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phorus, .06 ; Chloroform, 5 ; add Althaea, 6 ; and Acacia, 6 gm. ; with
water, and Glycerin; to make loo pills.] Strength. Each pill con-
tains y^ gr. [.0006 gm.] of Phosphorus.

Dose, i to 5 pills.

[3. Spiritus Phosphori. Spirit of Phosphorus. Synonym.
Tincture of Phosphorus. Phosphorus, 1.2 ; absolute Alcohol to looo.
Dissolve by heating upon a water-bath.

Spirit of Phosphorus is used to prepare Elixir Phosphori.

Dose, 8 to 40 m. ; .50 to 2.50 c.c.

4. Elixir Phosphori. Elixir of Phosphorus. Spirit of Phos-
phorus, 210 ; Oil of Anise, 2 ; Glycerin, 550; Aromatic Elixir to looo.
Dose, y z to 2^ fl. dr. ; 2. to 10. c.c.]


The action of minute doses of phosphorus is that in animals
the spongy tissue in the long and short bones is thickened by
the deposition of true bone of normal composition, and the
compact tissue is rendered more dense. [It diminishes tissue
waste, decreasing the elimination of urea and of carbon diox-
ide. As it is found as a necessary element in the nervous system
its action is that of a stimulant to its growth.] Phosphorus
enters the blood as phosphorus, and probably acts as such, not
as phosphoric acid. [The best known liquid preparation is
Thompson's solution : phosphorus, i ; absolute alcohol, 300 ;
glycerin, 720 ; and spirit of peppermint, 40 ; dose, y to i fl.
dr. ; j.2o to 4.00 c.c.] See [also] Toxicology.



Phosphorus has been used in osteomalacia, in rickets, and in
cases of ununited fracture. [Without doubt it promotes calcareous
deposit in the healing of fractures. It is of value in the con-
valescence from exhausting diseases, in nervous exhaustion, in
neuralgia when dependent upon debility, in alcoholism, in sexual
exhaustion and in various suppurative diseases.]


Acute Poisoning. Phosphorus is often taken or administered criminally,
either as match-heads or vermin paste.

\_Sympt oms.~\ For the first few hours there are no effects, then the following
symptoms of gastro intestinal irritation set in : Nausea, abdominal pain, and
vomiting ; the vomited matters smell of phosphorus and are luminous, [if
heated with sulphuric acid (Wood).] There is some general depression.
Diarrhoea is rare. The patient may die in collapse, but far more frequently
these symptoms all pass off, and he appears quite well. But after three or four
days jaundice is noticed, and this soon becomes very [marked] ; there is now
great prostration, the liver is enlarged, the abdomen distended, and he com-
plains of intense thirst. [There is likely to be a garlicky odor to the breath.
(Brunton, Semple).] Vomiting of altered blood and diarrhoea with bloody
stools may be observed, but these two symptoms are not severe. The skin is
cold, the pulse feeble and rapid. The urine is scanty, highly colored, albumin-
ous, bile-stained, and perhaps bloody, and it may contain bile acids and crys-
tals of leucin and tyrosin. [Sarcolactic acid found in the urine is diagnostic.
(Wood).] Muscular twitchings occur, the patient becomes comatose and dies.
Post-mortem. Two results are very striking. (l.) Fatty degeneration (thus
phosphorus resembles arsenic and antimony), affecting principally the liver, in
which it is very marked ; and if the patient lives long enough, there may be
a diminution in the size of the organ. Fatty degeneration is also found in the
muscles, kidneys and gastro- intestinal tract. (2.) Haemorrhages are seen in
many places, and ecchymoses are sometimes very abundant. If they occur in
the gastric and intestinal mucous membranes, they may give rise to the errone-
ous belief that evidences of acute gastro-intestinal irritation can be found at
death. The symptoms of phosphorus poisoning in many respects resemble
those of acute yellow atrophy of the liver.

