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2. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, see Ammonium Carbonate.

ACTION OF SOLUTIONS OF AMMONIA.

External. A solution of ammonia produces rubefaction
with a sensation of heat, and, if strong, a sensation of pain and
burning. If the vapor is confined, it causes vesication.

Internal. Nose. When inhaled, the vapor of ammonia is
irritating to the nose and air passages, causing a pungent sensa-
tion and sneezing. The eyes and nose water. The pulse and
respiration are reflexly accelerated. If very concentrated,
it produces swelling and inflammation of the nose, glottis and
respiratory tract.

Stomach. Like other alkalies, given before meals, ammonia
increases the flow of gastric juice ; given after meals, it neutral-
izes it. It dilates the gastric vessels, and produces a feeling of
warmth in the epigastrium. It reflexly stimulates the heart and
respiration.

Blood. Its action on the blood is not known ; but it is sup-
posed to diminish its local liability to clot in cases of thrombo-
sis, and to dissolve [a clot which has] already formed.



I5O INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Heart. Ammonia causes a rise of blood -pressure with an in-
creased pulse rate, due probably to stimulation of the accelerator
mechanism.

Respiration. It increases greatly the frequency of respira-
tion, probably from stimulation of the respiratory centre in the
medulla.

Newous system. The brain is unaffected, and the nerves also,
except for the tingling produced when a strong solution of
ammonia is locally applied. Convulsions are often produced in
animals poisoned by ammonia ; these are certainly central, and
are probably due to stimulation of the spinal cord.

Kidneys. Ammonia and its salts are oxidized in the body,
and the nitric acid, uric acid, and urea in the urine are increased.

THERAPEUTICS OF SOLUTIONS OF AMMONIA.

External. The liniment is used as a counter-irritant in nu-
merous conditions, such as chronic joint disease, chronic rheuma-
tism, etc. , and is often rubbed on the chest in bronchitis. Am-
monia is a very uncertain vesicant. Weak solutions of it are
often applied to the bites of insects. [Aqua] ammoniae is very
valuable when held to the nose of any one who has fainted, for it
almost instantly reflexly produces its stimulating effect on the
heart and respiration.

Internal. Ammonia in some form may be given before
meals as a gastric stimulant in dyspepsia. Sal volatile (see below)
is often used for this purpose, and also for its general stimulating
effect on the cardiac, respiratory and spinal systems, especially
in sudden collapse from any cause. [For collapse it may be used
intravenously.] Ammonia has been injected subcutaneously in
cases of snake-bite, [but it almost invariably produces a slough.]

3. AMMONII CARBON'AS. [Ammonium Carbonate, NH 4 HCO 8
NH 4 NH,CO, = 156.77. Synonyms. Bakers' Ammonia. Hartshorn. Sal
Volatile.

SOURCE. A mixture of Ammonium Sulphate or Chloride and Calcium
Carbonate is subjected to sublimation and resublimation. 4NH 4 C1 -)- 2CaCO s
== 2CaCl, + NH 4 HCO S NH 4 NH,CO, -f NH S -f 2H,O.

CHARACTERS. White, hard, translucent, striated masses, having a strongly



THE ALKALINE METALS AMMONIA. 151

ammoniacal odor without empyreuma, and a sharp saline taste. On exposure
to the air it loses both Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide, becoming opaque, and
is finally converted into friable, porous lumps, or a white powder. Solubility.
Slowly but completely in 5 parts of water.]

IMPURITIES. Sulphates and chlorides.

Dose, 2 to 15 gr. ; [.12 to i.oo gm.] ^(Stimulant or expectorant.)

Preparation.

Spiritus Ammonias Aromaticus. [Aromatic Spirit of Ammo-
nia. Ammonium Carbonate, 34 ; Ammonia Water, 90 ; Oil of Nut-
meg, I ; Oil of Lemon, 10 ; Alcohol, 700 ; Oil of Lavender Flowers,
i ; water to make looo. Sp. gr. about 0.905.]

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia is used in making Tinctura Guaiaci Am-
moniata and Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata.

Dose, y z to 2 fl. dr. [2. to 8. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF AMMONIUM CARBONATE.

