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1. POTASSII IODIDUM. Potassium Iodide. KI[=i6s.56.]
SOURCE. Dissolve Iodine in a hot solution of Potassa in distilled water.

3l,-|-6KHO=5KI+KIO 8 4-3H,O. Evaporate and heat the residue with
Charcoal ; the Oxygen of the lodate is carried off as Carbonic Oxide. KIO S
4-C s =KI-f-3CO. Dissolve in boiling water, filter, wash and crystallize.

CHARACTERS. [Colorless, transparent or translucent, cubical crystals, or
a white, granular powder, having a peculiar, faint, iodine-like odor, and a
pungent, saline, afterwards bitter taste. Solubility,~\n 0.75 part of water;
in 1 8 of Alcohol ; in 2.5 of Glycerin.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Bismuth subnitrate, sweet spirit of nitre, liquorice, and
preparations containing starch.

IMPURITIES. lodates [and free alkalies.]

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.,] or more.


[i. Syrupus Acidi Hydriodici. Syrup of Hydriodic Acid. A
syrupy liquid containing about I per cent, by weight, of absolute
Hydriodic Acid (HI=I27.53).

SOURCE. Dissolve Potassium Iodide, 13 ; and Potassium Hypo-
phosphite, I ; in water. Dissolve Tartaric Acid, 12 ; in diluted Alco-
hol, 25 ; mix the two solutions, cool, filter, reduce tKe filtrate by evap-
oration to 50 parts, and mix, when cold, with Syrup to looo.

CHARACTERS. A transparent, colorless or not more than a pale
straw-colored liquid, having a sweet and acidulous taste and an acid
reaction. Sp. gr., about 1.313.

Dose, ' 4 to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

2. Unguentum Potassii lodidi. Ointment of Potassium Iodide.
Potassium Iodide, 12 ; Sodium Hyposulphite, I ; hot water, 10; Ben-
zoinated Lard, 77.]

2. SODII IODIDUM. Sodium Iodide. [^1=149.53.]

SOURCE. Made from a solution of Soda, as Potassium Iodide is made
from a solution of Potassa. 3l,+6XaHO=5NaI-f-NaIO 8 -f 3H,O.

CHARACTERS. [Colorless, cubical crystals or a white crystalline powder,
having a saline and slightly bitter taste. Solubility. In O.6 part of water;
in about 3 parts of Alcohol.]

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to a.oo gm.,] or more.


[3. AMMONII IODIDUM. Ammonium Iodide. N> t^^fr

SOURCE. Dissolve Potassium Iodide and Ammonium Sulphate in boiling
water, add Alcohol, filter, wash, and evaporate the filtrate to aryness. 2KI-J-
(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 =2NHJ+K 2 SO 4 .

CHARACTERS. 'Minute, colorless, cubical crystals, or a white granular
powder, very deliquescent, having a sharp, saline taste. Solubility. In I
part of water, and in 9 parts of Alcohol.

IMPURITIES. lodates and potassium sulphate.

Dose, 2 to 10 gr. ; .12 to .60 gm., or more.

4. STRONTII IODIDUM. Strontium Iodide. SrI r J-6H 2 O=448.l2.
SOURCE. By neutralization of freshly prepared solution of Hydriodic Acid

with Strontium Carbonate ; the filtrate is concentrated and the salt obtained
by crystallization. 2HI+SrCO 3 =SrI 2 +CO 2 -fH 2 O.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, hexagonal plates, odorless, and
having a bitterish, saline taste. Deliquescent, and colored yellow by exposure
to air and light. Solubility. In O.6 part of water; soluble in Alcohol, and
slightly in Ether.

IMPURITY. Barium salts.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

5. ZINCI IODIDUM. Zinc Iodide. ZnI 2 =3i8.i6.

SOURCE. By digesting an excess of Zinc, with Iodine diffused in water.
Zn+I 2 +H 2 0=ZnI 2 +H,0.

CHARACTERS. A white, granular powder, odorless, and having a sharp,
saline and metallic taste. Very deliquescent, and liable to absorb oxygen from
the air, and to become brown from liberated Iodine. Solubility. Readily in
water, Alcohol, or Ether.

Dose, i to 3 gr. ; .06 to .20 gm.]


External. They have none. They do not irritate, and
they are absorbed by the unbroken skin in very small quantities.

