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tively harmless sulphocyanide) enable animals to survive an otherwise lethal
dose. ]

18. POTASSII BICHROMAS, see Chromium.

19. POTASSII HYPOPHOSPHIS, see Phosphorus.

II. SODIUM.
Na=23.o.

I. [SODA. NaOH=39.86. Synonyms. Caustic Soda. Sodium Hy-
drate. Sodium Hydroxide.

SOURCE. Dissolve Sodium Carbonate in boiling distilled water. Slake
Lime and dissolve in distilled water, adding this in small portions at a time to
the solution of Sodium Carbonate, boil, strain when cold, set aside until clear
and remove the clear solution. Evaporate this solution to an oily consistence
and pour into moulds. Na ! CO 3 -fCa(OH) 2 =2NaOH-f-CaCO 3 .

CHARACTERS. Dry, white, translucent pencils, or fused masses, showing
a crystalline fracture, odorless, and having an acrid and caustic taste.

IMPURITIES. Lime, sulphates, chlorides and carbonates.

Preparation.

Liquor Sodae. Solution of Soda. Synonym. Solution of
Sodium Hydrate.

SOURCE. An aqueous solution of Sodium Carbonate is boiled with
slaked Lime. The supernatant liquid is then siphoned off. Na.jCO 3 4-
Ca(OH ) 2 =2NaOH-fCaCO 3 . Or it may be prepared by dissolving Soda,
56 ; in distilled water, 944. The Soda must be of the full strength, as
directed by the U. S. P. (90 per cent. ).

CHARACTERS. A clear, colorless liquid, odorless, having a very
acrid and caustic taste, and a strong alkaline reaction. Sp. gr., 1.059.
Strength, about 5 per cent, of the Hydrate.

IMPURITIES. As of Soda.

INCOMPATIBLE. The same as of Potassa. (Set p. 122.)

Dose, 5 to 20 m. ; .30 to 1.20 c.c., freely diluted.

ACTION OF SODA.

It is in all respects, save one, similar in its action to potash.
The difference is, that sodium salts are all much less depressant



THE ALKALINE METALS SODA. 139

to the cardiac, muscular, and nervous systems, and therefore far
less poisonous than potassium salts.

THERAPEUTICS OF SODA.
It is very little used. Potash is almost always preferred.]

TOXICOLOGY.

Poisoning by caustic alkalies is very rare ; usually it takes place either by
Potash, Soda, Pearlash (Potassium Carbonate), or soap lees (Sodium Carbon-
ate). ( Both the last are impure. They contain caustic Soda or Potash. )

Symptoms. A caustic taste is experienced, and is quickly followed by
symptoms of gastro-intestinal irritation, viz., burning heat in the throat, vom-
iting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain, together with those of depression, viz., a
feeble, quick pulse, and a cold clammy skin. Soon the lips, tongue, and
throat become swollen, soft and red. Post-mortem appearances. The mucous
membrane of the mouth, tongue, stomach and oesophagus, and occasionally
that of the larynx, is excoriated, dark, softened and inflamed.

Treatment. Wash out the stomach or give emetics, as Zinc Sulphate,
20 gr. [1.20 gm.] ; or powdered Ipecacuanha, 30 gr. [2.00 gm.] ; or Copper
Sulphate, 5 gr. [.30 gm.], in half a pint [240. c.c.] of tepid water ; or Vinum
Ipecacuanhoe, fl.^j [30. c.c.] ; or mustard, a tablespoonful [16. gm.] in half a
pint [240. c.c.] of tepid water ; or common salt, 2 tablespoonfuls [30. gm.] in
half a pint [240. c.c.] of tepid water ; or -fa gr. [.006 gm.] of apomorphine
[hydrochlorate] hypodermatically. If none of these are handy, give plenty
of warm water and tickle the back of the throat. Then give feeble acids, as
diluted Lemon juice, diluted solution of Citric Acid, Vinegar, [or] diluted
Acetic Acid. Then demulcents, as oil, [flaxseed] tea, or water and white
of egg.

