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on any particular part. Lotions of it may be used as astrin-
gents, but they are not so useful as lead lotions, for they are
more irritating and cause pain. Silver salts, like lead salts, are
haemostatic, acting in precisely the same way. Weak solutions
of the nitrate stimulate to healthier action indolent ulcers and
other inflamed surfaces.

Internal. Silver salts, when locally applied to the mucous
membrane of the mouth, act as upon the abraded skin. In the
stomach the nitrate is decomposed ; we do not know what com-
pound is formed, but it is said to have no astringent action.
Silver is absorbed from the alimentary tract, for its long-continued
use leads to a bluish-slate color of the skin (argyria). This color
is due to the deposition of minute granules of metallic silver.
Very little is known about its further action. In acute poison-
ing severe vomiting and nervous symptoms, as convulsions, are
met with ; in the chronic form, seen more often when silver was
frequently prescribed internally, is shown by paralysis like that
due to lead, albuminuria, and the discoloration above mentioned.
Some is passed in the faeces as the sulphide ; some is deposited
in the internal organs, especially the kidney.


External. Silver nitrate is much used because it is, from its
limited action, one of the best caustics, and may be employed to
destroy warts and exuberant granulations, or to apply to bites ;
but it must be remembered that it is of no use when an extensive


or deep action is required. [Silver nitrate is a dangerous caustic
to employ in deep bites, for the pellicle of silver albuminate re-
tains the poison in the wound.] Because of its combination of
an irritant stimulating effect with an astringent influence, lotions
of it, of generally about 5 gr. ; [.30 gm.] to the fluid ounce ; [30.
c.c.] of water are of much benefit when applied as a paint to
weak ulcers, to bedsores, to the affected parts in chronic pharyn-
gitis or laryngitis, or as an injection in gleet or inflammation of
the [cervix] uteri. [An useful injection in gonorrhoea is silver
caseinate (Argonin, not official) in 1.5 per cent, solution which
causes the speedy disappearance of gonococci, but since this is
not astringent, other remedies must be employed to relieve the
inflammation. Silver lactate (Actol, not official) is used as an
antiseptic in sore throat, gonorrhoea, etc. , in a 2 per cent, solu-
tion. Silver citrate (Itrol, not official) in i to 4000 solution is
employed for the same purpose]. Weaker solutions (i to 240)
are employed for granular lids and various forms of ophthalmia.
[Ophthalmia neonatorum is best treated by early applications of
a i per cent, aqueous solution of silver nitrate. This is com-
monly known as C rede's method, but the original formula as
prescribed by him was double this strength.] Solutions of the
nitrate will sometimes relieve pruritus, and may be applied to
the red skin of a threatening bedsore ; very strong solutions
have been recommended as a local application in erysipelas.
Tinea tarsi is often treated by the application of solid silver
nitrate, and ulcers of the mouth and other parts may be touched
with it. It is an excellent haemostatic for leech-bites. It is also
applied to smallpox vesicles to prevent pitting, to boils, and to
the uterus in chronic cervical catarrh. Protargol [not official] ,
a proteid compound containing 8 per cent, of silver easily solu-
ble in water, is used as an injection for gonorrhoea. The usual
strength is i per cent. [Argentamine (not official) a 10 percent,
solution of silver nitrate in a 10 per cent, solution of ethylen-
diamine has been used in gonorrhoea and conjunctivitis in a i to
4000 solution ; also as a disinfectant. This sterilizes a pure
culture of gonococci in from five to seven minutes. It can be
used in as strong a solution as i to 1000 in the urethra, it pene-


trates deeply into the tissues without altering them, and by the
seventh day the discharge is usually quite thin and gonococci
can hardly be found. It then disappears rapidly. The iodide
possesses the general properties of the nitrate.

Silver, soluble in water, an allotropic form discovered by Lea
about 1890, now termed colloidal silver (not official), has re-
cently been well received and has obtained a permanent place
in therapeutics. It is employed as a 15 per cent, ointment
(Crede) by inunction. It has been used successfully for chronic
furunculosis, phlebitis and other septic processes.]

