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Materia medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics online

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M.D. ;] but these doses are often not rigorously adhered to in prescribing.
They vary with the purpose for which the drug is required and the age of the
patient (see Doses, p. 39). The following is an account of the preparation of
the pharmacopoeial preparations, and the attempt has been made to arrange
the doses so as to make them easy of remembrance.

[Unless otherwise specified, the preparations are for internal use.]

Aceta [(Vinegars). Liquid preparations resulting from the
extraction of the drug with dilute acetic acid, and filtering.
The U. S. P. contains two.

Dose.

Acetum Opii 3 20^; .20 1.20 c.c.

Acetum Scillae 1045*11; .60 3.00 c.c.]

Aquae [(Waters). Preparations made by impregnating
water with a volatile substance.

Mostly made by triturating the substance with precipitated
calcium phosphate and filtering. Those in the U. S. P. thus
made are

- u A a nf s r. niculi : :



2O PHARMACY.



Dose.

Aqua Cinnamomi ^ I flj 15. 30. c.c.

Camphorae )

. Menthae Piperitae .... [ % 2 flg ; 15. 60. c.c.

Menthae Viridis . . . J

Three are made by distillation :

Dose.
Aqua Aurantii Florum Fortior . . indetenninate.

Destillata indeterminate.

Rosae Fortior indetenninate.

Six are simple solutions in cold water :

Dose.
Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi . . . I 3^3', 4- 12. c.c.

}i 4fl3; 4 - I5-C.C.

Amygdalae Amarae .... 2 46" 3; 8. 15. c.c.

Rosae indefinite.

Aurandi Florum "

Three are made by passing gases through water :

Dose.
Aqua Ammoniae Fortior . . . 3 6 1T l; .20 .40 c.c.

Ammoniae 10 20 - ; .60 1.20 c.c.

Chlori I 4fl3; 4- 15. c.c.

f Cerata (Cerates). Adhesive preparations for external use,
containing wax, capable of being spread at ordinary tempera-
tures, and not melting at the temperature of the body. Six are
official in U. S. P.



Ceratum

Camphorae



Ceratum Cantharidis I Ceratum Resinae

Cetacei I Plumbi Subacetatis



Charta (Papers). Non-absorbent papers coated with plas-
ter-like preparations and used like plasters. The U. S. P.
contains two :

Charta Sinapis, made from mustard.

Potassii Nitratis, made from potassium nitrate.

* Collodia (Collodions). Preparations for external use, either
simple collodion, a solution of pyroxylin in ether and alcohol,



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES. 21

or impregnated with an active substance.] When applied ex-
ternally a protective film is formed owing to the rapid volatili-
zation of the solvent. [The U. S. P. contains four :

Collodium. I Collodium Gantharidatum.

Flexile. I Stypticum.

7 Confectiones (Confections). Synonym. Electuaries. In
England also called Boluses or Conserves. Permanent pasty
preparations of powdered drugs thoroughly triturated with syrup
or honey. The U. S. P. contains two :

Confectio Rosse, used as a basis for pills.
Sennse . . . dose, I 25; 4. 8. gm.

7 Decocta (Decoctions). Liquid preparations of organic
drugs, 5 grammes of drug to 100 c.c. of decoction unless other-
wise specified by the physician or Pharmacopoeia, made by ex-
hausting the drug by boiling in water, straining the resulting
liquid, and adding sufficient cold water to secure the required
ratio. The U. S. P. contains two :

Dote.
Decoctum Cetrariae

Sarsaparillse Compositum . . j " o 3

Decoctions should be freshly made, as they are liable to de-
compose.

[Elixira (Elixirs). Sweet and aromatic liquid preparations,
/ containing 20 to 25 per cent, of alcohol. There are two in the
U. S. P. :

Elixir Aromaticum dose, indeterminate.

Elixir Phosphori dose, ^-2^63; 2. IO. c.c.

+ Emplastra (Plasters). Tenacious preparations for external
application, solid at ordinary temperatures, but pliable and ad-
hesive at the temperature of the body. Those of the U. S. P.
are:



22 PHARMACY.

\ Lead oxide olive oil and water. Lead oleate and
Emplastrum Plumbi > , . , ,

J glycerin are formed.

Anunoniaci cum

Hydrargyro

Hydrargyri f Lead P laster ^ the basis '

Opii

Saponis

Resinae Lead plaster and wax as the basis.