The external and internal actions of the carbonate are the
same as those of [Aqua] Ammoniae. It is not used externally,
but Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus is inhaled for its reflex effects,
is taken as a gastric stimulant and carminative in dyspepsia,
and as a cardiac and general stimulant in syncope, etc.
The carbonate is, in addition, an excellent expectorant, stimu-
lating the respiratory movements, and by its general stimulating
effect aiding the expulsion of thick mucus. It is most used for
bronchitis in children and the aged. It is an emetic acting
directly on the stomach.

TOXICOLOGY.

Symptoms. Liquor Ammonise and the Carbonate produce symptoms like
other alkalies, but are more corrosive. The air-passages are often inflamed,
and the inhalation of the vapor has been known to kill from this cause.

Treatment as for other alkalies. (See p. 139.)

4. AMNONII CHLORIDUM. [Ammonium Chloride. NH 4 C1 =
53.38.] Synonyms. Sal Ammoniac, [Ammonium Muriate.

SOURCE. Neutralize Gas Liquor with Sulphuric Acid, converting all to
Ammonium Sulphate. 2NH 4 HO + H 2 SO 4 = (NH 4 ) il SO i + 2H a O. After
crystallization, sublime with Sodium Chloride. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -f- 2NaCl =
2NH 4 C1 + N^SO,.

CHARACTERS. A white, crystalline powder, without odor, having a cool-



INORGANIC MATERIA >IEDICA.

ing, saline taste, and permanent in the air, but volatile when heated. Solu-
bility. In 3 parts of water ; almost insoluble in Alcohol.

IMPURITIES. Chiefly tarry matters.

Dose, I to 30 gr. ; .06 to 2.00 gm.

Preparation.

Trochisci Ammonii Chloridi. Troches of Ammonium Chloride.
Ammonium Chloride, 10 ; Extract of Glycyrrhiza, 25 ; Tragacanth,i2 ;
Sugar, 50 gm. ; Syrup of Tolu, a sufficient quantity to make loo troches.
Each troche contains two grains ; .12 gm.

Dose, i to 6 troches.]

ACTION OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE.

Locally applied, ammonium chloride increases the secretion
of mucous membranes, and to a slight extent it does the same
after absorption. It is a feeble cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic,
[and a general stimulant, but of less power than the carbonate.]

THERAPEUTICS OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE.

It is a very favorite remedy for local application, by means
of inhalation of the vapor, to increase the secretion of mucus
from the pharynx, Eustachian tubes, larynx, trachea and bronchi
in cases of chronic pharyngitis, otitis media, laryngitis, and
bronchitis. Many forms of apparatus for its inhalation are in
the market. In most of them it is generated by the action of hy-
drochloric acid on ammonia. It is occasionally given by the
mouth, either as a cholagogue, gastric stimulant, diaphoretic, or
diuretic, but it is too feeble to be recommended, and it is very
[unpleasant] ; the taste may to some extent be concealed by
liquorice. It is useful in chronic bronchitis with much expec-
toration and is then best given as a [troche or compressed tablet
with chocolate] . Some authorities consider it to be, [in large
doses,] a specific for neuralgia.

5. LIQUOR AMMONII ACETATIS. [Solution of Ammonium
Acetate. Synonym. Spirit of Mindererus. An aqueous solution of Ammo-
nium Acetate (NH 4 CjH s O 2 = 76.87), containing about 7 per cent, of the salt,
together with small amounts of Acetic and Carbonic Acids.

SOURCE. Ammonium Carbonate is gradually added to diluted Acetic
Acid until it is neutralized. ]



THE ALKALINE METALS LITHIUM.

INCOMPATIBLE. Potash, soda, and their carbonates, acids, lime-water,
lead and silver salts.

[Solution of Ammonium Acetate is used in preparing Liquor Ferri et Am-
monii Acetatis.]

Dose, 2 to 8 fl. dr. ; [8. to 30. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF AMMONIUM ACETATE.

It is a mild diaphoretic and diuretic, and is used only for
these effects. It probably acts in both cases, either on the secre
tory cells or the nerves connected with them. It does not irri-
tate the kidneys, but increases both the water and the solids
excreted. It is employed in Bright' s disease as a diuretic, and
in febrile conditions as a diaphoretic.

6. AMMONII BENZOAS, see Acidum Benzoicum.

7. AMMONII BROMIDUM, see Bromine.
[8. AMMONII IODIDUM, see Iodine.

9. AMMONII NITRAS. Ammonium Nitrate. NH 4 NO 3 = 97.9.

SOURCE. By treating commercial Ammonium Carbonate with Nitric
Acid, filtration and evaporation. NH 4 HCO S NH 4 NH 2 CO 2 + 3HNO 3 =
3NH 4 NO 3 -f 2CO 2 + H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. Colorless crystals, generally in the form of long, thin
rhombic prisms, or in fused masses, without odor, having a sharp, bitter taste,
and somewhat deliquescent. Solubility. In o. 5 part of water ; and in 20
parts of Alcohol.