2. SODII CARBONAS. [Sodium Carbonate, Na^CO, + loH 2 O =
285.45. Synonyms. Sal] Soda. Washing Soda.

SOURCE. Made thus : First stage, Sodium Chloride and Sulphuric Acid
are heated together. 2NaCl -(- H 2 SO 4 = Na.,So 4 + 2HC1. Second stage, the
Sodium Sulphate is heated with Carbon. Na.jSO 4 -j- 4C = Na.jS -f- 4CO. Third
stage, the Sodium Sulphide is heated with chalk. Na,S -f- CaCO s = NajCOj
+ CaS.

[It is also made from Cryolite, a mineral found in Greenland. Cryolite
and chalk are heated to redness, producing Calcium Fluoride and Sodium
Albuminate ; the latter is soluble in water, and is decomposed by Carbon
Dioxide, which precipitates Aluminum Hydroxide, retaining a little Sodium
Carbonate, while the pure Sodium Carbonate remains in solution.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, monoclinic crystals, odorless, and having a
strong alkaline taste. In dry air the salt effloresces, and if left exposed soon



I4O INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

loses about one-half of its water of crystallization and becomes a white powder.
Solubility. In 1.6 parts of water ; insoluble in Alcohol and in Ether.]

IMPURITIES. Sulphates, chlorides [and metals.

Sodium Carbonate is used to prepare Liquor Sodae Chloratse, Massa Ferri
Carbonatis, and Suppositoria Glycerini.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.

Preparation.

Sodii Carbonas Exsiccatus. Dried Sodium Carbonate.

SOURCE. 200 parts of Sodium Carbonate are broken into small
fragments, allowed to effloresce, then gently heated until it becomes a
white powder, weighing 100 parts.

CHARACTERS. A loose, white powder, conforming to the tests
and reactions given under Sodii Carbonas.]

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; [.30 to i.oo gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM CARBONATE AND THE
DRIED CARBONATE.

The same as those of [soda,] except that the carbonate is less
caustic. [A one per cent, solution of sodium carbonate is used
for boiling surgical instruments in the process of sterilization in
order to prevent their rusting.]

3. SODII BICARBONAS. [Sodium Bicarbonate. NaHCO s = 83.
85. Synonyms. Baking Soda. Sodium Sesquicarbonate. Soda.

SOURCE. Made from the Carbonate in the same way as the Potassium
Bicarbonate is made. Na^CO, -f CO 4 + H,O = 2NaHCO 3 . Or by treating
Sodium Chloride at the same time with Ammonia gas and Carbon Dioxide.
NaCl -f NH, + CO, + H S O = NaHCO, + NH 4 C1.

CHARACTERS. A white opaque powder, odorless, and having a cooling
mildly alkaline taste.

Solubility. In 11.3 parts of water; insoluble in Alcohol and Ether.

IMPURITIES. The carbonate.

INCOMPATIBLES. It is decomposed by acids and acid salts, e.g.. Bismuth
Subnitrate.

Sodium Bicarbonate is used to prepare Mistura Rhei et Sodae, Ferri Car-
bonas Saccharatus, and Pulvis EfTervescens Compositus.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; .30 to 4.00 gm.

Preparation.

Trochisci Sodii Bicarbonatis. Troches of Sodium Bicarbonate.
Sodium Bicarbonate, 20 ; Sugar, 60 ; Nutmeg, I gm. ; Mucilage of
Tragacanth, a sufficient quantity to make 100 troches. Triturate the



THE ALKALINE METALS SODA.

Nutmeg with the Sugar, gradually added, until they are reduced to a
fine powder, and mix this intimately with the Sodium Bicarbonate ;
then with the Mucilage of Tragacanth, form a mass. Each troche
contains 3 gr. ; .20 gm., of Sodium Bicarbonate.]
Dose, i to 6 troches.