Treatment. Thoroughly empty the stomach by a stomach pump, or by
washing it out. [Formerly] copper sulphate [was given] as an emetic (see
Copper, p. 180), three grains [.20 gm.] every few minutes till vomiting is in-
duced, then every 15 minutes ; also half a drachm [2. c.c.] of oil of turpen-
tine every half hour. A full dose of a saline purge may be administered.
[Repeated and free inhalations of oxygen have been used, which suggest that


hydrogen dioxide may be efficacious when given by the mouth. ] No oils or
fats should on any account be given. [Percy found that the old oil of turpen-
tine, which contains oxygen, if administered soon after taking the poison and
before it was absorbed, was an antidote (experiments upon dogs).]

Chronic Poisoning. This, which used to be seen in those who worked
among phosphorus fumes, is now of great rarity. [This is because the red or
non-poisonous phosphorus is generally employed in match factories.] The
chief symptoms are those of gastro-intestinal irritation and necrosis of the jaw.
This Stockman has shown to be due to the fact that the phosphorus fumes,
when the gum is broken, gain access to the bone and lower its vitality, so that
it easily becomes the seat of tuberculous disease. Sufferers from phosphorus
necrosis often die from general tuberculosis.

1. CALCII HYPOPHOSPHIS. [Calcium Hypophosphite. Ca(P
H 2 0. 2 ) 2 =i6o.67.

SOURCE. Heat Phosphorus with Milk of Lime. Then pass Carbon
Dioxide through the liquid to remove the excess of Lime. The Hypophosphite
crystallizes out of the solution. 3Ca(OH) 2 -f 4P 2 +6H 2 O=3Ca(PH 2 O 2 ). r |-2PH 3 .

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms or small lus-
trous scales, or a white, crystalline powder, having a nauseous, bitter taste.
Solubility. In 6.8 parts of water ; insoluble in Alcohol.]

Dose, 2 to 5 gr. ; [.12 to .30 gm.]

2. SODII HYPOPHOSPHIS. [Sodium Hypophosphite. NaPH 2 O 2
+H 2 0=io5.8 4 .]

SOURCE. Add Sodium Carbonate to a solution of Lime Hypophosphite
and evaporate [the filtrate]. Ca(PH 2 O 2 ) 2 +Na ! CO 3 =CaCO 3 +2NaPH !1 O !( .

CHARACTERS. [Small, colorless, transparent, rectangular plates of a
pearly lustre, or a white granular salt, with a bitterish sweet, saline taste.
Solubility. In I part of water; in 30 parts of Alcohol.]

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]

3. [POTASSII HYPOPHOSPHIS. Potassium Hypophosphite.
KPH 2 O 2 =i03.9i.

SOURCE. From double decomposition of Calcium Hypophosphite and
Potassium Carbonate ; the Potassium Hypophosphite remains in solution.
Ca(PH 2 O 2 ) 2 +K 2 CO 3 =CaCO 3 +2KPH 2 O,.

CHARACTERS. White, opaque, hexagonal plates, or crystalline masses,
or a granular powder, having a pungent, saline taste. Solubility. In O.6 part
of water, and in 7.3 parts of Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.


i. Syrupus Hypophosphitum. Syrup of the Hypophosphites.
Calcium Hypophosphite, 45 ; Sodium Hypophosphite, 15 ; Potassium


Hypophosphite, 15; diluted Hypophosphorous Acid, 2; Spirit of
Lemon, 5 ; sugar, 500 ; and sufficient water to make 1000.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

2. Syrupus Hypophosphitum cum Ferro. Syrup of the Hypo-
phosphites with Iron. v

Ferrous Lactate, 10 ; Potassium Citrate, 10 ; Syrup of the Hypo-
phosphites, to 1000.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

4. FERRI HYPOPHOSPHIS. Ferric Hypophosphite. Fe 2 (PH,
O,) 6 =5oi.04.

SOURCE. A solution of Sodium Hypophosphite is added to a solution of
Ferric Chloride, the precipitate is washed and dried with moderate heat.

CHARACTERS. A white, or grayish-white powder, nearly tasteless. Solu-
bility. Only slightly soluble in water.

IMPURITIES. All of the Hypophosphites are liable to be contaminated
with the alkaline carbonates or to contain free alkali. They explode if heated.