Ammonium Nitrate is used to prepare Nitrous Oxide gas, freezing mix-
tures and artificial cold applications. ]

10. AMMONII VALERIANAS, see Valeriana.

IV. LITHIUM.
Li = 7.oi.

1. LITHII CARBONAS. [Lithium Carbonate. Li 2 CO 3 = 73. 87.
SOURCE. By action of Lithium Chloride upon Ammonium Carbonate,

filtration, washing with Alcohol, and drying. 2LiCl-(- NH 3 HCO 3 = Li 2 CO 3
4- NH 4 C1 + HC1.

CHARACTERS. A light, white powder, odorless, and having an alkaline
taste ; permanent in the air. Solubility. In 80 parts of water ; insoluble in
Alcohol.]

IMPURITIES. Lime and aluminum.

Dose, 2 to 10 gr. ; [.12 to .60 gm.]

2. LITHII CITRAS. [Lithium Citrate. Li 3 C 8 H 5 O T = 2oa.57.



154 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

SOURCE. By action of Lithium Carbonate upon Citric Acid, evaporation
and crystallization. 3U 2 CO S + 2H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 = 2Li 3 C 6 H 5 O, 3H 2 O-f3CO,.

CHARACTERS. A white powder, odorless and having a cooling, faintly
alkaline taste; deliquescent on exposure to air. Solubility. In 2 parts of
water ; almost insoluble in Alcohol or Ether.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.

Preparation.

Lithii Citras Effervescens. Effervescent Lithium Citrate.

SOURCE. Lithium Carbonate, 70 ; Sodium Bicarbonate, 280 ; Citric Acid,
370 ; Sugar, a sufficient quantity, to 1000. Triturate the Citric Acid with
Sugar, and dry the mixture thoroughly. Then incorporate with it, by tritura-
tion, Lithium Carbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate, and enough Sugar to make
the product weigh looo parts.

CHARACTERS. A white powder having a cooling, saline and sweetish
taste. Solubility. Completely in water with effervescence.

Dose, 10 to 45 gr. ; .60 to 3.00 gm.]

ACTION OF LITHIUM CARBONATE AND CITRATE.

These lithium salts closely resemble in their actions the cor-
responding potassium salts, in large doses leading to muscular
and cardiac depression with gastro-intestinal irritation ; but, as
lithium has a strong affinity for uric acid, and lithium biurate is
very soluble, they are more powerful solvents of uric acid.
They are also efficacious as diuretics and render the urine
very alkaline.

THERAPEUTICS OF LITHIUM CARBONATE AND CITRATE.

Lithium salts are much used internally in acute and chronic
gout, to promote the elimination of sodium biurate. They are
also given as solvents to patients suffering from uric acid gravel
and calculus. Those suffering from gravel are said often to derive
great benefit. A lotion of the carbonate (i to 120 of water)
applied on lint and covered with gutta-percha relieves the pain
of gouty inflammation, promotes the healing of gouty ulcers,
and aids the disappearance of tophi [although it does seem to
prevent their formation] . Lithium salts should always be freely
diluted. The citrate has the advantage of greater solubility.
Although there is no doubt that the salt of lithium and uric acid
is very soluble in water, much doubt has recently been cast upon



METALS OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS CALCIUM. 155

the efficacy of lithium salts administered for gout, because the
addition of a lithium salt to blood serum does not enhance its
solvent power on sodium biurate.

3. [LITHII BENZOAS, see Acidum Benzoicum.

4. LITHII BROMIDUM, see Bromine.

5. LITHII SALICYLAS, see Acidum Salicylicum. ]



GROUP III.

METALS OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS.

Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Magnesium, Cerium.

I. CALCIUM.



1. CRETA PR^EPARATA. [Prepared Chalk. CaCO,=99.76.

Synonym. Drop Chalk.

SOURCE. From Chalk by levigation, elutriation and drying.

CHARACTERS. A white, amorphous powder, often moulded into conical
drops, odorless and tasteless ; permanent in the air. Solubility. Almost in-
soluble in water ; insoluble in Alcohol.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Acids and sulphates.