Arnicas \ Resin plaster, which is made from Lead plaster, as

Capsici / the basis.

Belladonnas Resin and soap plaster as the basis.

Picis Burgundicas Wax the basis.

Ichthyocollse Court plaster.

Picis Cantharidatum Wanning plaster.

Emulsa (Emulsions). Liquid preparations consisting of
oily or resinous substances held suspended in water which has
been rendered mucilaginous or viscid. Mucilago Acacige and
Tragacanthae are frequently used to form emulsions. Mucilago
^ Aca'ciae should be recently prepared. It is incompatible with
ferric chloride, borax, and lead subacetate.

Emulsions are coagulated by acids, an undue proportion of
metallic salts, and spirituous liquids. There are in U. S. P. :

Dose.
Emulsum Chloroformi I 4^3; 4. 15.0,0.

Ammoniaci ... ' . . )

-Asafcetidae /*-! *-***

Amygdalae indeterminate.

Extract a (Extracts). Solid or soft-solid preparations not
agreeing in strength, made by evaporating solutions of the active
constituents of organic drugs to the required consistency.

The drug is first powdered, then macerated and percolated with the appro-
priate menstruum to exhaustion. The first third of the percolate is reserved,
the remainder is evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 122 F. ; 50 C. ;
until its weight is ten per cent, of that of the drug used, then mixed with the
reserved portion, and both are evaporated at or below the above-named tempera-
ture until an extract of a pilular consistence remains. For converting extracts
into powdered extracts it is sometimes necessary to add an inert dry substance.
The menstrua used are :



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES.



(a) Alcohol ; Extractum Aconiti, Cannabis Indicae, Cimicifugae, Colo-
cynthidis Compositum, Iridis, Jalapae, and Physostigmatis.

() Alcohol and water; Extractum Belladonnae Foliarum Alcoholicum,
Digitalis, Euonymi, Leptandrae, Podophylli, Rhei, and Uvae Ursi.

(f) Alcohol, water and diluted alcohol ; Extractum Cinchonae, Hyoscyami.
(</) Diluted alcohol ; Extractum Arnicae Radicis, Cinchonae, Colocynthi-
dis, Juglandis, and Stramonii Seminis.

(e) Water; Extractum Aloes, Gentianae, Glycyrrhizae, Haematoxyli, Kra-
meriae, Opii, and Quassiae.

(/") Water and Aqua Ammonise ; Extractum Glycyrrhizae Purum.

(g) Acetic Acid and water ; Extractum Colchici Radicis.
(^) Acetic Acid and diluted alcohol ; Extractum Conii.

(*') Acetic Acid, alcohol, and water ; Extractum Nucis Vomicae.

Extractum Taraxaci is an inspissated juice.

Extractum Ergotae is obtained by evaporating the fluid extract.

They are in the U. S. P.

Dose.
Extractum Aconiti -fa % gr- > .006 .015 gm.

Physostigmatis -fa | gr. ; .006 .03 gm.

Belladonnae Foliarum Alcoholicum ^ ^ gr. ; .008 .03 gm.

Nucis Vomicse . . . )

_ o p ii ; l /* ' & ' 8 - 06 &*

Cannabis Indicae y& % gr. ; .01 .045 gm.

Stramonii Seminis % / gr- J .015 .03 gm.

Digitalis % I gr. ; .015 .06 gm.

Conii y$ I gr. ; .02 .06 gm.

Colocynthidis ~)

Colchici Radicis \ \/L 2 er. : .01 .12 em.

. J /* & >

Hyoscyami

f /4 3 gr- ; -3 - 2O g-

Aloes )

Leptandrae 1

f I ~ 3 gr- 5 - 6 - 20 g.

Indis )

Euonymi . 1 ,

r- -c r J 5 gr- ; -06 .30 gm.

Cimicifugae )

Jalapae 2 8 gr. ; .12 .50 gm.

. Gentianae . 1

V 2 10 gr. ; .12 .oogm.

Podophylli f

Rhei 3 15 gr. ; .20 l.oo gm.

Arnicas Radicis . 1 ,
-Krameri. } 5~io gr. ; .30- .60 gm.

Colocynthidis Compositum . . "j

Haematoxyli .

-Ergotae ' 5-15 gr- 5 .30-1.00 gm.

Uvae Ursi .



PHARMACY.



Extractum Cinchonae ,

Taraxaci . ,

Juglandis .

