity.
The merit of Signor Bonucci the elder has
been conspicuous on these occasions, and it
is to be hoped that his successor may con-
tinue the system. The director is assisted
by an intendant, who is on the spot, and by
three overseers, who not only watch the
workmen, but sometimes show objects of
particular interest to travellers. In addi-
tion to these, is a number of inferior custodi
or guardians, whose chief duties consist in
accompanying visitors, or taking care of
such ruins as, being considered of more im-
portance, are shut up from the vulgar by
way of protection from wanton injury, or
the inscription of names by which many
beautiful relics have suffered. It is usual
for travellers to bestow a trifle upon the
custodi. Till human nature can be changed,
this is the best way of rewarding civility,
for the keepers of museums and cabinets,
who are not permitted to take money, have



XVI PREFACE.

been always observed to hurry the stranger
through their respective departments, in-
stead of gratifying his curiosity.

It has been the custom to honour the
arrival of illustrious personages by exca-
vating in their presence some small por-
tion of Pompeii ; an enviable method of
showing respect exclusively possessed by
the court of Naples. For these occasions,
an order is given that the earth should be
left undisturbed to the depth of a foot or
more, in several of the rooms of a newly-
discovered house, and, on the day appointed,
these are cleared out for the amusement of
the oriests. It is seldom a fruitless search,
as the overseers are previously aware that
some curiosities exist, though they know not
precisely what they may be. An example
of the reports made by the overseers on
some of these occasions may suffice to give
a general idea of the objects which are



PREFACE. XV11

usually brought to light in the excavations
of Pompeii.

« REPORT.

" On the fourth of November, 1823, was
found, at the height of fourteen palms from
the pavement, and in the street running from
the Temple of Fortune toward the house of
Pansa, the head of a Roman Emperor in
bronze, not unlike Caligula. It was three-
fourths of a palm high. Soon after a leg of
the same was found, one palm three-fourths
long. On November 5th, was found a skele-
ton, with sixty-five coins of small silver, and
two large medals in bronze. On November
8th, was found the body of the Emperor's
equestrian statue. The right hand held the
reins, and the left was in an attitude of com-
mand. On November 9th, the legs of the
horse were found, and some portions of the
body. The whole was about six palms one-
fourth high. On the 10th of November, in



XV111 PREFACE.

the third and fourth houses on the right of
this street, were found several articles in the
presence of the English minister. These
were : a vase with a handle ; an oil vessel
with a handle and cover ; six coins of mid-
dle size, and some ornaments of a door, all
of bronze ; ten lamps of terra cotta, one of a
circular form, with an eagle in relievo ; five
cups, two earthen pots, into which money
was slipped through a hole, and preserved
till wanted ; and a number of bronze sockets,
or umbilici on which doors had turned. On
November 12th was found, in the presence of
General Baron Frimont, a statue four inches
high ; plated with silver ; another silver sta-
tue of Fortune with the horn of abundance ;
six coins, two of a large, and four of middle
size ; a patera, the handles of which were
covered with silver ; the two hinges or sockets
of a door ; a basin ; a lamp, with a handle
and cover, for one light ; other hinges of a
door ; three buckles for harness ; a glass



PREFACE XIX

bottle with a handle ; a fluted tumbler ;
eight circular vases of glass ; a little bottle,
or lachrymatory, half melted ; a Faun's head
of marble ; a cylindric piece of granite, and
other objects."

This may suffice as a specimen of the
yet incalculable riches of Pompeii. Not a
day passes without the discovery of some-
thing of greater or less importance ; while
the previous acquisition of at least twenty
great statues of marble, and four of bronze,
not to mention a countless multitude of
smaller figures and precious objects, pro-
mises an ample harvest in future. It is
certainly surprising that so few skeletons
have yet been found in Pompeii ; but, by
estimating the number, 160, already dis-
covered at about an eighth of the whole,
according to the proportion which the city,
already laid open, bears to the area enclosed
by the walls and supposed suburbs, we shall

VOL. I. D



XX PREFACE.

find that nearly one thousand three hundred
of the unfortunate inhabitants were destroyed
by the fatal eruption ; a computation by no
means insignificant to the population of a
city scarcely two miles in circuit, and of
which so considerable a portion was occu-
pied by public buildings.

It may be necessary to say a few words
on the subject of the present deviation from
the order observed in the former part of this
work, which was divided into dissertations
treating distinctly of temples, theatres, and
private houses. As it is proposed to follow,
if possible, the traces of the excavators, it
will be evident that every succeeding por-
tion of the work must have had the same
endless distribution and division ; and, in
short, that an Essay on the Temples of Pom-
peii could never have been completed till
the entire city was disinterred ; and the same
observation applies equally to every other



PREFACE. XXI

species of building. If, therefore, any clas-
sification of the edifices be desirable, the
task must unavoidably be left to some future
author who may be so fortunate as to have
the whole of the materials in his possession.
The former work was considered as a whole,
and, indeed, from the political convulsions
which took place at the moment of collect-
ing the materials for it, it seemed probable
that some time might elapse before many
fresh documents could be produced. At
present the case is different ; whatever is
published can only be regarded as a re-


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