William Gordon.

The history of the rise, progress, and establishment of the independence of the United States of America: (Volume 3) online

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Letter I. P. 17—39.

THE e>:pcdIUon fioin Boston against the British pest at Pe-
nobscot, p. 17- General Sutlivan's expedition against the
Indians, p. 19. Indian and American expeditions against each
<*thcr, p. 22. Tlie Spanish governor of Louisian.i recognizes
American independency, and marches against the British settle-
ments on the Missisippi, p. 2:3. Congress conclude upon an ul-
timatum, and vviite to Dr. Franklin, p. 24-. Mr. Gerard's pri.^
vatc audience of congress, p. 26. Congress choose Mr. Jay
for their minister at the court of Madrid, and Mr. John Adams
for their minister to negociate a treaty of peace and a treaty of
commerce with Great-Britain, p. 27. — lliey address a long letteir
to their constituents on their finances, p. 2S. Count d'Estaing
sails from the West-Indies for the American continent, p. 30,
— summons Savannah to surrender, p. 31. He and general
Lincoln arc repulsed in an attack uj)on the town, p. 33. Con-
gress resolve to erect a monument to the memory of count Pu-
iask.i, p. 35. The British evacuate RhotJe-Island, p. 36. The
communications of the French minister to congress, p. 37.

Letter IL P. 39 — 77.

Congress's answer to the communications of the mlni«;ter of
France, p. 39. The second conference of the minister of
France, p. 41. T.lie distress of Washington's arn.iy for want of
bread, ,p. 42> Sir H. Clinton's expedition to South-Carolina^
p. 44. The British open their batieries against Charleston, p.
47. Colonels Tarleton and Webster defeat the American horse*
p. 47—49. General Lincoln surrenders Charleston, p. 50.
Tarleton defeats coJ. Buford, p. 52. The distressed situation
of the American commander in chief, p. 54. An unusual dark-
ness in the New-England states, p. 56. A large body of the
royal troops cross from Statcn-Island to Elizabetti-town, p. 5S^
Mrs. Caldwell killed, ibid. The troops leave Eiisabeth-tovvn and
rnarcli to Springfield, p. 60 — then stopped by general Greene^
'wicL — burn Spricgfield, and return to Staten-Island, ibid. The
efforts of ihc Philadelphia gentlemen and iadics to relieve Wash-
ington's army, p. 62. The preamble of the Pennsylvania act
against slavery, p. 03. A French tieet, wnth troops., arrive at New-
port, p. 64. The affairs of South-Carolina, p. 66. Lord
Cornwaiiis left in couunand at Charleston, p. 68. Colonel
Sumpter being chosen by a party of South-Carolina exiles ty
Vol. -ilL a lead

^ u xM T E N T S.

kad tliem, returns with them into the state, and takes the field
against the victorious British, p. 70. Congress unanimously re-
solve that general Gates should take the command of the south-
ern department, p. 72. He joins the troops, marches and en-
camps en the road to Camden, p, 73. Justice Pendleton's let-
ter to lord Cornwallis, ibid. Congress resolve on destroying all.
-the old paper emission, and on adopting a new emission, p. 74.
The Massachusetts convention agree upon a constitution for the
cominonwealth. p. 75. Their general court incorporate a so-
ciety by the name of The American Academy of Aits and
Sciences, p. 76.

Letter IIL P. 78—95.

The affairs of Ireland, p. 78. Captain Fielding not being
allowed to examine the Dutch ships under the convoy of count.
Byland, employs force, p. 79. I'he armed neutrality, p. 80.
Sir George Rodney engages and defeats the Spanish fleet under
Don Langara, p. 82, Don Galvez's expedition against Mobile,
p. 83- iSir George Rodney engages count de Guichen, p. 84.
County petitions for the redress of grievances, p. 86. The
house of commons vote in favor of redressing the same, p. 87.
All hopes of obtaining redress from that house are at an end,
p, SS. Lord George Gordon, the protestant association, and
the subsequent ccnvulsioiis, idid — his lordship conducted to tne
Tov/er, p. 92. An eventual treaty between the states of Hol-
land and the United States of A^mcrica, signed by the direction
of Mr. Van Berckel, p. 94=

Letter IV. Po 96—140.