Glycyrrhizae .
Purum .



Dose.
53 g r - 5 -3 2 - gm.



| Freely.



Extracta Fluida (Fluid Extracts). Liquid preparations of
organic drugs, made by completely exhausting the drug by suit-
able menstrua, and concentrating the resulting filtered solution,
so that there shall be i c.c. of the latter for each gramme of drug
extracted. They are made by percolation and partial evapora-
tion, the menstruum employed being usually alcohol, diluted
alcohol, or alcohol and water in various proportions. They are
in the U. S. P. :



FLUID EXTRACTS.



Extractum Aconiti Fluidum ....

Digitalis Fluidum ....

Belladonnae Radicis Fluidum .

Stramonii Seminis " . ,

Nucis Vomicae " . ,

Ipecacuanhae Fluidum (expect.)

" " (emetic,)

Sanguinariaa Fluidum (expect. ) .

" " (emetic,)

Veratri Viridis Fluidum .



Colchici Seminis

Conii

Cannabis Indicse

Capsici

Colchici Radicis



Apocyni

Gelsemii

Zingiberis

Mezerei

Sabinae

Hyoscyami

Arnicae Radicis

Podophylli



Dose.



I 4m;



15 60 "I;



} -



2 10 m;
2 20 TTl ;

5 10 m;



.03 .12 C.C.

.03 .20 c.c.
.06 .20 c.c.

.06 .25 c.c.
.06 .30 c.c.

I.OO 2 .OO C.C.

.06 .30 c.c.
i.oo 4.00 c.c.

.06 .30 c.c.

.12 .30 C.C.

.12 .50 C.C.

.12 .60 C.C.
.12 1. 2O C.C.

.30 .60 c.c.



5 15 ftl ; .30 i.oo c.c.



| 5 20 ""I; .30 1. 20 c.c.



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES.



FLUID EXTRACTS.



Dost.



Extractum Gentians Fluidum

Krameriae "

Aspidospermatis " .

Convallariae "

Menispermi " .

PhytolaccaeRadicis" .

Calumbae "

Lupulini " .

Pilocarpi "

Hydrastis ' ' .

Senegae " .

Aromaticum " .

Valerianae ' ' .

Iridis " .

Serpentariae " .

Xanthoxyli " .

Cinchonas " .

Buchu " .

Eriodictyi "

Cypripedii " .

Calami "

Eupatorii " .

Gossypii Radicis " .

Grindelias " .

Guaranae "

Quassiae ' .

Rhamni Purshiance ' ' .

Scoparii

Rhei

Rhois Glabrae

Rosae

Rumicis

Stillingise

Uvae Ursi

Viburni Prunifolii

Leptandrse

Geranii

Ergotae

Pareirae

Pruni Virginianae

Sarsaparillae

" Compositum



5 30 tn. ; . 30 2. oo c. c.



5 60 m; .30 4.00C.C.

10 20 m; .60 1.20 c.c.

IO 30 "HI ; .60 2.OO C.C.

IO 60 ttl ; .60 4.00 C.C.

IS 30 m; 1.00 2.00C.C.



26



PHARMACY.



FLUID EXTRACTS.



Extractum Chiratae Flui
Cimicifugae
Cubebae
Lappae
Spigeliae
Rubi
Aurantii Amari
Hamamelidis
Castaneae
Asclepiadis
Chimaphilae
Eucalypti
Frangulae
Matico
Scutellariae
Viburni Opuli
Dulcamarae
Sennae
Taraxaci
Cocae
Cusso
Triad
Glycvrrhizae


dum . . . .

<


Dose

X-ifl3

X 2fl 3

l / 2 2fl3

I 2fl3

i-3 fl 3
i 4 fl3

1-8 fl S

Freelv. 1


<

<










;


::::;, j


i


: : : : : J





l.oo 8.00 c.c.



2.00 8.00 c.c.



4.00 8.00 c.c.



4.00 12.00 c.c.



4.00 15.00 c.c.



4.00 30.00 c.c.



Glycerita (Glycerites). Solutions of drugs in glycerin.
They are all liquid preparations, [mostly] used for external
application. [In the U. S. P. are six :



Glyceritum Acidi Carbolici.

Acidi Tannici.

Amyli.



Glyceritum Boroglycerini.

Hydrastis.

Vitelli.



