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DR. SHEDD'S WORKS.



Dogmatic Theology.

Two vols., 8vo, 57.00

A History of Christian Doctrine.

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Dogmatic Theology



BY



WILLIAM G. T. SHEDD, D.D.

BOOSEVELT PEOFESSOB OF BTOTEMATIC THEOLOGY IN UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMTNABT

NEW YOEK



VOLUME 11.



THIRD EDITION



NEW YOBK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
1891 ,,



l




COPTRIGHT, 1888, BY
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS



TROW'9

PRINTING AND BOOKSINOING COMPANY,

N£W YORK.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.

ANTHEOPOLOGY.

CHAPTER L

PAGE

Man's Creation, 3

CHAPTER IL
Man's Primitive State, • . 95

CHAPTER ILL
The Human Will, 115

CHAPTER IV.
Man's Probation and Apostasy, 148

CHAPTER V.
Original Sin, 168

CHRISTOLOGY.

CHAPTER L
Christ's Theanthropic Person, 261

CHAPTER IL
Christ's Divinity, 309

CHAPTER IIL
Christ's Humanity, 311



iv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
Christ's Unipersonality, 315

CHAPTER V.
Christ's Impeccability, 330

SOTERIOLOGY.

CHAPTER I.
Christ's Mediatorial Offices, 353

CHAPTER IL
Vicarious Atonement, 378

CHAPTER III.
Regeneration, 490

CHAPTER IV.
Conversion, 529

CHAPTER V.
Justification, 538

CHAPTER VL
Sanctification, i . . . 558

CHAPTER VII.
The Means of Grace, 561

ESCHATOLOGY.

CHAPTER I.
The Intermediate or Disembodied State, . . ^ . 591

CHAPTER II.
Christ's Second Advent, . . . . ^ . . . 641



CONTENTS. V

CHAPTER III.

PAGE

The Resurrection, 647

CHAPTER IV.
The Final Judgment, 659

CHAPTER V.
Heaven, 664

CHAPTER VI.
Hell, 667



INDEX, 755



ANTHROPOLOGY.



ANTHROPOLOGY.

CIlArTEIi I.

MAN'S CREATION.

Augustine : City of God, XII. ; On the Soul and its Origin, Odo
Tornacensis : De Peccato Originali. Biblioth. Max., XXI. 229 sq.
Aquinas : Summa, II. cxviii. cxix. xci. xcii. Turrettin : Institu-
tio, V. xiii. Maresius : Theologia Elenctica. Controversia X.
Howe : Oracles, Part II. Lecture xxxvii. Edwards : Against Watts
(Works, III. 533). Hopkins : Works, II. 289. Delitzscli : Biblical
Psychology, 128-144. Nitzsch : Christian Doctrine, g 107. Evelyn :
History of Religion, I. 164. Muller : Sin, IV. iii. iv. PhiUpi^i :
Glaubenslehre, III. 96. Domer : Christian Doctrine, ? 83. Gan-
gauf : Psychologie des Augustinus, III. 1 1-4. Hagenbach : History
of Doctrine, ^ 55, 106, 173, 248. Ulrici : Leib and Seele. Hodge :
Theology, II. 65 sq. Smith : Christian Theology, 166 sq. Shedd :
History of Doctrine, II. 10-25 ; 114-127 ; 152-163. Strong : The-
ology, 328 sq. Baird : Elohim Revealed, XI, Landis : Original
Sin, and Gratuitous Imputation. Martenseu : Dogmatics, | 74.

AiTTHKOPOLOGY {av^pcoTTou \6yo Augustine describes man as the union of spiritual and corporeal substance.
"Persona hominis mixtura est animae et corporis, duarum rerum commixtio ;
tinius incorporeae, et alterius c orporeae ; nam si aniraa in sua natura non falla-
tur, incorpoream se esse comprehendit." Ep. lo7, Ad Volusianum. "Quicquid
enim corpus non est, et tamen aliquid est, jam recte spiritus dicitur." De Ge-
nesi ad literam, XII. vil 10. Compare Gangauf : Aug. Psychologie, 101.



MAN'S CREATION. 11

" man male and female.'' The creationist asserts that only
a part of the invisible substance of all the generations of
mankind was created by that act : namely, that of their
bodies; the invisible substance which constitutes their souls
beingcreated subsequently, by as many distinct and separate
creative acts as there are individual souls.