Internal. Silver salts are not much used internally, and
their continuous employment is objectionable on account of the
[discoloration of the skin] produced. They were formerly often
given in nervous diseases ; but there is no evidence that they did
any good. Although it is said that the compound of silver formed
in the stomach is non -astringent, silver nitrate will certainly
check severe diarrhoea, especially that of children. [Colloidal
silver is entirely soluble in water, and in albuminous fluids is
unirritating, so that it can be administered hypodermatically and
intravenously as well as by inunction, as is mentioned above.
For internal use, to prevent its conversion into a chloride in the
stomach, it is first dissolved in equal parts of albumin and gly-
cerin. The dose is gr. , .01 gm. , two or three times daily. Crede
claims that it has a very beneficial influence and often affords a
rapid cure in recent and also in chronic sepsis, when secondary
changes in the vital organs have not occurred. It seems to in-
hibit the action of staphylococci and streptococci or destroy
them altogether. It has been used in various conditions : osteo-
myelitis, so-called gonorrhceal rheumatism, puerperal fever,
cerebro-spinal meningitis, and diverse septic processes. Thus
far no instance of argyria from its use has been reported.]
Sixty grains [4. gm.] of silver nitrate dissolved in three pints
[1500. c.c.] of tepid water, and injected high up the rectum,
have been used with great benefit in dysentery.


The nitrate sometimes causes acute poisoning.
Symptoms. These are intense pain in the abdomen and muscular spasm,


followed by vomiting and purging. The face is livid and covered with per-
spiration. The vomited matter is black and contains coagulated mucus.
Chronic poisoning or argyria shows itself by a permanent slaty discoloration
of the skin, conjunctiva and labial mucous membrane and ulcerations in the
digestive tract.

Treatment. This consists of administering a solution of sodium chloride
(common salt), soothing the mucous membranes by injection of milk and reliev-
ing pain with opium. The chronic form is avoided by interrupting the treat-
ment, using eliminating remedies, and preventing staining of the skin by baths
of sodium hyposulphite. ]


1. ZINCUM. Zinc. Zn. [=65.10.

SOURCE. Roast the native Zinc Sulphide or Carbonate, and reduce the
resulting Oxide with Charcoal. .

CHARACTERS. A bluish-white metal in the form of thin sheets, or irreg-
ular, granulated pieces, or moulded into thin pencils, or in a state of fine

2. ZINCI CHLORIDUM. [Zinc Chloride. ZnCl 2 =i35.84.
Synonym. Butter of Zinc.

SOURCE. Dissolve Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid by boiling. The solution
contains Zinc Chloride, with Iron and Lead Chlorides as impurities. These
are precipitated by adding first Nitric Acid, then Zinc Carbonate. Filter and
finally evaporate. Zn-^HC^aZnCl-f-zHj.

CHARACTERS. A white, granular powder, or porcelain-like masses irreg-
ular, or moulded into pencils ; odorless, of such intensely caustic properties as
to make tasting dangerous, unless the salt be dissolved in much water, when it
has an astringent, metallic taste. Very deliquescent. Solubility. In 0.3 part
of water ; very soluble in Alcohol.

IMPURITIES. Iron and lead chlorides,] calcium and sulphates.

3. LIQUOR ZINCI CHLORIDI. Solution of Zinc Chloride.
SOURCE. [Prepared as above, but with the addition of water.
CHARACTERS. A clear, colorless liquid of an astringent, sweetish taste.

Sp. gr. about 1.535. I* contains about 50 per cent, by weight of the salt.]


External. It is very caustic, penetrating deeply, and
limited in its effect to the seat of application. It is strongly
antiseptic, and a solution of it of sp. gr. 2.0, known as Bur-
nett's fluid, is used as a domestic antiseptic.

Internal, see Toxicology.



External. It is used as a powerful caustic, and is often
made into sticks with plaster of Paris to destroy warts, nsevi,
condylomata, lupoid patches, etc. For the same purpose it may
be made into a paste with equal parts of starch or flour. [Can-
quoin's paste is a mixture of zinc chloride in varying strength
with wheat flour and water.] Either the liquor, or Burnett's
fluid, may be employed to wash out bed-pans, closets, etc., but
zinc chloride is not so commonly used as other antiseptics.
[Platt's chlorides are said to consist of various salts of zinc,
chiefly of the chloride, in saturated solution.] Zinc chloride is
not given internally.