The military operations in South-Carolina, p. 96. General
Gates takes the direct route to Camden, p. 93. — joins the mili-
tia under general Caswell, ibid— conducts his army to Clermont,
p. 99 — marches on toward Camden, p, 101 — is unexpectedly
met by lord Cornwallis, at the head of the British troops, and
is defeated by him, ibuL Baron de Kalb mortally v/ounded,
p. 103. Tarleton defeats Sumpter, p. 108. The relics of the
American army retreat to Salisbury, ibid — arc ordered to Hills-
borough, p. 109. Cornwaliis's orders relative to the treatment
cf South-Carohna, ibid. A number of the citizens of Charles-
ton, prisoners under the capitulation, sent to St. Augustine,
p.|llO. General Marion's exertions against the British adhe-
rents, p. 112. The arrangement of the broken American
troops, p. 114. Major Ferguson ordered to mar.oeuvre through
the northern parts of South-Carolina, and then to join lo*d
Cormvaliisat Charlotte, p. 116— is pursued, defeated and slain,

p. 111.

a O V7 T E N T S.

j|f/Tl7. Ills Jordshlp's letter to genera! Sinnllwooc], p. I'jo.
Bates's troops m:\rch to Salisbury, p. 121. Sumpter ilefcuts
mnior \^'cyins — is afterward attacked by I'arlcton, whom he al-
so do teats, p^ i'22. Gates moves his head-quarters to Char-
lotte, and the; e surrenders the army into general Greene's hand?,
pr. 123- Lieutenant-colonel Washington takes the British post
at CJermont by stratagem, p. 12'K The congress resolve re-
specting Gates, ibid. Acts of congress, p. 12S. General
\' ish^ngton's difTiciillies, p. 127— -he meets count de Rocham-
beau ii?d admiral Tern;iy, at Hartford, p. I2g. The scheme
for (. iveriig West-Point into the hands of Sir H. Clinton dis-
covered, I'h'd. M.ijor AndreCakcn v/hile on his way to New-
York, p. ';iO. Arnold, uj)r.>n receiving information of it, has-
f^m- en h.^ard the Vulture, Ikitish sloop of war, p. 131. An-
dre I'tjudgcd to be conside-ed as a spy, p. 132. — and dies as such,
un: .rsally esteemed and regretted, p.. 133. Washington's
thM^hts on the whole affair, p. 134. Sir H. Clinton s^nds troops
to Virginia, p. \ZC, A general exchange of prisoners settled
by .ae British and American generals Philips and Lincoln, d'ul.
'Ihe resolve of congress reiati\ e to the three militia men who
took Andre> p. 135. Major Tallmage's expedition to Long-
Island, ibid. Congress determine on having a permanent army,
p. 137— take into serious consideration the absolute ncccs-sity of
a large and immediate foreign aid of money, ibid. The dona-
tions of the daughters of liberty in Philadelphia and the neigh-
borhood to the American soldiers, p. 133. 'The Massachusetts
begin their government agreeable to the new constitution, and
jvjhn Hancock, esq. is declared to have been elected governor^
'^jid, Adimral 1 ernay dies at Newport, p, 140.

Le t t. e r V. P. 140—149.
Tbe French and Spanish fleets in the WestTndies form a junC-.
tion, but effect no capital operation, p. 141. Their combined
fl:ets in Europe intercept the East and WestTndia.convoy, p. 142.
Mr. Laurens is taken in his passage to Holland, p. 143. Sir Ju-
seph Yorke, leaves the Hague, ibid,. Hurricanes in the VVest
Indies, p. 144. The newparliam.ent moets, p. 146. The kind-
ness of the Spaniards to the British prisoners, p. 149. The in-
<juisition aboHshed in the duke of Modena's dominions; ibid.