ACTION OF SODIUM BICARBONATE.

The same as that of potassium bicarbonate, except that it is
much more slowly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract,
and like all sodium salts it is only feebly depressant. Sodium
salts are much less depressant to the cardiac, muscular, and ner-
vous systems, and therefore are far less poisonous than potassium
salts.

THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE.

External. A lotion of 7 gr. [.50 gm.] to i fl. oz. [30. c.c.]
of water is employed as a sedative to relieve itching. [Either in
saturated solution or as a fine powder sodium bicarbonate locally
applied is the best remedy to relieve the pain from burns. Of
late it has been strongly recommended to be used for packing
to prevent pain after operations upon the vagina.]

Internal. Stomach. Its use in disease is very similar to
that of the corresponding potassium salt, but on account of the
two differences just mentioned, it is much more frequently given.
Hence it is a very common ingredient of medicines designed to
relieve dyspepsia, being taken at or a little before meals lo
increase the flow of gastric juice, or some time afterwards to
neutralize excessive acidity in the cases in which the patient
complains of heartburn and acid eructations. Its value is also
partly due to its sedative action on the gastric nerves, whereby
it relieves gastric pain, and partly also to its power of liquefying
tenacious mucus. A very favorite gastric sedative mixture con-
sists of about 10 gr. [.60 gm.] of sodium bicarbonate, together
with the same quantity of bismuth [subcarbonate,] suspended in
mucilage. A grain or two [.06 to .12 gm.] of sodium bicar-
bonate with a grain [.06 gm.] of powdered rhubarb, and some
sugar, forms a common stomachic powder for children. Sodium
bicarbonate and gentian are also often combined together in



142 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

stomachic mixtures. Effervescing soda water (made in the same
way as potash water, see p. 122) is a mild gastric sedative. In
commerce these waters contain neither potash nor soda, but even
then the carbon [dioxide] gas acts as a sedative.

Sodium bicarbonate is so slowly absorbed, and is, in comparison
with potassium salts, so poor a solvent of uric acid, that it is
rarely used for any effects it may have after absorption. It is
stated that large doses (150 to 500 grains [10. to 32. gm.]) are
useful for diabetic coma.

4. SODII PHOSPHAS. [Sodium Phosphate. Na 3 HPO 4 +l2H,O=
357.32. Synonym. Sodium Orthophosphate.

SOURCE. Digest Bone Ash with Sulphuric Acid ; Acid Calcium Phos-
phate is formed. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 +2H 2 SO 4 =CaH 4 (PO 4 ) 2 +2CaSO 4 . Filter and
add Sodium Carbonate to the solution. CaH 4 (PO 4 ) 2 +Na 2 CO J =Na J HPO 4 4-
H 2 O-f-CO u +CaHPO 4 . The filtrate requires to be evaporated and the salt is
obtained by crystallization.

CHARACTERS. Large, colorless, monoclinic prisms, odorless, and having
a cooling saline taste. The crystals effloresce on exposure to the air, and
gradually lose 5 molecules of their water of crystallization. Solubility. In
5 parts of water. ]

IMPURITIES. Lime phosphate [sulphates and carbonates.

Sodium Phosphate is used to prepare Ferri Phosphas Solubilis.

Dose, 5 gr. to i oz. ; .30 to 30. gm.]

5. SODII SULPHAS. Sodium Sulphate. Na.,SO 4 -f [ioH,O==
321.42.] Synonym. Glauber's Salt.

SOURCE. Neutralize with Sodium Carbonate, the residue left in the manu-
facture of Hydrochloric Acid from Salt. 2NaHSO 4 +Na 2 CO s =2Na 2 SO 4 +



CHARACTERS. [Large, colorless, transparent monoclinic prisms, odorless,
and having a bitter, saline taste, efflorescing on exposure to air, and losing all
of their water of crystallization.] Solubility. In 3 parts of water.