Infusa (Infusions). Liquid preparations of organic drugs,
5 grammes of drug to 100 c.c. of infusion, unless otherwise
specified by the physician or Pharmacopaeia, made by exhausting
the drug for a specified time in a covered vessel, by water poured
upon it at a boiling temperature (excepting Infusum Cinchonse
and Pruni Virginianae which are made with cold water), straining
and adding sufficient water to secure the required ratio.

The infusions of the U. S. P. are :



Infusum Digitalis .

Cinchonas . .

Pruni Virginianae



fls; 4- '5- c.c.

fl 3 ; 30. 60. c.c.



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES. 2/

Infusum Sennae Compositum . . . I 2J^ fl J ; 30. 75. c.c.

One is compound : Infusum Sennae Compositum.

One contains acid : Infusum Cinchonae. ]

Infusions should be freshly made, as they readily decompose.

-7 Linimenta [(Liniments). Solutions or mixtures for external
' application, liquid, at least upon application. All of which are*

intended to be rubbed into the skin except Linimentum Calcis.

Those in the U. S. P. are :

Linimentum Ammoniae . . Ammonia water and cotton seed oil.

Calcis Solution of lime and linseed oil.

Camphorae Camphor and cotton seed oil.

Plumbi Subacetatis . . Solution of , lead subacetate and cotton seed oil

Belladonnas .... Fluid extract of drug and camphor.

Cantharidis .... Cantharides and oil of turpentine.

Chloroformi .... Chloroform and soap liniment.

Saponis Soap, camphor, oil of rosemary, and alcohol.

Saponis Mollis . ( Soft soa P' oil of lavender flowers, alcohol, and

I water.

Sinapis Compositum . . j Oil of mustard > fluid extrac * f mezereum, cam-

I phor, castor oil, and alcohol.

Terebinthinae .... Resin cerate and oil of turpentine.

Liquores (Liquors). Solutions of chemical substances in a
menstruum consisting chiefly or wholly of water. The following
are the liquors of the U. S. P. :

Dose.
Liquor lodi Compositus . . .

Sodii Arsenatis \ I 10 ^H. ; .06 .60 c.c.

Arseni et Hydrargyri lodidi

Potassii Arsenitis

Ferri Acetatis

Chloridi

Nitratis ,

Subsulphatis ....

Acidi Arsenosi 5 IO ""1 .30 .60 c.c.

Ferri Citratis S T S ^ > -3 i.oo c.c.

Sodae 5 20 Ttl .30 1.20 c.c.

Potassae 5 30 l ; .30 2.00 c.c.

Sodae Chloratae }4 ' fl^J 2. 4.00 c.c.

Ferri et Ammonii Acetatis . . I 463; 4. 15.00 c.c.

'.'.'. 1 I 8flz; 4. 30.00 c.c.

Potassi Citratis /

Ammonii Acetatis .... 2 8 fl^; 8. 30.00 c.c.

Magnesii Citratis 2 8 fl^ ; 60. 240 c.c.



2 IO ftl .12 .60 c.c.



28 PHARMACY.



The following are not used internally :

Liquor Ferri Tersulphatis.

Hydrargyri Nitratis.

Plumbi Subacetatis.



Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis Dilutus.

Sodii Silicatis.

Zinci Chloridi.



^ Massae (Masses). Pill-masses intended for preservation in
/ bulk until required for use. Three are official in the U. S. P. :

Dase.

Massa Hydrargyri J^ 15 gr. ; .03 i.oogm.

Ferri Carbonatis I 5 gr. ; .06 .30 pm.

Copaiba* j^ I 3 ; i.oo 4.00 gin.

Me Hit a (Honeys). Mixtures of medicinal substances with
clarified honey. The U. S. P. contains only two, one of these
being simply honey purified.

Mel Despumatum. | Mel Rosae.

*f Misturae (Mixtures). Liquid preparations of insoluble,
suspended, active substances, or solutions containing more than
one liquid of therapeutic activity. The mixture is usually fla-
vored, and is for internal administration. Examples in U. S. P. :

Dose.
Mistura Rhei et Sodae . . . # 2fl 3; * 8. c.c.

Glycyrrhizaa Composita . . I 4 fl ; 4. 15. c.c.

Crete . 2 _ 4 fl-. 8. 15. c.c.

Ferri Composita . . . . /

x Mucilagines (Mucilages). Adhesive liquids or jelly-like
preparations, consisting of gum or starch dissolved in or fully
charged with water. The U. S. P. contains four :

Mucilago Acacia. Mucilago Tragacanthae.