4. ZINCI SULPHAS. [Zinc Sulphate. ZnSO 4 +7H 2 O=286.64.
Synonym. White Vitriol.

SOURCE. Made with Zinc and Sulphuric Acid as the chloride was made
from Hydrochloric Acid, and with the same precautions for removing impuri-

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent rhombic crystals, without odor, very
like Magnesium Sulphate (see p. 162), but having an astringent, metallic taste.
Solubility. In 0.6 part of water ; insoluble in Alcohol.]

IMPURITIES. Lead, iron, copper and arsenic.

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies and other carbonates, lime water, lead acetate,
silver nitrate, astringent vegetable infusions or decoctions, and milk.

Dose, y z to 2 gr. ; [.03 to .12 gin.] (tonic) : 10 to 30 gr. ; [.60 to 2.00
gin.] (emetic).

Carbonate. [2(ZnCO s ) s Zn(OH),?=546.94?.

SOURCE. Boil together solutions of Zinc Sulphate and Sodium Carbonate.
3ZnSo 4 4-3Na z CO s +2H,O=2(ZnCO 3 \Zn(OH) 2 -|-2CO. 1 +3Na i SO 4 . Dry the
precipitated Zinc Salt.

CHARACTERS. An impalpable, white powder, of somewhat variable
chemical composition, without odor or taste. Similar in constitution to Mag-
nesium Carbonate. Solubility. Insoluble in water and Alcohol.]

IMPURITIES. Sulphates, chlorides and copper.

Zinc Carbonate is rarely used except to make the Oxide and Acetate.

6. ZINCI OXIDUM. [Zinc Oxide. ZnO=8i.o6.

SOURCE. Heat the precipitated Carbonate to redness in a crucible.
2(ZnCO s ) J Zn(OH) r =3ZnO+3H,0+C0 1 .

CHARACTERS. An amorphous, white, tasteless, and odorless powder.
Solubility. Insoluble in water and Alcohol.]


IMPURITIES. The carbonate and its impurities.
Dose, i to 5 gr. ; [.06 to .30 gm.]


1. Unguentum [Zinci Oxidi. Ointment of Zinc Oxide. Zinc
Oxide, 200 ; Benzoinated Lard, 800 < melted together.

2. Oleatum Zinci. Oleate of Zinc. Zinc Oxide, 50 ; Oleic
Acid, 950.]

7. ZINCI ACETAS. [Zinc Acetate. Zn(C 2 H s O 2 ) 2 ,+2H 2 O=2i8.74.

SOURCE. Dissolve Zinc Oxide in Acetic Acid and water, and boil.
ZnO+2HC 2 H 3 O 2 =Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 +H 2 O. Zinc Acetate crystallizes out.

CHARACTERS. Soft, white, six-sided monoclinic plates, of a pearly lustre,
having a faintly acetous odor, and an astringent, metallic taste. Solubility.
In 2.7 parts of water ; and in 36 parts of Alcohol.]

IMPURITIES. Those of the precipitated carbonate.

INCOMPATIBLES. The same as of the sulphate.

Dose, y 2 to 2 gr. ; [.03 to .12 gm.] (tonic).

8. [ZINCI BROMIDUM. See Bromine.

9. ZINCI IODIDUM. See Iodine.]

10. ZINCI VALERIANAS. See Valeriana.

11. [ZINCI PHOSPHIDUM. See Phosphorus.]

12. ZINCI SULPHOCARBOLAS. See Acidum Carbolicum.


External. These salts when applied to the broken skin or
an ulcerated surface, are all astringents, acting by precipitat-
ing the albumin in the discharge and also that in the tissues.
Thus they resemble lead and silver salts, but as a whole they are
less powerfully astringent. The most active of them are the sul-
phate and acetate, whilst the [precipitated] carbonate and oxide
are very weak. All these zinc salts are mild haemostatics.