IMPURITIES. Ammonium and Iron salts.

Dose, i to 8 dr. [4. to 30. gm.

6. POTASSII ET SODII TARTRAS. Potassium and Sodium Tar-
trate. [KNaC 4 H 4 O,-|-4H,O=258.5i. Synonyms. Rochelle Salt. Tartrated
Soda.

SOURCE. Add Acid Potassium Tartrate to a hot solution of Sodium Car-
bonate. 2KHC 4 H 4 O 6 +Na 2 CO,=2KNaC 4 H 4 O 6 +H 2 O+CO il .

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, or a white pow-
der, odorless, and having a cooling saline taste. The crystals are slightly
efflorescent. Solubility. In 2 parts of cold water.



THE ALKALINE METALS SODA. 143

IMPURITY. Acid Potassium Tartrate.

Dose, % to i oz. ; 8. to 30. gm. (purgative) 30 to 60 gr. ; 2. to 4. gm.
(diuretic).

Preparation.

Pulvis Effervescens Compositus. Compound Effervescing
Powder. Synonym. Seidlitz Powder. Take Potassium and Sodium
Tartrate, 93 gm., and Sodium Bicarbonate, 31 gm. ; mix, divide into
twelve equal parts, and wrap each part in a separate paper of some pro-
nounced color, as blue. Tartaric Acid, 27 gm. , divided into twelve
equal parts, and wrap each part in a separate paper of a color distinctly
different from that used for wrapping the mixture, as white. Each pow-
der in blue paper contains about 120 gr., 7.75 gm., of Potassium and
Sodium Tartrate with 40 gr., 2.58 gm., of Sodium Bicarbonate. The
white paper contains 35 gr, , 2.25 gm., of Tartaric Acid.

Dose. Dissolve the powder in the blue paper in nearly half a
pint [240. c.c.] of cold or warm water, and then add that in the white
paper, and drink while effervescing.

ACTION OF SODIUM SULPHATE AND PHOSPHATE, AND OF
POTASSIUM AND SODIUM TARTRATE.

Internal. Intestines. Owing to the slowness with which,
compared to the corresponding potassium salts, these sodium
salts are absorbed, they pass on into the intestines and there act
more efficiently than potassium salts. They are typical saline
purgatives, abstracting fluid from the blood until they form a
5 per cent, solution, and then exerting a painless laxative effect,
produce a soft motion about two or three hours after administra-
tion (see p. 93). The sulphate, which is the most active purga-
tive, and the phosphate are mild cholagogues, and Carlsbad
waters (see p. 144) have been shown to increase, in the human
subject, the amount of bile and the solids in it.

Blood and Kidneys. Owing to their tardy absorption the
action of these salines, as alkalizers of the blood and urine and
as diuretics, is more feeble than that of the corresponding potas-
sium salts.

THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM SULPHATE AND PHOSPHATE, AND OF
POTASSIUM AND SODIUM TARTRATE.

Internal. Intestines. These salts of sodium are some of
the best purgatives we possess, being especially useful for habitual