Sassafras Medullae. Ulmi.]
There is no fixed dose ; it is usually I fl 5 ; [4. c.c.

^ Oleata. Oleates are solutions in oleic acid, intended for
external application. The U. S. P. contains three :

Oleatum Hydrargyri (20 per cent of yellow mercuric oxide).

Veratrinae (2 per cent, of veratrine).

Zinci (5 per cent, of zinc oxide)].



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES.



2 9



Olea. There are many oils in the Pharmacopoeia. They
are all obtained by distillation or by expression except Oleum
Phosphoratum, which is a solution of phosphorus in almond oil.
[The U. S. P. olea are :



!>U**Ct-rL Oleum Sinafiis Volatile . .
AmyEJualae Amarae . .

CA^SHc-Ti^f

(jk" -*^* Aurantii Florum . . .

' ^t^v' r Myristicae

**&* A * Cajuputi

Can

Anisi

Caryophylli ....
-y Cinnamomi ....

Lavandula/ Florum .
Menthae Piperitae . . .

Viriais

Pimentaa

Rosmarini

Betulae Volatile . . .

Sassafras

Thymi

Sabinae

Phosphoratum

Foeniculi

Gaultherise ....

Hedeomaa

Coriandri

Chenopodii ....

Santali

Juniperi

Copaibae

Erigerontis ....

Cubebae

Eucalypti

Terebinthinae ....
Rectificatum . . .

Morrrfuae

Amygdalae Expression .

Ricini

Lani

Sesami

Olivae .



Dose.



y z ""1 ;



' 3



.008
.01

.015
.06



.015 c.c.

.03 c.c.

.12 C.C.

.20 C.C.



f 5



(



<A-H)






.06 .30 c.c.



i 5



2 5 m;



!~



5 20



530



.06 .30 c.c.



.12 .30 C.C.

.12 .60 C.C.

.30 i.oo c.c.

.30 1. 20 c.c.

.30 2.OO C.C.



C.C.
C.C.



V i 4-fl3; 4- 15.00
% 2 fl ; 8.00 60.00

y z 2fl3; 15.00 60.00 c.c.

indefinite.

freely.






3<D PHARMACY.

Oleum Gossypii Seminis . . .

-Picis Liquid* I externally.

Cadim



Theobromatis

Adipis 1 . ,

v m pharmacy.

^Ethereum J

Myrcise as perfume.

Aurantii Corticis ....

Bergamottse



Limonis

Rosse .



as flavoring agent.



Pilulae (Pills). Solid bodies, usually spherical or oval,] con-
taining medicinal agents, and intended to be swallowed whole.
A mass of the consistence of firm clay is made by beating medica-
ments together in a mortar. This mass is, with a machine,
divided up and rolled into pills. In order that they may not
possess a disagreeable taste, they are varnished, gilded, or sugar-
coated. Unless the constituents are very heavy, each pill should
not exceed 5 grains [.30 gm.] in weight, and the smaller they
are the better. [Soap, mucilage of acacia or tragacanth] , and
confection of rose are common excipients for pills. Glycerin is
often added, for it attracts moisture and prevents the pill from
getting hard, but pills made of it alone are too soft. Soap is
useful for creosote and for essential oils if calcium phosphate and
wheaten flour be added. Liquorice powder is a good absorbent.
All pills are useless unless so made that they will dissolve in the
gastro-intestinal canal. If it is required that they should not be
acted upon until they reach the intestine they should be coated
with keratin. Pills [except when sugar- or gelatin-coated] are
often kept in some powder, as lycopodium, to prevent their
sticking together. [The pills in the U. S. P. are :

Dose.
Pilulae Phosphori . r ^^ gr. ; .00065 g- ' n each. \ .^

Opii . . . . -j i gr. ; .065 gm. in each. /

Asafoetidae . 1 3 gr. ; .20 gm. in each.

T- T j-j- V I 2 pills.

Fern lodidi J

Cathartic* Composite .

Antimonii " ...

Aloes et Mastiches .



Rhei Composite



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES. 3!

Pilulae Aloes Dose.

Aloes et Ferri / 1 ~

Rhei

Catharticae Vegetabiles . .



Ferri Carbonatis



-I 5 pills.



Aloes et Asafcetidae ....

Aloes et Myrrhae 2 10 pills.