Dose, 10 to 60 gr. [.60 to 4.00 gm.]

Preparations.

1. Pulvis Cretse Compositus. [Compound Chalk Powder.
Prepared Chalk, 30 ; powdered Acacia, 20 ; powdered Sugar, 50.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; .30 to 4.00 gm.

2. Mistura Cretae. Chalk Mixture. Compound Chalk Powder,
200 ; Cinnamon Water, 400 ; Water to make 1000.

Dose, 2 to 4 fl. dr. ; 8. to 15. c.c.

3. Hydrargyrum cum Creta, see Hydrargyrum.

4. Trochisci Cretae. Troches of Chalk. Prepared Chalk, 25 ;
Acacia, 7 gm. ; Spirit of Nutmeg, 3 c.c. ; Sugar, 40 gm. ; Water to
make 100 troches. Each troche contains 4 gr. ; .25 gm.

Dose, ad libitum.}

2. CALCII CARBONAS PR^CIPITATUS. [Precipitated Cal-
cium Carbonate. CaCO 3 =99.76.

SOURCE. From Calcium Chloride and Sodium Carbonate, and drying the
precipitate. CaCVf-Na,CO I =2NaCl+CaCO,.



1 56 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. A fine, white power, odorless and tasteless, permanent in
the air. Solubility. Nearly insoluble in water.

Precipitated Calcium Carbonate is used to prepare Pulvis Morphinre Com-
positus and Syrupus Calcii Lactophosphatis. ]

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.]

ACTION OF GRETA PRJEPARATA AND CALCIUM CARBONATE.

External. It is mildly astringent and helps to dry moist
surfaces.

Internal. Stomach and Intestines. Calcium carbonate is
antacid. It is a mild but certain astringent. How it acts as
an instringent is unknown. It is excreted unchanged in the faeces.

Kidneys. Because certain mineral waters containing calcium
bicarbonates and sulphates amongst other salts, have been used
successfully in cases of urinary gravel and calculi, it has been
asserted that these salts are diuretic, and solvent for uric acid, but
it is more likely that the beneficial effects of these waters are due
merely to the large amount of water drunk ; [at least] , there is no
proof that it is due to the salts. Such waters are those of Con-
trexeville, Vittel, [Clarendon, and Waukesha] .

THERAPEUTICS OF CRETA PR^EPARATA AND CALCIUM CARBONATE.

External. Prepared chalk forms an excellent dusting pow-
der for moist eczema.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Because of its mechanical
action it is a good tooth powder. The following is a good for-
mula : Potassium chlorate, 4 ; powdered soap, 8 ; carbolic acid,

2 ; oil of cinnamon, i ; precipitated calcium carbonate to 48
parts. Chalk mixture and [compound] chalk powder, particu-
larly the former, are very valuable for checking mild diarrhoea,
especially in children.

Kidneys. There is no doubt that persons passing gravel or
urinary calculi, especially if composed of uric acid, are benefited
by drinking the waters of Contrexeville and Vittel. They should
be taken in quantities of 3 to 6 pints [1500. to 3000. c.c.] a day
and between meals, to avoid the large amount of fluid causing
indigestion. At Contrexeville the great bulk is drunk before
breakfast.



METALS OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS CALCIUM. 157

3. CALX. [Lime. CaO=$5.87. Synonym. Burned Lime.

SOURCE. Made by burning white marble, oyster shells, or the purest
varieties of natural Calcium Carbonate, to expel Carbon Dioxide.

CHARACTERS. Hard white or grayish-white masses, which in contact
with air gradually attract moisture and Carbon Dioxide, and fall into a white
powder (slaked lime) ; odorless; of a sharp, caustic taste. Solubility. In
750 parts of water ; insoluble in Alcohol.

Preparations.

1. Liquor Calcis. Solution of Lime. Synonyms. Lime Water. Solu-
tion of Calcium Hydrate.

SOURCE. Made from slaked lime by solution. A saturated, aqueous
solution of Calcium Hydrate. The percentage of Calcium Hydrate varies with
the temperature, being somewhat over 0.17 per cent, at 59 F. ; 15 C., and
diminishing as the temperature rises.

Dose, i to 8 fl. dr. ; 4. to 30. c.c.

2. Linimentum Calcis. Lime Liniment. Synonym. Carron OiL
Solution of Lime, Linseed Oil, of each, one volume. Mix them by agitation.