144 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

constipation, and for constipation associated with gout, with
hepatic dyspepsia, or with any of the manifestations of an excess
of uric acid in the blood or the urine. The best way to take
them is to dissolve the required amount in half a tumbler of
[hot] water, and to drink it in successive small draughts while
dressing in the morning. The bowels are then usually com-
fortably opened soon after breakfast. These salts, especially the
phosphate and sulphate, are also cholagogues ; these two are
therefore to be preferred in cases of disease of the liver. The
sulphate is the most powerful purgative of all. It is the chief
constituent of Carlsbad, Marienbad, Tarasp, [Villacabras and
Rubinat] Condal waters, and it occurs associated with much
magnesium sulphate in ^Esculap, Hunyadi Janos, Seidlitz, Pullna,
Friedrichshall, Apenta, and Kissingen waters. A powder con-
sisting of 30 gr. [2. gm.] of each of sodium sulphate and mag-
nesium sulphate and a grain [.06 gm.] of sodium chloride and
sodium bicarbonate (dose i to 4 dr. ); [4. 15. gm.] forms
when dissolved a good imitation of ^Esculap, Hunyadi Janos,
and Franz Joseph waters. The phosphate is a milder and less
unpleasant purgative than the others ; it is often given to chil-
dren. The effervescing preparation [Seidlitz Powder (see p.
143)] is a palatable form. If large doses are used, the evacua-
tions are very watery, and therefore these drugs are useful to
remove fluid in cases of dropsy or ascites (especially if due to
disease of the liver). Sufferers from gall-stones are undoubtedly
benefited by a course of water containing sodium sulphate, and
therefore frequently go to Carlsbad.

7. SODII CHLORIDUM. Sodium Chloride. NaCl [= 58.37.]
Synonym. Common Salt.

SOURCE. Occurs native.

CHARACTERS. [Colorless, transparent, cubical crystals, or a white, crys-
talline powder, odorless, and having a purely saline taste. Solubility. In
2.8 parts of water; almost insoluble in Alcohol.

IMPURITY. Potassium Chloride.]

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.]

ACTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE.

Common salt forms an article of diet with all creatures living
on vegetable food, especially if it contains large amounts of po-



THE ALKALINE METALS - SODA. 145

tassium, but is not used either by carnivorous animals or by
tribes living solely on flesh. The importance of it is seen in the
long distances herbivorous animals will wander to salt licks, and
by the fact that tribes living on vegetables will go to war for the
possession of it. Bunge's explanation of this desire for salt is as
follows : Blood plasma contains much sodium chloride, vegetable
foods contain a large amount of potassium salts ; when, there-
fore, these salts of potassium reach the blood, potassium chloride
and the sodium salt of the acid which was combined with the
potassium are formed. This and the potassium chloride are ex-
creted by the kidneys, and the blood loses its sodium chloride,
which loss is therefore made up by taking sodium chloride with
the food. The deprivation of salt leads to general weakness,
oedema and anaemia, a series of symptoms often seen in France
before the repeal of the salt tax. Quantities of a tablespoonful
[15. gm.] and upwards act as an emetic, and may also purge.
Rectal injections of solutions of salt [by removing mucus may
make the rectum unfit for the habitation of] the Oxyuris ver-
micularis.

THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE.

It is occasionally used as an emetic, also as an anthelmintic.
Bathing in sea water acts as a mild general stimulant, and very
concentrated hot salt baths, such as those of Droitwich and
Nantwich, are useful for chronic rheumatism and sciatica.
Sixty grains [4. gm.] of common salt in a pint [500 c.c.] of
boiled water allowed to cool to 100 F. [37.7 C.] form a
normal saline solution, which is frequently injected into any
convenient vein or sometimes into loose connective tissue in
cases of collapse from haemorrhage, often with strikingly good
results. Such injections have also been used for diabetic coma,
and may render the patient sensible again for a little while, but
they do not avert the end.



8. SODII SULPHIS. [Sodium Sulphite.
SOURCE. Saturate a solution of Sodium Carbonate or Caustic Soda with
Sulphur Dioxide gas. Na^CO, -f SO 2 = Na 2 SO 3 + CO,.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms; odorless, and

10



146 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

having a cooling, saline, sulphurous taste ; efflorescent in air. Solubility.
In 4 parts of water.

IMPURITIES. Sulphates and chlorides.]

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.

9. SODII BISULPHIS. Sodium Bisulphite. NaHSO, = 103.86.
SOURCE. From Sodium Carbonate or Bicarbonate and Sulphur Dioxide

gas. NaHCO 3 + SO 2 = NaHSO s + CO r Solubility. In 4 parts of water ;
and in -J2 parts of Alcohol.