L E T T E R VL P, 150— 1S2^

' The Pennsylvania line revolts, p, 150. Sir H. Clinton sends
:lgents to treat with them, tv;o of whom are hanged, p. 151,
Part of the Jersey brigade revolts, p. 153. Lieut, col. Jcha
Laurens chosca by CQD|^ress special minister to the. court of Ver^



sallies, and general Washington's hints to him, p. 154 — tl>e ge^
neral v/ritcs to Dr. Franklin, p. 155. The Virginia house of de^-
Jegatcs resolve respecting Gates, p. r56. The returns of Greene'*
force in South-Carolina, and his concluding on a partisan war,
{licl — his letter to lord CornwalLis, p. 157 — he divides his force,
p. 158. Lieut, col. Tarleton is detached after gen. Morgan, by
whom he is defeated, p, 160. Lord Cornwailis pursues Mor^
gan, p. 163. Gen. Greene arrives, and takes the command of
Morgan's troops, p. 164. The Americans retreat,, and safely-
cross the Dan into Virginia^ though pursued by his hordship
with the utmost eagerness, ibicL Greene re-erosses the Dan,
p. 169. Gen. Pickens and lieut, col. Lee cut in pieces a large
body of royalists, p. HO. Cornwailis attempts to surprise the-
American light-infantry, p. 171. Greene determines upon fight-
ing his lordship, p. 173. His lordship attacks and defeats him,
ibid. His lordship retreats toward Cross-Creek, and Greene
pursues him to Deep-River, p. 175. General Arnold sails for,
and lands in Virginia, p. 177. General Washiagton lays a plaa
for catching him, ibid. Sir H. Clinton sends general Philips,
with more troops, to take the command in Virginia, p. 479. Acts-
of congress, ibid. Mr. Robert Klorris chosen financier, p.^ 180.
The Marvland delegates empowered to subscribe the confeder-
ation, whi'ch is thereby completed, ibid. General Washington
gives his decisive opinion upon the necessity ot a timely and
powerful aid from France, p, ISK

Letter VIL P. 182— I8S,
The attempt of the baron de Ruliecourt on the Isle of Jersey,
frustrated by major Pierson, p. 182. Lord George Gordon tried
and acquitted, p\ 184. Gibraltar relieved by the British fie et
imder admiral Darby, ibid. The Spaniards commence a heavy
fire upon the fortress, which is returned, ibid. Sir George kod-
jrey and gen. Vaughan, take St. Eustatia, St. Martin and Saba,
p. 185. The property in St. Eustatia conhscatedy and many of
the inhabitants reduced to penury, and transported to St. Kitts,
p. 186. Demarara and Issequibo surrender, p. 187»

Letter VIIL P. 18S— 230.
General Greene leaves North-Carolina, and marches toward!
Camden, p. 188 — is defeated by lord Rav/don at liobkirk's hill,
p. 189 — his letter to Rav/don, p. 191 — to governor Reed of
Pennsylvania, p. 192. Lord P.awdon evacuates Camden, p. 194-
The British posts are taken by the Americans in quick succession,
ibid. Greene marches against the garrison atNinety-Si-K, p. 195
' — is obliged to abandon the siege, and is pursued by Rawdon,
p. 198. He pursues his lordship, and offers him battle, ibid.


CON r E N T J^.

OrcciK''ii letter concerning Gate?., p. \pO. The niiscrics attend-
['■•g the wia- in South-Carolina, j). 2'00. Kxtracts from Icllers
of Icrd (/corgeGcrmaisic, j>. 201. The all.iir ol'coltjnel ilayne,
who is cxccuicd by tlic joint order of lord Rawdon and coi«>iici
lialfour, p. 202. Tlic operations in Virginia, under generals
riiiiips and Arnold, p. 205. 7'he marquis dc la FayelLc makes
a rapid march from Baltimore to Richmond, p. 206. Lord
Cornvvaliis joins the British in Virginia, ibid — is disconcerted iu
Ills attempts to crush the mar(juis, p. 207. The marquis joir.ed
by the Pennsylvania line, under general Wayne, p. 209. Mis
lordship commences a retrogadc movement, p. 2iO. Wayne at-
tacks h:s lordship, and extricates himself by means (;f it, p. 211.
General Washington's army in want of provision, p. 212. Count
de Barras arrives at Boston to take the command of tbe French
squadron at Newport, p. 213. Washington nieets Rochambeau
at Wcatherslield, ihid. Washington's letters intercepted and con-
veyed to New-York, p. 214. The French troops join the A-
mericans under Vv^ashington, p. 215. 'i'he plan of operations
changed, and the allied troops march fur Pliiiadclphia, p. 216.
The behavior of the trench troops while at Nevv^port, and «Ji
tlieir march to join gen. Washington, p. 218. Don Galvez com-
pletes the conquest of West-Florida, p. 219. Sir Samuel Hood
aQd count dc Grasse engage, p. 220. 'Fobago taken by the
French, p. 222. A subscription for a loan opened by congress
for the support of the South-Carolinians and Georgians driven
from their country by the enemy, p. 22:^. '1 he heroism of the
\vhig ladies in Chaileston, p. 224. 'J lie treatment of the gen-
tlemen ren.ioved from Charleston to St. Auguscine, p. 225 —
of the continental officers; p. 226. Complaints of severities ex-
ercised toward the American marine prisoners at New-Ycik,
ihid. The particular evils produced by the paper currency, p. 228.
—the extinction of it occasions no convulsion, p. 229. A num-
ber of the ships from Statia taken by the French, ibid.