Dose, 2 to 10 gr. ; .12 to .60 gm.

5. ZINCI PHOSPHIDUM. Zinc Phosphide. Zn 3 P 2 =257.22.
SOURCE. From vapor of Phosphorus in a current of dry Hydrogen over

heated Zinc, after all atmospheric air is expelled.

CHARACTERS. A gritty powder of a dark-gray color, or crystalline
fragments of a dark metallic lustre, and having a faint odor and taste of

Dose, -jJj to \ gr. ; .006 to .02 gm.

Hypophosphorous Acid. A liquid composed of about 10 per cent. , by weight,
of absolute Hypophosphorous Acid (HPH 2 O 2 =6s. 88) and about 90 per cent.
of water.

SOURCE. Decompose Potassium Hypophosphite by Sulphuric Acid, filter
and evaporate to a syrupy consistence. 2KPH 2 O.,-|-H,SO 4 =K,SO 4 -}-2H

PH 2 2 .

CHARACTERS. A colorless liquid, without odor, and having an acid
taste. Sp. gr., about 1.046. Solubility. Miscible in all proportions, with

Diluted Hypophosphorus Acid is used in Syrupus Hypophosphitum. ]


These drugs have been recommended for phthisis. Although
in many cases there is no satisfactory evidence of their value [yet


they are extensively used and are the basis of a large number of
proprietary preparations.

Following Churchill they should be of chemical purity, neu-
tral in reaction ; the presence of free alkali or alkaline carbonates
quickly giving rise to an atonic dyspepsia. The preparation, the
syrup of the hypophosphites, is faulty in that each salt has a pecu-
liar property, yet the final result being due to the hypophosphite,
and its beneficial effect upon nutrition. In the early stages of
phthisis (infiltration) the sodium salt should be administered and
the sodium salt alone ; if excavation is present the calcium salt is
indicated, and that alone, provided that it does not too suddenly
check expectoration, when the sodium salt should be resumed.

The potassium salt is a valuable expectorant in chronic bron-
chitis ; but it has a very limited usefulness in phthisis. The hypo-
phosphites, when administered intelligently, will improve nutri-
tion and relieve some of the symptoms of phthisis. If adminis-
tered in too large doses, or simultaneously with other remedies, as
arsenic, stimulants, strychnine, or cod-liver oil, they are likely to
produce headaches and dyspepsia, and fail to cause improvement.
The objection to the syrup, U. S. P., namely, the use of the
salts in combination, applies to nearly all of the proprietary pre-
parations, most of which contain impure drugs, contain a low per-
centage of hypophosphites, and are not scientific combinations.
The syrup of the hypophosphites with iron is valuable as a
reconstructive. Zinc phosphide is believed to have the same
physiological and therapeutical effects as phosphorus.

7. CALCII GLYCEROPHOSPHATIS. Calcium Glycerophosphate.

(Not official.)

SOURCE. Phosphoric Acid, 30 ; mixed with Glycerin, 36 ; is kept at a
little above normal body temperature for six days, being shaken several times
daily. On the seventh day it is cooled, its acidity is gradually and completely
neutralized with Calcium Carbonate. After two days the solution is filtered,
and the salt precipitated by Alcohol. The precipitate is dissolved in cold
water, the solution filtered and evaporated to dryness at a low temperature.

CHARACTERS. A white, crystalline powder. Solubility. In 20 parts of
water, almost insoluble in boiling water, and insoluble in Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.

8. SODII GLYCEROPHOSPHATIS. Sodium Glycerophosphate.
(Not official.)



SOURCE. By a method similar to that given above, a Sodium being sub-
stituted for a Calcium Salt.

CHARACTERS. A white, crystalline powder which is so hygroscopic that
this salt appears in commerce only as a 75 per cent, solution in water.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c., usually hypodermatically.

Potassium Glycerophosphate (not official) is similar in physical appearance
to the Sodium Salt. Iron, Lithium and Magnesium Glycerophosphates (none
official) are fine, white, soluble powders.