CHARACTERS. Opaque, prismatic crystals, or a granular powder, exhaling
an odor of Sulphur Dioxide, and having a disagreeable, sulphurous taste.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

10. SODII HYPOSULPHIS. Sodium Hyposulphite. Na,S s O,+
5^0 = 247.64. Synonym. Sodium Thiosulphate.

SOURCE. From Sodium Bisulphate in solution with Metallic Zinc. 3Na
HSO, + Zn = NaHSOj + Na,S,O s -f ZnO, + H 2 O. Or pass Sulphurous An-
hydride into a solution of Soda (or Sodium Carbonate) with Sulphur. SO Z -\-
2Na(OH ) + S = NajSjO, + H,O.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, odorless and
having a cooling, afterwards bitter taste. Solubility. In 0.65 part of water ;
insoluble in Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM SULPHITE, BISULPHITE
AND HYPOSULPHITE.

Sodium sulphite solutions (i in 8) may be used externally as
mild antiparasitics. This body is, in the stomach, decomposed
by the acids there and gives off sulphurous anhydride. It may,
therefore, be given to arrest fermentation. If any remains un-
decomposed, it is absorbed as a sulphite. No other action is
known. They are very rarely given in medicine, but in suf-
ficient doses might produce the effects of sodium sulphate.

11. SODII BROMIDUM, see Bromine.

12. SODII IODIDUM, see Iodine.

13. SODII HYPOPHOSPH IS, ^Phosphorus.

14. SODII ARSENAS, see Arsenic.

15. SODII SULPHOCARBOLAS, see Acidum Carbolicum.

16. [SODII NITRAS. Sodium Nitrate. NaNO 3 = 84.89.
SOURCE. Imported from Chili and Peru.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, rhombohedral crystals, odorless,
having a cooling, saline and slightly bitter taste. Deliquescent in moist air.



THE ALKALINE METALS SODA. 147

Solubility. In 1.3 parts of water ; soluble in 100 parts of Alcohol.
Sodium Nitrate is used for preparing Sodium Arsenate.
Dose, y z to i oz. ; 15. to 30. gm.

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM NITRATE.
Sodium nitrate, in moderate doses, does not directly lessen
the force or frequency of the pulse^ nor lower the animal tem-
perature, nor decrease the elimination of urea ; in large doses,
acting as a purgative, it may produce these effects. It is some-
what diuretic, but its chief medicinal virtue is that of a mild
purgative.

17. SODII ACETAS. Sodium Acetate. NaC 2 H s O 2 -f 3H 2 O = 135.74.
SOURCE. From Sodium Carbonate and Acetic Acid. Na.jCO 3 -j- 2HC 2

H 3 O 2 = 2NaC 2 H s O 2 -f H 2 O -f CO 2 . By evaporation to crystallization.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, or a granular,
crystalline powder, odorless, and having a cooling saline taste. Efflorescent
in warm, dry air. Solubility. In 1.4 parts of water ; and in 30 parts of Al-
cohol.

IMPURITIES. Silica, metals and calcium.

Sodium Acetate is used for preparing Acetic Ether and Acetic Acid.

Dose, 10 to 60 gr. ; .60 to 4.00 gm.

ACTION AND USES OF SODIUM ACETATE.
Sodium acetate is diuretic, but it is rarely used as a medicine.]

18. SODII BENZOAS, see Acidum Benzoicum.

19. SODII NITRIS, j^ Nitrites.

20. SODII VALERIANAS [not official], see Valeriana.
31. SODII S ALICYL AS, see Acidum Salicylicum.

22. SODII BORAS, see Acidum Boricum.

23. [SODII CHLORAS. Sodium Chlorate. NaClO s = 106.25.

SOURCE. From Acid Sodium Tartrate and Potassium Chlorate in solu-
tion ; by nitration, evaporation and crystallization. NaHC 4 H 4 O 6 -{- KC1O S
= NaClOj -f KHC 4 H 4 O 6 .