Letter IX. P. 230 — 239.
Commodore Johnstone is attacked by SufTrein, p. 231.
— the commodore takes several large Dutch Last-india siiips,
p. 232. Admirals Hyde Parker and Zoutman engage on the
Dogger-Bank, p. 233. Minorca is attacked by the Spaniards and
Frencli, p. 237. The combined fleets cruise at tliC mouth <.f
the British channel, ibid. Extracts from some letters to Mr.
Vergennes, p. 239.

Letter X. 239 — 270.

Acts of congress, p. 2J0. General G;ccne demands from the
Biitish ccir.manders the fcasgus for the cxecutici; of Hayne, BaU



^■■n-s answer, and GvGont'z vspWyibicl Greene engages iieu^
coi. Stewart at the Eutavv Springs, p.. 2V2, Stewart abandonf-
Eiitaw, P..2.44, Gov. Rutledge retaliates for Balfcur's conduct^.
p, 245. A- spirit of. mutiny among Greene's troops, ibid — his ler-
ler to gen. Gould,- p. 246. He marches toward Dorchester, and
by his manoeuvres induces the British garrison to abandon the
place, p*.248i Gen. Pickins expedition against the Cherokees, -
'ibid, Arnold's enterprise against New-London, p. 249-. De Rar-
rau sails trom Rhode-Island, p. 250. Sir Samuel Hcod arrives at
Sandy-Hook, ibid. De Grasse arrives in the Chesapeake, and en-
gages adm. Graves, p. 25 U De Barras arrives in the Chesapeake^
p. 252. Lord Cornwaliis repairs to York-town and Gloucester,
p. 253. The allied troops arrive at the Head of Elk, p. 254 — join/
the troops under the marquis de la Fayette^, p. 255— march and
invest York-town, ibid.- Washington's letter to de Grasse, ibid.
The trenches opened by the combined armies before York-town, .
p. 257. A capitulation settled, and the posts of York-tov/n and
Gloucester surrendered, p, 260, The British lieet and army des^-
tined for the relief of ]ord CornwalHs, arrive off Chesapeake •
after his surrender, and therefore return, p. 261» De Grasse
£ails for the West-Indies, p. 262. Acts of congress on their hear- "
ing of the redaction of the British army, p, 263. They attend- i
at the Roman Catholic chapel, and hear the chaplain to the-em - ;-
bissy^ p. 264. — their resolve respecting marquis de la FayetteT-^ i
the president addresses gen. WashingtoiTt-p. 268. The subscrib- '
ers to the Bank of North- America incorporated, ibid. Impro^
per conduct toward the British prisoners, p. 269. Gov.Kut-
]edge exercises his authority afresh in South-Carolina, ibid.
Letter XL P. 270 — 290.
Mr. Jay delivers in propositions relative to an intended treaty-
with Spain, p, 270. The king opens the session of parliament,
p. 272. The intended address, remonstrance and petition of the
city of London, p. 273. Mr. Laurens discharged from his con-
finement in the Tower, p, 275. Statia surprised by the marquis
<]e Bouilie, ibid, Adm. Kempenfelt's successful cruise, p. 277.
The reduction of Minorca, p. 27So Gen. Conway's motion a-^
gainst continuing the war in America, p. 281. A nev/ admini-
stration formed, p. 282. St. Kitt's attacked and taken by the
French, p. 283. Mr. J. Adam.s succeeds in his applications to the
States-Genera], and is acknowledged as the American plenipo-
tentiary, p. 287. His imperial majesty favors the rights of con-
science, p, 289;