According to Robin, the administration of these substances
increases the solids of the urine, the urea, the carbon dioxide
and sulphur oxidation coefficient, the chlorides, sulphates, lime,
magnesia and potash, with but little effect on uric acid. They
improve the nutrition of all organs, but more particularly that
of the nervous system.


Inasmuch as the urine of neurasthenics contains relatively
large amounts of incompletely oxidized phosphorus, especially
in the form of glycerophosphoric acid, the effort was made to
replace this loss by the introduction of phosphorus into the or-
ganism in a form approaching, so nearly as is possible, that in
which it exists in the nervous system. The indications for the
glycerophosphates are conditions of nerve depression. If given
subcutaneously they are at least as efficacious as testicular fluid
(g. z>.), which owes its activity to its contained organic phos-
phates, and possess the advantage of more accurate dosage. They
are useful in various neuralgias, as sciatica, tic douloureux, Ad-
dison's disease, and in the symptom-complex, known as neuras-
thenia. Chlorosis, albuminuria, phosphaturia, anaemia, the lat-
ter by the iron salt, have been benefited. In diabetes the gen-
eral condition improves and the amount of sugar may diminish.
In various diseases of the bones, such as rachitis, osteomalacia,
tuberculous affections, the lime and magnesium salts are indi-
cated. The remedies should not be expected to rejuvenate se-
nility, but are useful, even if slowly acting, adjuncts to the sys-
tematic treatment of impaired nervous systems] .



Chlorine, Iodine, Bromine.

These elements, which are chemically so closely allied, are all oT them
powerful disinfectants and irritants.


[CHLORUM. Chlorine. 0=35.37.]

This gas is not official under its own name, but is obtained from two
sources of it, viz. , Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorinated Lime.

1. AQUA CHLORI. Chlorine water. An aqueous solution of Chlo-
rine (Cl=35.37) containing at least 0.4 per cent, of the gas.

SOURCE. Pass washed Chlorine gas into water. The gas is obtained by
heating diluted Hydrochloric Acid, 35 ; and Manganese Dioxide, lo. 4HC1
+MnO 2 =Cl 2 +MnCl 2 -f2H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. A clear greenish-yellow liquid, having the suffocating odor
and disagreeable taste of Chlorine.

INCOMPATIBLES. Lead and Silver salts.

Free Chlorine is contained in Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutum.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c. diluted with water.

2. CALX CHLORATA. Chlorinated Lime. [A compound resulting
from the action of Chlorine upon Calcium Hydrate, and containing not less
than 35 per cent, of available Chlorine.] Synonym. Bleaching powder. It
may be regarded either as a compound of Calcium Hypochlorite and Chloride,
or as one of Lime and Chlorine.

SOURCE. Pass Chlorine gas over slaked Lime. 2Ca(OH) 2 -j-2Cl 2
CaCl 2 O 2 + CaCl 2 +2H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. A white or grayish-white granular powder, [exhaling the
odor of Hypochlorous Acid, having a repulsive, saline taste, and becoming
moist and gradually decomposing on exposure to air.]

3. LIQUOR SODiE CHLORAT^E. [Solution of Chlorinated Soda.
Synonym. Labarraque's solution. An aqueous solution of several Chlorine
compounds of Sodium, chiefly NaCl and NaCIO, containing at least 2.6 per
cent., by weight, of available Chlorine.]

SOURCE. [A solution of Sodium Carbonate, 150; Chlorinated Lime, 75 ;
in water to 1000.

CHARACTERS. A clear, pale-greenish liquid, having a faint odor of
Chlorine. Sp. gr., about 1.052.]

Dose, J^ to i fl. dr. ; [2. to 4. c.c.]