Pulveres (Powders). Preparations consisting of finely-
powdered drugs, or (compound powders) mixtures of the same,
and frequently consisting in part of a suitable diluent or ex-
cipient.] The best diluent for powders is sugar of milk, because
of its hardness and comparative insolubility. [The powders
of the U. S. P. are :

Dose.

Pulvis Antimonialis ^ 2 gr. ; .03 .12 gm.

Ipecacuanhae et Opii . . . 3 15 gr. ; .20 i.oo gm.

Morphinae Compositus . . . 5 15 gr. ; .30 I.oo gm.

Cretse " ... 5 60 gr. ; .30 4.00 gm.

Aromaticus IO 30 gr. ; .60 2.00 gm.

Jalapae Compositus .... % I g ; i.oo 4.00 gm.

Rhei " .... }4 I 3 ; 2.OO 4.00 gm.

Glycyrrhizae " ... )4 2 ; 2.00 8.00 gm.

For Pulvis Effervescens Compositus (Seidlitz Powder) see Sodium. Pulvis
Ipecacuanhae et Opii is practically a trituration.

Spiritus (Spirits). Solutions of volatile substances in alco-
hol or diluted alcohol. The spirits of the U. S. P. are :

By solution : D OM .

Spiritus Glonoini I 5 ttl ; .06 .300.0.

Athens Compositus . . . 5 60 TTl ; .30 4.00 c.c.

Phosphori 8 40 "m. ; .50 2.500.0.

Cinnamomi 10 30 "HI ; I.OO 2.00 c.c.

Amygdala? Amarae . . . 15 45 '"I ; I.oo 3.00 c.c.

Athens 15 60 ""I ; I.oo 4.00 c.c.

Camphorae "

Chloroformi

Juniperi 30 60 in. ; 2.00 4.00 c.c.

Lavandulae

Myristicse

Ammoniac Aromaticus . . % 2n< 3; 2 - 8.00 c.c.

" Ani f- \ I 2flz; 4.00 8.00 c.c.

Gaultheriae /



32 PHARMACY.

Dose.
Spiritus Juniperi Compositus . I 4 flj ; 4.0015.000.0.

Aurantii . > ,. ,

I as vehicle.
Compositus /

Myrciae as perfume.

By solution with maceration :

Spiritus Limonis as flavoring agent.

Menthse Piperitae .

Viridis

By gaseous solution :

Spiritus Ammoniac .... 10 60 Tn. .60 4.00 c.c.
By chemical reaction :

Spiritus yEtheris Nitrosi . . . * 2n 3; 2 -o 8.00 c.c.
By distillation :

Spiritus Frumenti indefinite.

Vini Gallici indefinite.

Suppositorise (Suppositories). Preparations in suitable
form] for introduction into [and retention in] the rectum or
vagina [and so mixed with a base (generally Oleum Theobro-
matis) that they shall be solid under ordinary conditions, but
shall melt or liquefy after introduction. One only is official
in U. S. P. :

Suppositoria Glycerini ; base, stearic acid.

Syrupi (Syrups). Liquid preparations of drugs consisting
chiefly of a concentrated aqueous solution of sugar. There are
30 official in U. S. P.

Examples : Syrupus Aurantii, Syrupus Rhei. ]

The dose of all is about I fl g ; 4 c.c., or rather more [excepting Syrupus
Ferri Bromidi, Ferri lodidi, and Scillse Compositus, when it is 5 to 30 m, ;
.30 2.00 c.c.

Tincturse (Tinctures). Solutions in alcohol or diluted
alcohol of the soluble constituents of substances which are not
volatile. (The U. S. P. includes also, as an exception, the alco-
holic solution of iodine. )] They are prepared by

(a) Maceration; e.g. [Tinctura Opii Camphorata.]

(6) Percolation; e.g. [Tinctura Lavandulse Composita.]

(c) Maceration and percolation ; e.g. [Tinctura Opii. ]



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES.



33



(d) Simple mixing of ingredients ; e.g. [Tinctura Ipecacuanhae et Opii.]

Tinctures containing only one active substance are simple. The rest are
compound ; e.g., [Tinctura Catechu Composita. ]

Some are compound, although it is not expressed in their name ; [e.g.,
Tinctura Aloes.

The tinctures of the U. S. P. are :

Dote.