3. Syrupus Calcis. Syrup of Lime. Lime, 60 ; Sugar, 400; Water, to

IOOO.

Dose, 15 to 60 m. ; i. to 4. c.c.

4. Potassa cum Calce. See Potassium, p. 122.]

|

ACTION OF LIME.

External. Slaked lime is caustic. Lime water is astringent.

Internal. Alimentary tract. Lime is antacid. It prevents
milk from forming solid, bulky curds in the stomach. It allays
vomiting, and is an antidote for poisoning by mineral acids,
oxalic acid, and zinc chloride. It acts as a mild intestinal astrin-
gent.

THERAPEUTICS OF LIME.

External. Slaked lime, employed as a caustic, is usually
mixed with caustic potash, when it forms Vienna paste (see p.
123), [or with caustic soda known as London paste and is] used
to destroy warts and other small growths. Lime water applied to
weeping eczema is especially serviceable if mixed with glycerin.
Linimentum Calcis is very valuable for burns.

Internal. Lime water is much used to mix with milk to
prevent its forming thick curds in the stomach, especially when,



I $8 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

as is often the case with children, the curds cause vomiting. It
is difficult to understand how it acts, for, although lime water
contains so little lime, it is often efficacious. In severe cases of
infantile vomiting equal parts of milk and lime water may be
ordered. Lime water will check slight diarrhoea. It is a useful
injection for thread-worms, for leucorrhoea, and for gleet.

4. CALCII PHOSPHAS PR^ECIPITATUS.- [Precipitated Cal-
cium Phosphate. Caj(PO 4 ) 2 =3O9.33. Synonym. Precipitated Lime Phos-
phate.

SOURCE. Made from Bone Ash (impure Calcium Phosphate) digested
with diluted Hydrochloric acid, made alkaline with solution of Ammonia, and
by precipitation.

CHARACTERS. A light, white amorphous powder, colorless and tasteless,
and permanent in the air. Solubility. Almost insoluble in water.

Precipitated Calcium Phosphate is contained in Pulvis Antimonialis.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

Preparation.

Syrupus Calcii Lactophosphatis. Syrup of Calcium Lactophosphate.
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, 25 ; Phosphoric Acid, 36 ; Lactic Acid, 60 ;
Orange Flower Water, 25 ; Sugar, 700 ; Water, to iooo.
Dose, i to a fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE.

Calcium phosphate is a most important constituent of bones,
and therefore it is necessary that food should contain it. If not,
the bones become soft. Calcium salts are abundant in milk,
yolk of egg, vegetables, and the bones that carnivora eat. They
are absorbed from the intestine, and the excess is excreted into
the intestine and passed with the faeces. Calcium phosphate
has been given for rickets, and for the anaemia and feebleness
often seen in young children, but it is not certain that it does
any good. [It is important that calcium phosphate should be
made from bones when used in the treatment of rickets.] Tt
may be given to pregnant and [nursing] women in order to pro-
vide the child with sufficient calcium salts for its bones.

It is used as a diluent for powders, as it is inert, and it prevents
their agglutination. For these reasons, and because it is [almost]
insoluble, it is a useful constituent of pills containing essential



METALS OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS CALCIUM. 159

oils. The syrup of calcium lactophosphate is with many a fa-
vorite prescription for tuberculosis and other conditions of anae-
mia and weakness.

5. CALX SULPHURATA, * Sulphur.

6. CALCII CHLORIDUM. [Calcium Chloride. CaO 2 =ilo.65.
SOURCE. Obtained by neutralizing Hydrochloric Acid with Calcium

Carbonate and evaporating. CaCO 3 +2HCl=CaCl 2 +CO 2 -(-H 2 O. This is
rendered anhydrous by fusion at the lowest possible temperature.

CHARACTERS. White, slightly translucent, hard fragments, odorless,
having a sharp saline taste and very deliquescent. Solubility. In 1.5 parts
of water and in 8 parts of Alcohol.]

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE.
Calcium chloride, outside of the body, increases the rate
of coagulation of the blood [and produces a firmer clot. It
has been employed in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and
pneumonia, and has been recommended by See for gastric catarrh
and fermentative dyspepsia. Its most important use is for the
haemorrhages of scurvy and haemophilia. If maximum doses are
administered for several days previously, it is often possible to
perform operations upon bleeders. It may be of use in haema-
temesis and haemoptysis, and, possibly, also for aneurism.]