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent crystals (principally regular cubes
with tetrahedral facets), or a crystalline powder; odorless, having a cooling,
saline taste. Solubility. In 1. 1 parts of water ; and in 100 parts of Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.

ACTION AND USES OF SODIUM CHLORATE.
Sodium chlorate has medicinal properties similar to those of
the potassium chlorate, whilst its greater solubility permits the



148 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

use of stronger solutions. It has recently been recommended in
large doses for malignant diseases of the stomach.

24. SODII PYROPHOSPHAS. Sodium Pyrophosphate. Na 4 P,
O 7 -f- ioH z O = 445.24.

SOURCE. From beating Sodium Phosphate. 2NajHPO 4 -f i2H.jO = Na 4
P f O T +i3H t O.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, or a crystalline
powder, odorless, having a cooling, saline and feebly alkaline taste. Solubil-
ity. In 12 parts of water ; insoluble in Alcohol.

Sodium Pyrophosphate is used to prepare Ferri Pyrophosphas Solubilis.

Dose, y z to 4 dr. ; 2. to 15. gm.

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE.

Sodium pyrophosphate has the same therapeutical action as
sodium phosphate, but its principal use is in pharmacy.]

25. SODII ETHYLAS. [Sodium Ethylate. NaC 2 H 5 O = 67.90.
(Not official.)

SOURCE. By solution of Metallic Sodium in Ethylic Alcohol and crys-
tallization. 2Na + 2C s H 5 OH = 2NaC,H 6 O + H r

CHARACTERS. A deliquescent, caustic salt in white or whitish crystals.]

Preparation. [B. P. not official.]

Liquor Sodii Ethylatis, [ Solution of Sodium Ethylate.] Sodium,
I ; Ethylic Alcohol, 20. Characters. A clear, syrupy liquid, changing
to brown in keeping. [This preparation has a sp. gr. of 0.567.] It
should be freshly made when wanted.

ACTION AND USES OF SODIUM ETHYLATE.

This is used locally as a mild caustic to remove naevi and
other growths. It is applied with a pointed glass rod for two
or three days ; then a scab forms ; when this has fallen off, the
treatment may be repeated. Sodium ethylate is, perhaps, our

best caustic.

HI. AMMONIUM.

NH S = 17.01.

I. AQUA AMMONIA FORTI OR. [Stronger Ammonia Water.
28 per cent, by weight of the gas (NH S = 17.01 ) dissolved in water.

SOURCE. -Generate Ammonia gas by heating Ammonium Chloride with
Slaked Lime, and pass it into water. 2NH 4 C1 -f Ca(OH), = NH, -j- 2H,O



THE ALKALINE METALS AMMONIA. 149

CHARACTERS. A colorless, transparent liquid, having an excessively
pungent odor, and very acrid and alkaline taste and a strongly alkaline reac-
tion. Sp. gr. 0.901.]

IMPURITIES. Ammonium chloride, sulphide and sulphate.

Dose, 3 to 6 m. ; [.20 to .40 c.c.], well diluted.

Preparation.

[Spiritus Ammoniae. Spirit of Ammonia. Contains 10 per cent.,
by weight, of the gas dissolved in Alcohol.
Dose, 10 to 60 m. ; .60 to 4.00 c.c.]

2. AQUA AMMONITE. [Ammonia Water. ( 10 per cent, by weight
of the gas (NH 3 17.01 ) dissolved in water).

SOURCE. The same as for Aqua Ammoniae Fortior.

CHARACTERS. Like, but less pungent than, the stronger solution. Sp.
gr. 0.960.

Dose, 10 to 20 m. ; .60 to 1.20 c.c., well diluted.

Preparations.

1. Linimentum Ammoniae. Ammonia Liniment. Synonym.
Volatile Liniment. Ammonia Water, 350 ; Alcohol, 50 ; Cotton
Seed Oil, 600.]



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