External. Chlorine is one of the most powerful disinfec-
tants and deodorizers. It has a very great affinity for hydro-
gen, and hence decomposes compounds which contain hydrogen,
oxygen generally being set free. Chlorine is a very active and
destructive irritant to the skin and [respiratory] mucous mem-

Internal. [When] given internally, [some of it is converted
into chlorides, but not all, for the odor of chlorine has been
found in the brain after death from its inhalation (Cameron).
The odor of chlorine is noticeable in the faeces after its internal


External. Chlorine is largely used in the form of chlori-
nated lime to disinfect privies, drains, urinals, etc. It may be
employed also to disinfect rooms after infectious diseases. All
metals or articles such as fabrics, likely to be bleached, should
be covered up or removed ; the windows and chimneys should
be pasted up. The gas can be evolved from common salt, [18 ;]
manganese dioxide, [15;] and sulphuric acid, [45; in iced
water, 2 1 parts by weight.] The door is then shut, and the
cracks around it are pasted over with paper. [To disinfect
hands moistened chlorinated lime is spread over the hands, next
a large crystal of washing soda is held in the hands, and they
are washed with rubbing under water until a cooling sensation
is experienced. The best disinfectant for excreta is fresh chlo-
rinated lime, i ; dissolved in water, 16. One quart (960 c.c. )
is placed in the receptacle into which the dejecta are received
and left one hour. (Sternberg. )] Chlorine water is sometimes
employed as a wash for foul ulcers and discharges. The prepa-
ration known as electrozone owes its antiseptic properties to
chlorine. It is sea water, the alkaline chlorides of which have
been converted into hypochlorites by electrolysis. Its anti-
-septic strength is about the same as that of Liquor Sodae

Internal. Chlorine is used internally in the form of a wash


for the mouth. A wash (strong hydrochloric acid, 5 m. [.30
c.c.]; potassium chlorate, 9 gr. [.60 gm.j; water, i fl. oz. [30.
c.c.]) containing free chlorine, is very useful for syringing the
fauces and nose in scarlet fever. The vapor gives rise to great
irritation of the respiratory tract, and should never be inhaled.
[Aqua Chlori has been successfully used, well diluted, in the
diarrhoea of typhoid fever, particularly in markedly septic pa-
tients. After the administration of drachm doses every hour
the temperature falls, the intellect brightens, the tongue clears
and betterment goes on to recovery in many apparently hopeless


IODUM. Iodine. I [=126.53.]

SOURCE. Obtained from the ashes of sea-weed [and from the mother-
liquor of Chilian Sodium Nitrate.

CHARACTERS. Heavy bluish-black, dry and friable rhombic plates, having
a metallic lustre, a distinctive odor, and a sharp and acrid taste. Solubility.
In 5000 parts of water ; in 10 parts of Alcohol, freely in Ether, slightly in
Glycerin, freely in a solution of Potassium Iodide or Sodium Chloride.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Metallic salts, mineral acids, alkaloids, oil of turpentine
and ammonia ; with the last two explosive compounds may be formed.

IMPURITIES. Iodine cyanide and iron.


[i. Liquor lodi Compositus. Compound Solution of Iodine.
Synonym. LugoFs Solution. Iodine, 5 ; Potassium Iodide, 10 ; water
to loo. Strength. 5 per cent.

Dose, i to 10 m. ; .06 to .60 c.c.]

2. Tinctura lodi. [Tincture of Iodine. Iodine, 70; Alcohol to
1000. Strength. 7 per cent.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.]

3. Unguentum lodi. [Iodine Ointment. Iodine, 4 ; Potassium
Iodide, I ; water, 2 ; Benzoinated Lard, 93. Strength. 4 per cent.]


External. The actions of iodine applied externally are the
same as those of chlorine, that is to say, it is powerfully disin-
fectant and irritant. The latter action is the most important
Iodine applied to the skin produces a yellow stain, which can be