Internal. Alimentary canal. They all have an astringent
effect on the gastric and intestinal mucous membranes. The
sulphate, and to a less degree the [precipitated] carbonate, in
doses of about 20 gr. [1.20 gm.] are prompt emetics. They
act directly on the stomach, and have the advantage of produc-
ing very little depression.

Remote effects. Nothing is known about the remote action
of zinc salts, nor do we know how they act on the blood. It has
been stated that they are depressant to the nervous system as a



whole, and that they act as remote astringents, and will there-
fore arrest haemorrhage from the uterus, kidney, etc., but this
statement is probably incorrect. The prolonged administration
of zinc salts causes symptoms like those of lead poisoning.
Probably the symptoms of which those who work with zinc
sometimes complain are due to arsenic and other metals which
contaminate zinc compounds.


External. A solution of the sulphate, generally about [i to
240] , usually colored red with compound tincture of lavender,
and then called Lotio Rubra, is very often applied for its
astringent effect to all sorts of raw surfaces and ulcers, and as
an injection in gonorrhoea, leucorrhcea, vulvitis or otitis. Plain
solutions of this strength may be applied to the eye for conjunc-
tivitis. The oleate is an excellent application to sores and
ulcers when a less astringent preparation is required ; and the
oxide and [precipitated] carbonate, either dusted on the part or
used as an ointment, are in constant use for cases in which only
a mild astringent effect is desirable. An ointment, often known
as Unguentum Metallorum, consists of equal parts of oint-
ments of zinc oxide, lead acetate, and diluted mercuric nitrate.
This is a very good application for many varieties of eczema,
sores and ulcers. Equal parts of zinc oleate, mercuric oleate
and diachylon ointment (see p. 166) form an ointment which
has the great advantage of being transparent, and therefore the
progress of the disease can be observed, without washing off the
ointment. Calamine (purified zinc carbonate) is an excellent
slight astringent for skin diseases. An ointment ( i to 5 of ben-
zoinated lard) or a lotion (calamine, 3 ; zinc oxide, 3 ; lime
water, 16; glycerin, 4; water, 160;) are good preparations.
The following often succeeds in pruritus : Zinc oxide, 25 ; gela-
tin, 20 ; glycerin, 60 ; water to 480. The jelly is to be melted
when used, and applied with a brush, and then covered with

Internal. Alimentary canal. On account of their disagree-
able taste, solutions of zinc salts are not used as astringents to


the mouth. Small doses of the oxide or sulphate may be given
as astringents in diarrhoea. The sulphate is a very good emetic
for cases of poisoning, for it acts promptly without causing much
nausea and hardly any depression. It is occasionally given as an
emetic to children suffering from laryngitis or bronchitis.

Remote effects. Because it is believed to act as a depressant
to the nervous system, zinc sulphate has been given in hysteria,
epilepsy, whooping-cough and chorea in doses of i to 3 gr. [.06
to .20 gm.] thrice a day. Its use is now generally limited to
chorea, but often its effect is so slow that it is difficult to prove
that the patient would not have improved quite as rapidly with-
out any drug. It is usually said to be a tonic, but there is no
trustworthy evidence for this statement. The oxide [Trous-
seau's pill (5 gr. ; .30 gm. of zinc oxide with i gr. ; .06 gm.
of extract of hyoscyamus)] , given internally will occasionally
check the night-sweats of phthisis [but it is quite likely to in-
terfere with the digestion] .


Symptoms, Zinc Chloride is a corrosive irritant poison, causing a sensation
of burning in the mouth and throat, abdominal pain, vomiting the vomit con-
taining blood, mucus, and shreds of mucous membrane, violent purging, and
collapse. [Zinc Sulphate, in large doses, acts as an irritant poison producing
vomiting, colicky pains, diarrhoea and prostration.] Post-mortem. The ap-
pearances are those produced by an acute irritant.

Treatment. Wash out the stomach, or give emetics (see p. 139), and then
demulcents ; [lime water, mucilaginous drinks, and albumin freely in the form
of eggs or milk.]



i. CUPRI SULPHAS. [Copper Sulphate. CuSO 4 -f5H 2 O=248.8.
Synonyms. Blue Vitriol. Bluestone. Cupric Sulphate.