Letter XIL P. 290—299.
Communications from the French minister plenipotentiary to

291. The cxecutioa of capt. Hi^ddy by tlie New-


'X: O N T E N T Z:

Turk refugees, p. 292. Letters to gov. Hancock from the col-v-
aaianiler in chief and the liiiancier, p. 294- Gen, Greene's epiir-
•tolary coiumunicaLions, p. 295-

Letter XllL P. 239—314.
The affairs of Ireland, p. 299. IVansactions in the British
parhament, p- 302. .East«lndia news, p. 303. Anural liar-
lington's successful cruise, p. 304- Sir George Rodney and
count de Grassc in the West-Indies, p. 305. They engage,
p. 306. De Grasse is defeated and taken, p. 309. The con-
bined fleets in Europe masters of the sea, p. 312. The loss of
adm. Kempenfclt and the Royal George, p. 313. East-india
jtievvs, p. 314.

L -E T T E R XIV, P. 315—334.
The steps taken by gen. "Washington for retahating the death
of capt. Huddy, p. 315. The trial of capt. Lippincott upon t]>e
occasion, p. 316. He is acquitted, p. 317. 'Jlie whole affair
referred to congress; p. 318. C-itpt. Asgill liberated, p. 3lv>,
71ie necessity of peace for the United States of America, ibhi.
The New-York ioyah'sts in the greatest confusion on hearing of
the negociations for peace, p. 321. Acts of congress, p. 322.
Gen. Wayne's operations in Georgia, p. 324 Savannah eva-
cuated by the British, p. 325. Gen. Le^he sends out parties
from Charleston to procure provisions, p. 326. Lieut, colonel
Laurens mortally v/ounded in opposing one of the parties, ibid,
Charleston evacuated by the British, ,p. 327. T]>e dcath and
character of gen. Lee, p. 328, An account of the Moravian
Jndians, and the massacre of many of them by aitumber of A-
mcricans, p. 330. The Indians defeat col. Crawford and his
jparty, and put numbers of them to death, p. 332. Hororary
oadges of distinction established by gen^ Washicgron, ibid. "JTie
'French troops march to Boston, and from thence are conveyed
■by tlie French fleet to the West-Indies, p. 333.

Letter XV. P. 335—351.
The hostile preparations of the Spaniards for the reduction of
"Gibraltar, p. 335. The grand attack upon the fortress, p. 343.
^ord Howe relieves the garrison and returns home,, p. 343. —
The negociations for peace carrying on at Paris, p. 344. A
treaty of amityand commerce between Holland and the United
States, p. 345. Copy of a letter to count de Vcrgenncs, i^iJ,
Mr. Jay's apprehensions as to the intentions of French court
p. 347. The negociations continued, and provisional articles
signed between the American and British commissioners, p. 3i3.-
Tiie loss of British men of war by a storm, p. 351.


C O M t E ^f T S.

Letter XVI. P- 352^ — 353.

Mr. Dana's appilcation to the Russian minister at Petersburgbj ^
Ti. 352. East-India news, 7/>((/. Debates in the British pariia-
nient upon tlie prehminary articles of peace, p. 355. The de-
finitive treaty signed, p. '656. Air-balloons, ibid.

Letter XVIL P. 358—369.

The address of the American ofFicers to congress, p. 3 53—
The design of throwing the American army into a paroxism of
rage, prevented, p. 35^. Congress receive the account of a ge-
neral peace, p. 362. The provisional articles, ibid. A confer-
ence between gen. Washington and Sir Guy Carleton, p. 367.
The general addresses a circular letter to the governors and pre-^
iidcnt of the United States, p. 369.

Letter XVHL P. 370—39^.

A mutiny among the American soldiers at Philadelphia, p.