Tinctura Aconiti ^ 5 "R\. ; .03 .30 c.c.

lodi i 5^1; .06 .3oc.c.

Cantharidis I 15 l; .06 l.ooc.c.

Veratri Viridis ) ,.

> 2 ID,- .12 .6oc.c.

htrophanthi )

Ipecacuanhas et Opii .... 3 1 5 '"I; .20 l.ooc.c.

P" ' ' \ 3 20.; .20 I.20C.C.

Deodorati J

Arnicae Radici 5 IO1; .30 .6oc.c.

Nucis Vomicse 5 20 ^l ; .30 i.aoc.c.

-OpiiCamphorata . . { child 3-20-; .20- i.aoc.c.

ladult I 4%; 4.00 I5.00C.C.

Belladonnse Foliarum . . . .

Scills:

Stramonii Seminis .

/- u- T A- r 5 3 o7T t; .30 2.00 c.c.

Cannabis Indicae

Digitalis

Lobeliae

Ferri Chloridi

. . > 5 60 m; .30 4.00 c.c

Capsici J

Physostigmatis )

Colchici Seminis 10 30.; .60 2.00 c.c.

Amicse Florum j

Gelsemii

Moschi

Zingiberis j- 15 60 TO.; i.oo 4.00 c.c.

Aloes

Myrrhae .

Guaiaci

Ammoniata

Lavandulae Compo.-ata . .

-Asafoetidae ^ 30-60 m ; 2.00- 4.00 c.c,

Benzoin!

Composita

Kino . 1

-Lactucarii } ^- 2fi 3', LOO- 8.00 c.c.

3



34



PHARMACY.



Dote.
Tinctura Chiratse

Cimicifuga

Cinchonas

Valerianae

Ammoniata

Quassia \- *42fi3; 2.00 8.00 c.c.

Quillaja

Hydrastis

Serpentaria

Krameria

Catechu Composita . . . .

-Cubebae 1 ^_ 3 fl 3; 2 .oo 12.00 c.c.

Sanguinarise J

Tolutana

Croci

Humuli

-Cinnamomi , 4.00- 8.00 c.c.

Aurantn Dulcis

Galla

Aurantii Amari

Cardamomi

Rhei Aromatica I 3&3; 4.00 12.00 c.c.

Cinchonas Composita . .

Rhei i 46*3; 4.00 15.00 c.c.

Calendula

Aloes et Myrrhre I 2)4 fi^; 4.00 10.00 c.c.

Calumbae

xiyoscyami ....... a . ^^^ r P r\f\r- r-

J J L i 4 113, 4.00 I5.00C.C.

Sum 1 ail

Gentianae Composita ....

-Bryonia | 8. 00-15.00 c.c.

Cardamomi Composita . . . . J

Rhei Dulcis ^ i fl^; 8.00 3O.ooc.c.

Matico YZ i 6*3515.00 30.00C.C.

Vanillaa Flavoring.

Pyrethri Externally.

Triturationes (Triturations). Solid preparations made by
triturating a medicinal substance with a definite percentage of
sugar of milk (Saccharum Lactis). The U. S. P. contains one:

Dose.

Trituratio Elaterini y z to I gr. ; .O3-.o6 gm.



PHARMACOPCEIAL PREPARATIONS AND DOSES. 35

Trochisci (Troches). Solid preparations, usually in flat-
tened form, consisting of one or more medicinal substances
mixed with sugar or extract of liquorice and held in form by the
addition of mucilage. Fifteen are official in U. S. P.

Examples : Trochisci Catechu, Trochisci Sodii Bicarbonatis. The dose of
each is from I to 6 troches in the course of the day. ]

Unguenta (Ointments). [Unctuous preparations, either
soft or solid at ordinary temperatures, but liquid upon being
rubbed upon the skin.] They are generally spread over the skin,
or may be rubbed into it. They are only intended for external
use. The basis is either lard, olive oil, expressed oil of almond,
lard oil, wax, suet, spermaceti, or paraffin. When it is required
that the active ingredient should be absorbed, lard, which melts
at about the temperature of the body, or hydrous wool fat, is
the best basis ; when the ointment is required for sores, paraffin
is a good basis, as it only softens a little at the temperature of
the body. In hot countries, if the ointment would otherwise be
too soft, the basis may be replaced by indurated lard, prepared
suet, white or yellow wax. Benzoinated lard is often used to
prevent decomposition. [Twenty -seven are official in U. S. P.



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