SOURCE. Heat Copper and Sulphuric Acid together, and dissolve the
soluble product in hot water and evaporate. 2Cu-j-2H 2 SO 4 =2CuSO 4 -|-2H2.

CHARACTERS. Large, transparent, deep blue, triclinic crystals, odorless,
of a nauseous, metallic taste. Solubility. In 2.6 parts of water ; almost in-
soluble in Alcohol.]


INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies and their carbonates, lime water, mineral salts
(except sulphates), iodides and most vegetable astringents.


Dose, y% to Yi gr. ; [.008 to .03 gm.], (astringent), 2 to 20 gr. ; [.12
to i. 20 gm.] (emetic).

\Copper Sulphate is used in preparing Trommer's and Fehling's test for
sugar. ]


External. In the solid form copper sulphate is, when applied
to raw surfaces, a powerful caustic. In dilute solutions it is an
astringent, acting like zinc sulphate, but more powerfully.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Here also, if very concen-
trated or given in large doses, copper sulphate is an acute caustic
irritant, but poisoning by it is very rare. In medicinal doses it
is strongly astringent. Five to ten grains [.30 to .60 gm.]
of the sulphate form a powerful emetic, acting directly on the
stomach. As it is more irritating than zinc sulphate it acts more
readily, but it has the disadvantage that, if it fails to act, the
stomach must be promptly emptied by some other means, for if
not the copper sulphate will cause inflammation of it.

Remote effects. Copper salts are slowly absorbed, and copper
is chiefly re-excreted by the liver in the bile. Nothing is known
of its further effects.


External. The sulphate is applied as a caustic to reduce
exuberant granulations, and is used for tinea tarsi, being rubbed
on the edges of the lids ; as it is milder than silver nitrate, it
causes less pain. The Lapis Divinus, which is often used for
this last purpose, consists of copper sulphate, potassium nitrate,
[and alum, of each] 24 parts, [and] camphor i part. The first
three are fused together. The camphor is added, and the mass
is cast into cylindrical moulds. Lotions of copper sulphate,
usually about [i to 240], may be applied as astringents for just
the same purpose as lotions of zinc sulphate ; but it must be
remembered that they are more powerful. This is the usual
strength for solutions which are to be dropped into the eye.
Rather stronger solutions are mild haemostatics. Copper oleate
[not official] made with lanolin, into an ointment of a strength
of 10 to 20 per cent, is an excellent parasiticide for ringworm.


Internal. In small doses copper sulphate is valuable for
severe diarrhoea ; usually it is given by the mouth in the form of
a pill, but it may be given as a rectal injection. It is a rapid
emetic, and may be employed in laryngitis and bronchitis in
children, and in cases of narcotic poisoning, for which it is use-
ful on account of its prompt action. It is [extremely doubtful
if it is] particularly serviceable in phosphorus poisoning [but]
if it is used, copper [may be] deposited on the phosphorus ren-
dering it inert. It is usual to give three or four grains [.20 to
.25 gm.] of the sulphate in water every few minutes till vomiting
takes place. After emetic doses of copper sulphate, there is gen-
erally only one act of vomiting, but by that the stomach is com-
pletely emptied. Very little is known about the remote action of
salts of copper, but it is stated that the sulphate will cure chloro-
sis, [and it has been recommended for the treatment of syphilis.]


Symptoms. In sufficient doses copper salts are violent gastro-intestinal
irritants, but acute poisoning is very rare. Copper may be taken in very small
quantities for a long time without producing any ill effects, for many persons
habitually consume, without harm, preserved vegetables, the green color of
which is due to preparation with copper. It has been thought that copper-
smiths are particularly liable to phthisis, but they are not more prone to it than
the followers of other dusty trades. Workers in brass may suffer from anaemia,
a green line on and at the base of the teeth, wasting, weakness, dyspepsia,
tremors, headache, vague pains, pharyngeal and laryngeal catarrh with occa-
sional haemoptysis and aphonia, and profuse secretion of sweat which may be
green. These symptoms are thought to be due to the copper contained in
brass. Sometimes colic is due to the contamination of copper and brass by