Traducianism and ci-eationism agree with each other in
respect to the most difficult point in the problem : namelv,
a kind of existence that is pi'ior to the individual exist-
ence. The creationist concedes that human history does
not start with the birth of the individual man. He does
not attempt to explain original sin with no reference to
Adam. He maintains that the body and physical life
of the iudividual is not a creation ex nihilo in each in-
stance, but is derived from a common physical nature that
was originated on the sixth day. In so doing, the creation-
ist concedes existence in Adam, quoad hoc. But this race-
mode of human existence, which is prior to the individ-
ual mode, is the priucipal difficulty in the problem, and in
conceding its reality as to the body, the creationist carries
a common burden with the traducianist. For it is as diffi-
cult to think of an invisible existence of the human body in
Adam, as to think of an invisible existence of the human
soul in him. In reality, it is even more difficult ; because
the body of an individual man, as we now know it, is visi-
ble and tangible, while his soul is not. And an invisible
and intangible existence in Adam is more conceivable than
a visible and tangible.

In discussing either traducianism or creationism, it is im-
portant to define the idea of " substance." The term, in
this connection, does not imply either extension or figure.
It is taken in its etymological and metaphysical sense, to
denote that entity which stands tender phenomena, and is
the base for them. As in theology, the Divine " substance '-
or nature is unextended and formless, yet a real entity, so
in anthropology, the human "substance" or nature is with-



12 ANTHROPOLOGY.

out extension and figure, jet is a certain amount of real be-
ing with definite and distinguishable properties. Shedd :
Theological Essays, 135-137.

So far as the mental or psychical side of the human nat-
ure is concerned, when it is said that the " substance " of
all individual souls was created in Adam, of course nothing
extended and visible is implied. The substance in this case
is a spiritual, rational, and immortal essence, similar to the
nnextended essence of God, in whose image it M-as made ex
nihilo. And so far as the physical and corporeal side of man
is concerned, the notion of " substance" must be determined
in the same manner. That which stands under, that which
is the suhstans of the corporeal form and phenomena, is
an invisible principle that has no one of the geometrical
dimensions. Physical life, or the animal soul, though not
spiritual and immortal like the rational soul, is nevertheless
beyond the reach of the five senses. It occupies no space ;
it is not divisible by any material instruments ; it cannot be
examined by the microscope. In speaking therefore of the
primary created " substance " of the liuman body, we must
abstract from the notion everything that implies figure and
extension of parts. "The things which are seen %vere not
made of things which do appear," Ileb. 11 : 3. The visible
body is constituted, and built up by an invisible vitality.
Neither the cell, nor protoplasm, nor the "aether ".of
Cams (Physiologic, I. 13), nor any visible whatever, can be
regarded as the suhstans of the body ; as the vital principle
in its primordial mode. These are all of them extended,
and objects of sensuous perception. They are the first form,
in which the primarily formless physical life embodies it-
self. They each presuppose life as an invisible. In think-
inir, therefore, of the " substance" of all individual bodies
as having been created in Adam, M-e must not with Tertul-
lian and others think of microscopic atoms, corpuscles, or
protoplasm ; but only of the unseen principle of life itself,
of which these are the first visible organization. Modern



MAN'S CREATION. 13

physiology (Haeckel: Creation, 1. 297) describes the human
egg as y^y- part of an inch in diameter, so that in a sti-ong
light it can just be perceived as a small speck, by the naked
eye. This egg is a small globular bladder which contains
all the constituent parts of a simple oi'ganic cell. These
parts are : (a) The mucous cell-substance or protoplasm,
called the ''yolk;" (5) The nucleus or cell-kernel, called
the "germinal vesicle," which is surrounded by the yolk.
This nucleus is a clear glassy globule of albumen about -^^-^
pai-t of an inch in dian)eter ; (c) The nucleolus, the kernel
speck or " germinal spot." This is enclosed and surrounded
by the nucleus, and is the last phase of visible life under
the present microscope. But this nucleolus is not the in-
visible life itself in its first phase, as immediately created
ex nihilo. This " germinal spot " is only the first harden-
ing, as it were, of the invisible into visibility. It is life in
this form / whereas, in the beginning, as created in Adam,
physical life was formless and invisible.

Before entering upon the discussion of the two theories
of traducianism and creationism, we observe that there are
several ways of handling the doctrine of original sin, or sin
as related to Adam.

1. It may be held simply as a revealed fact, without any
attempt at explanation. The theologian contents himself
with affirming that Scripture teaches that all men were cre-
ated holy in Adam, had an advantageous probation in Adam,
sinned freely in Adam, aiid are justly exposed to physical
and spiritual death upon these three grounds, and declines to
construct any explanatory theory. In this case, he treats the
doctrine of original sin as he does that of the creation of the
universe. " Through faith he understands that the worlds
were framed by the word of God, so that the things which
are seen were not made of things which do appear," Heb.
11 : 3. Similarly, througli faith he understands that " death
passed upon all men because all sinned," Eom, 5 : 12 ; that
" by one offence, judgment came upon all men to condemna-



14: ANTHROPOLOGY.

tion," Rom. 5-18 ; and that "in Adam all die," 1 Cor. 15 :
22 ; and formulates this in the statement that " all mankind
descending from Adam by ordinary generation sinned in
him, and fell with him, in the first transgression," L. C. 22.



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