7. CALX CHLORATA, see Chlorine.

8. CALCII HYPOPHOSPHIS, see Phosphorus.
g. [CALCII BROMIDUM, see Bromine.

10. CALCII SULPHAS EXSICCATUS. Dried Calcium Sulphate.
Synonyms. Dried Gypsum. Plaster of Paris.

SOURCE. A powder containing about 95 per cent., by weight, of Calcium
Sulphate (CaSO 4 =l35-73), and about 5 per cent, of water, prepared from the
purer varieties of native Gypsum (CaSO 4 -|-2H 2 O=l7l.65), by heating until
about three- fourths of the water has been expelled.

CHARACTERS. An amorphous white powder, without taste or odor, and
when mixed with half its weight of water it forms a smooth paste, which rap-
idly hardens. Solubility. In about 410 parts of water ; insoluble in Alcohol.

Dried Calcium Phosphate is used to prepare Calx Sulphurata.

USES OF DRIED CALCIUM SULPHATE.

Dried Calcium sulphate is used for making casts of deformi-
ties and injuries, and for making immovable bandages and ap-
paratus for injuries and diseases when immobilization is necessary.



l6o INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

II. STRONTIUM.

Sr=8 7 . 3 .

1. STRONTII LACTAS. Strontium Lactate. Sr(C 3 H 5 Oj) a 4-3H 2 O
=318.76.

SOURCE. From the carbonate, by dissolving it in lactic acid somewhat
diluted with water ; if necessary, heat is applied to effect solution. After ni-
tration the solution is evaporated with moderate heat, to dryness. SrCO s -f-
2HC 3 H 6 3 =Sr(C s H 6 O s ) 2 +H J 0+C0 1 .

CHARACTERS. A white, granular powder or crystalline nodules, odorless
and having a slightly bitter taste. Permanent in the air. Solubility. In
about 4 parts of water ; soluble in Alcohol.

INCOMPATIBLE. Solutions of carbonates and sulphates, and potassium
chromate.

IMPURITIES. Barium carbonate, oxalates, metallic and organic impurities.

Dose, % to 2 dr. ; x. to 8. gm.

ACTION OF STRONTIUM LACTATE.

The strontium salts were demonstrated by Laborde to be
harmless to animals and men. He also ascribed to them a
diuretic action. If given for some time and in large quantities
they impair gastric digestion and subsequently the general nutri-
tion. The lactate reduces the amount of albumin in albumi-
nuria, and it is claimed to have a sedative effect on the heart in
diseases of the valves and of the muscular tissue. It also checks
fermentation and putrefaction in the small intestines.

THERAPEUTICS OF STRONTIUM LACTATE.

The strontium salts in gastric affections improve the appetite
and facilitate digestion, and are useful in chronic intestinal ca-
tarrh. The lactate is diuretic and is useful in albuminuria, due
to renal atony, but not in uraemia, nor in interstitial nephritis,
nor in the high fever of acute parenchymatous nephritis. In the
chronic form due to scrofula, rheumatism or gout it is useful. It
has had a decidedly beneficial action in diabetes of hepatic
origin, and in cirrhosis of the liver.

2. STRONTII BROMIDUM, see Bromine.

3. STRONTII IODIDUM, w Iodine.]



METALS OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS - BARIUM. l6l
III. BARIUM.



BARII DIOXIDUM. Barium Dioxide. BaO 2 =i68.82. Synonym.
Barium Peroxide.

SOURCE. By conducting oxygen over Barium Oxide, heated to full red-
ness.

CHARACTERS. A heavy, grayish-white, or pale, yellowish-white, amor-
phous, coarse powder, odorless and tasteless. When exposed to the air it
slowly attracts moisture and Carbon Dioxide, and is gradually decomposed.
Solubility. Almost insoluble in water.

IMPURITIES. Sulphates and nitrates.

INCOMPATIBLES. Hydrochloric, phosphoric and most other mineral acids.

Barium Dioxide is used in preparing Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi.

ACTION OF BARIUM SALTS.

Barium chloride (not official) causes the cardiac contractions
to become slower and more forcible, acting like digitalis. The
blood-vessels are constricted, and the blood pressure rises.
The plain muscular fibres of the intestine may be excited, and
the peristalsis is increased. In these respects it resembles ergot
as well as digitalis. It acts like veratrine when applied locally



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