[ Treatment. For acute poisoning give albumin, milk or magnesia. Potas-
sium ferrocyanide is the chemical antidote. Then promptly empty the stomach
and saturate the system with potassium iodide. Chronic poisoning is best
treated by the administration of fifteen drops of diluted phosphoric acid before
each meal, the ingestion of large quantities of milk and thorough daily evacua-
tion of the bowels with magnesium or sodium sulphate.]



x. BISMUTHI SUBCARBONAS. Bismuth Subcarbonate. (BiO),,
CO J +H 2 0?= 5 2 7 .S3?.


SOURCE. Dissolve Purified Bismuth in Nitric Acid and water, decant and
filter, mix with Ammonia Water ; the precipitate is washed and dissolved in
Nitric Acid, and poured into a solution of Sodium Carbonate, the resulting
precipitate is collected and washed. The final reaction is 2Bi( NO 3 ) 3 -j-3Na 2 CO 3
-f H 2 O=(BiO) 2 ,CO 3 +H 2 O-|-6NaNO 3 -|-2CO 2 . The precipitated Carbonate is
separated by filtration.

CHARACTERS. A white or pale yellowish-white powder, of somewhat
varying chemical composition, odorless and tasteless. Solubility. Insoluble
in water and Alcohol. ]

IMPURITIES. [Lead, arsenic, chlorides and nitrates, tellurium, the last
giving an alliaceous odor to the breath. ]

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.]

2. BISMUTHI SUBNITRAS. [Bismuth Subnitrate. BiONO 8 -f

H 2 0?= 3 o 4 .7i?.]

SOURCE. Dissolve Purified Bismuth in Nitric Acid and water, concen-
trate by evaporation, pour in more water, and stir thoroughly, wash and dry
the precipitated Subnitrate. [Bi 2 -f-6HNO 3 =2Bi(NO 3 ) 3 -j-3H 2 and Bi(NO 3 ) 3
-fH 2 O=BiONO 3 +2HNO 3 .

CHARACTERS. A heavy, white powder, of somewhat varying chemical
composition, odorless and almost tasteless. Solubility. Almost insoluble in
water ; soluble in Alcohol. ]

IMPURITIES. As of the subcarbonate.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.]

[Bismuth Subnitrate is used to prepare Neylander's test for glucose in

3. BISMUTHI CITRAS. [Bismuth Citrate. BiC 6 H 5 Cy=397.44.
SOURCE. Boil Bismuth Subnitrate, loo ; in Citric Acid, 70 ; dissolved in

sufficient water. Wash the Precipitate and dry. BiONO 3 -|-H 3 C 6 H 6 O 7 +
H 2 0=BiC 6 H 5 7 +N0 4 -t-H 2 0.

CHARACTERS. A white, amorphous micro-crystalline powder. Solubility,
Insoluble in water ; soluble in Ammonia.

IMPURITIES. As of the subcarbonate.]

Dose, i to 3 gr. ; [.06 to .20 gm.]


Bismuth! et Ammonii Citras. [Bismuth and Ammonium

SOURCE. Mix Bismuth Citrate, 100; with distilled water to make
a paste, heat, add Ammonia Water to make a solution, filter, evaporate,
and dry on plates of glass.

CHARACTERS. Small, shining, pearly or translucent scales, of a
slightly acidulous and metallic taste. Solubility. Very soluble in
water ; sparingly soluble in Alcohol.]

Dose, 2 to 5 gr. ,' [.12 to .30 gm.]


4. BISMUTHI SALICYLAS. [Bismuth Salicylate (Not official.)
Bi(C 7 H 5 3 ) 3 Bi 2 3 =io8 4 .5 9 .

SOURCE. It is prepared by diluting a Glycerin solution of crystallized
Bismuthous Nitrate with water, and decomposing this with a concentrated
aqueous solution of Sodium Salicylate ; the precipitate is well washed with hot
water and carefully dried. It contains about 76 per cent, of Bismuth Oxide

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