370. An equestrian statue of gen. Washington to be erected^ p.

371. The general waits upon congress, p. 372. The treaty
of anility and commerce between Sweden and the United States^
ibid. A deputation of quakers wait upon congress, p. 373. Acts
of congress, p. 374. The Dutch ambassador has a public au-
dience, ibid. General Washington's farewell orders to the ar>
mies of the United States, p. 375. Sir Guy Carleton receives
his iinal orders for evacuating New-York, ibid. The city eva-
cuated, p. 377. General Washington takes his leave of the
continental officeiS, ibid — delivers in his accounts to the Ameri-
can comptroller, p. 378 — arrives at Annapolis and resigns his
commission, p. 379. The definitive treaty between Great-
Britain and the United States, received by congress, p. 382*
The society of the Cincinnati, p. 383. Encroachments upon
liberty by the Massachusetts people and general court, p. 386,
Certain particulars relating to the war, p. 383. Some strictures
respecting his excellency George Washmgton and the honorable
Nathaniel Greene, p. 391. Some account of the respective
constitutions of the United States, p. 393.


Extracts from the Virginia act for establishing religious free*
dom, p. 399. The constitution of the United States of Ame-
rica, p, 401.,


T tt !£





Eoxbuiy, Jan, 27, 17S0,

BEFORE we enter upon a relation of the expeditions
against Penobscot and the Mohawks, let me mention,
that in the beginning of August, General Washington, to se-
cure himself the more effectually from an attack by the en-
emy, while weakened through the absence of the detachment
under General Sullivan, gave to a double spy, in order to be
communicated, the following exaggerated account of his strength

•" Fit for duty 17010, exclusive of the troops under

Sullivan, General Gates to the eastward, and Colonel Hazens
■ — the total number much greater — besides these, the new le-
vies, 2000 from Massachusetts — those from Connecticut and
other states coming in daily — apian fixed, by v^hich the whole
strength can be drawn together in a few hours upon any great

Colonel Francis M'Lean was sent from Halifax to establish
a post at Penobscot, in the easternmost part of the Massachu-
setts state. His arrival [June 16.] g^^'^ ^^ alarm to the go-
vernment at Boston, and vigorous measures were agreed upon
for preventing its establishment. The state was to have the
whole honor of the expected success ; and therefore Gates,
who was at Providence, was neither consulted not applied to
for continental troops. General Love] was to commiand the
militia, with a small number of state regulars, destined for the
service ; while captain Saltonstail, who commanded the War-
ren continental frigate, acted as commQdore to the whole flee;,

\ou III. A consisting

Ig The history of the [J. D, \119,

Consisting of near twenty sail, inrluding armed state vessels and
privateers, besides 24- transports. An embargo for 40 days
was laid by the general court on all shipping, that a full sup-
ply of seamen might be the more easily procured. When the
armament was ready for sailing, it lay wind-bound in Nantas-
ket road for some days. By the 2.5th of July, it appeared ofF
Penobscot. Colonel M'Lean had gained information of its
sailing from Boston four days before. His intended fort was
incapable of affording any good defence. Two of the bastions
were untouched ; the remaining two with the curtains, were
in no part above 4 or 5 feet high and 12 thick; the ditch in
most parts not more than 3 feet deep ; there was no platform
Jaid nor any artillery mounted. When the troops had landed,
[July 23.] instead of being put upon vigorous services, the ge-
neral contented himiSelf with summoning the colonel to surren-
der, which being refused, they were employed two days in e~
recting a battery at about 750 yard distance from the fort.
The colonel improved this opportunity, and what followed dur-
ing an inetfectual cannonading, for finishing and strengthening
his works, till he was out of all apprehension from being storm-
ed ; which he v;'as informed by a deserter, on the i2th of Au-
gust, was to be in a day or two. Colonel M'Lean, with Ins
garrison, to their astonishment, discovered that the Americans
liad totally abandoned the camp and works in the night, [Au-
gust 14.] and had reim.barked. The cause of this mysteri-
ous event was soon evident by the appearance of Sir George
Collier in the Raisonable, attended with live frigates. While
Sir George lay at Sandy-Hook, he gained information, on or
before the 28th of July, from a Boston paper, as it is confi-
dently asserted of the expedition against Penobscot. He sail-
ed for the relief of the place on the 3d of August. It w^as not,

Online LibraryWilliam GordonThe history of the rise, progress, and establishment of the independence of the United States of America: (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 50)