removed by an alkali or sodium hyposulphite. At the same time
it causes a sensation of heat and burning, dilatation of the ves-
sels (rubefaction), some cedematous swelling, and some exuda-
tion of leucocytes, to which its energetic absorbent action is
probably due. There often is an accumulation of fluid under the
epidermis forming a vesicle. Preparations of iodine are rarely
used strong enough to produce more powerful irritation than
this. The external application of them probably reflexly con-
tracts the vessels of the subjacent organs, and this may explain
their use as counter-irritants. If they are too strong, the irrita-
tion set up by them will proceed to the formation of vesicles,
and even pustules, and deep inflammation with scarring. They
usually destroy the superficial cuticle, so that after the use of
them the skin peels. Iodine may be absorbed from the skin,
and the alkalies in the blood serum lead to the formation of
sodium iodide and iodate; thus, 6NaHCO 3 +3l 2 =5NaI-t-NaIO 3 +
6CO 2 +3H 2 O. These, when they meet an acid, undergo double
decomposition; thus 5NaI+NaIO 3 +H 2 O=6NaHO f 3!,. Thus
free iodine is formed in the stomach and kidneys, and so if
iodine has been applied to too large an area we get gastro-intes-
tinal irritation and vomiting. The same may happen if it is
taken by the mouth, and it may cause precisely the same symp-
toms of iodism as potassium iodide. Iodine preparations are
parasiticides to the various vegetable and animal parasites
which infest the skin.

Internal. Minute doses of the tincture occasionally stop
vomiting. The vapor [B. P., which is tincture of iodine, i ;
water, 8 ; to be gently heated] is very irritating to the respira-
tory passages.


External. Iodine is rarely employed for its antiseptic pro-
perties, as chlorine is cheaper. The preparations of iodine are
in constant use as irritants and counter-irritants. Usually one or
two coats of the liniment [B. P., 1885, which contains iodine,
5 ; potassium iodide, 2 ; glycerin, i ; alcohol, 40], lightly
painted on the skin, suffice ; if more is used the inflammation is
too severe. If it causes pain, it may be washed off with a solu-


tion of potassium iodide. The ointment, tincture and compound
solution are much milder than the liniment, which is too strong
for many persons. Preparations of iodine are frequently used
as counter-irritants for chronic inflammation of joints, for pleurisy,
chilblains, periostitis, and many other purposes. The mild prep-
arations of iodine are applied over chronically inflamed lymphatic
glands when the cause of the swelling cannot be removed. A
decolorized tincture of iodine is prepared, consisting of iodine
dissolved in [alcohol,] and decolorized by a strong solution of
ammonia. Its strength is i in 40, nearly, and has the advantage
of not staining the skin ; but it contains no iodine, for ammonium
iodide and iodate are formed. Therefore it is a much milder
irritant than other iodine preparations. Any effect it may have
is due to excess of ammonia. For its irritant effect the official
tincture may be injected into a hydrocoele or a cyst to cause
adhesive inflammation, and it has been injected into joints,
abscesses, and the pleural cavity after empyema ; but in such
cases great care must be taken that the inflammation induced is
not too severe, and this treatment is now very rarely used, for
the cavities, being kept aseptic, heal up without it. The tinc-
ture, or, if it can be borne, the liquor [B. P., which is iodine,
10 ; potassium iodide, 15; water, 200;] is often used as an
antiparasitic for ringworm. Coster's paste, which is sometimes
employed for this disease, consists of iodine dissolved in light
oil of wood tar (i to 4). Morton's fluid, which is used as an
injection for spina bifida, consists of iodine, i ; potassium iodide,
3 ; glycerin, 48. [Two preparations are frequently employed
in the treatment of diseases of women. These are : Churchill's
tincture ; iodine, 5 ; potassium iodide, i ; water, 8 ; alcohol,
24, and Battey's fluid; iodine, 2 ; pure carbolic acid, i.]

Internal. The vapor [B. P., see p. 246] of iodine is occa-
sionally inhaled for diseases of the lungs ; but it probably does
more harm than good. One or two minims, [.06 to . 12 c.c.] of
the tincture in half an ounce, [15. c.c.] of water are often given,
quite empirically, every half hour, in cases of vomiting, and
sometimes with distinct benefit. Preparations of seaweed have
among uneducated persons a reputation for reducing obesity.


If they have any such action it is probably because the iodine,
chlorine and bromine in them set up such dyspepsia that the
proper digestion and absorption of food are prevented. Ex-
tracts of Fucus vesiculosus, the bladderwrack or seawrack, have
been used, and are the basis of some quack preparations.

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 21 of 67)