Internal. There is much uncertainty about the action of
iodides, which is not surprising when we remember the powerful
chemical affinities of iodine. Binz teaches that they are decom-
posed in the body by small quantities of nascent oxygen (set free
by living protoplasm) acting upon an iodide which is in an acid-
ulated solution, the acid being provided by carbon [dioxide] .
Thus KI+H 2 O+CO 2 =KHCO 3 +HI, and then 4HI+O 2 =2H 2 O
+ 2l 2 . We have just shown that iodine acts as an absorbent and
that it leads to leucocytosis ; and that iodides act by virtue of
the iodine set free from them in the body is supported by the fact


that the older physicians produced the same therapeutic effects
by giving iodine internally as we procure with iodides, and that
iodine taken internally will produce symptoms of iodism. Potas-
sium iodide replaced iodine in therapeutics because it does not
cause the same gastro -intestinal irritation. The beneficial effects
of iodides are so very marked in syphilis that in this disease they
must have some specific action in addition to their general power
as absorbents. They also have a specific effect on the mammary
gland, for they lessen the secretion of milk. In long-continued
large doses they cause atrophy of the testicles and breasts. Some
. believe that they aid in the elimination of lead, and this may be
due to the fact that lead albuminate is soluble in solutions of
potassium iodide. Occasionally considerable general depression
is produced by large doses of potassium iodide ; but this is prob-
ably due to the potassium, and not to the iodine, [and in this
case the syrup of hydriodic acid can be substituted]. The iodides
are rapidly eliminated by the urine, saliva, sweat and mucous
membranes. When taken in excess they produce a number of
symptoms known as Iodism.

Iodism. [This occurs in three forms, (i) The symptoms
are those of gastric irritation only.] (2) The patient complains
of heavy pain over the frontal sinus, running at the nose, sore
throat, increased secretion of saliva, and an eruption on the skin,
consisting of patches of erythema. In rare cases there is albu-
minuria. The inflammation about the fauces may spread to the
gums or down the trachea, setting up laryngitis, tracheitis, and
bronchitis. These symptoms have been ascribed to an excessive
formation of free iodine [produced] as mentioned above and
this is supported by the fact that they can be checked by large
doses of sodium bicarbonate, which keep the fluids of the body
alkaline, and thus prevent the formation of free iodine and
also to the decomposition of iodides by nitrites, for minute
traces of these are believed to exist in saliva, nasal and bron-
chial mucus, and sweat, and they will liberate free iodine from
potassium jodide. It is stated in support of this view that sul-
phanilic acid (dose, 60 to 90 gr. [4. to 6. gm.]), which forms
a very stable compound with nitrous acid, will prevent iodism.


[Nervous troubles, neuralgia, singing in the ears, convulsive
movements, disturbed intellection and rarely atrophy of mammae
and testicles may be noticed. (3) lodic cachexia, which is char-
acterized by rapid emaciation ; severe cardiac palpitation and
ravenous appetite, are also prominent symptoms.] The suscep-
tibility of people to poisoning by iodides varies very much.
\Treatment, The chewing of pellitory will hasten the elimi-
nation of iodine in the chronic forms.]


The most important use of iodides is for syphilis ; their value
for the primary and secondary stages is comparatively slight, but
they are invaluable for the tertiary stage, as they often cause the
rapid absorption of nodes, gummataand other syphilitic deposits.
The pharmacopoeial dose may often be exceeded : patients some-
times take two, three, or even four drachms [8. to 16. gm.] a day.
Large doses are especially used in syphilis of the nervous system.
[Daily doses of an ounce, 30. gm., are not infrequently neces-
sary in these cases. No symptoms of iodism are likely to appear
until the disease subsides.] Potassium iodide is often prescribed
with [cprrosive mercuric] chloride ; [red mercuric] iodide is
formed and dissolved in the excess of potassium iodide.

Chronic rheumatoid arthritis is often treated, and sometimes
with benefit, by small doses of potassium iodide continued for a
long while, but probably [ferrous] iodide is more useful. [So-
called] gonorrhoeal rheumatism is often treated with potassium
iodide [but the syrup of hydriodic acid is preferable.] It fre-
quently aids the absorption of chronic inflammatory products,
even when they are not syphilitic. Therefore certain forms of
joint disease, of pleurisy and of pulmonic consolidation some-
times yield to treatment by this drug. The attempt has been
made to cure aneurisms which are inaccessible to surgery by giv-
ing potassium iodide for long periods, for it is thought that it
aids the coagulation of blood in them ; but as at the same time
the patient is always kept in bed, it is difficult to say how much
of any improvement that may happen to take place is due to the
iodide. Occasionally it relieves the pain of aneurism or of


angina pectoris. It is a valuable expectorant, [particularly the
ammonium salt] , and sometimes cures cases of bronchitis when
other remedies have failed. Lately, chronic Bright' s disease
has been largely treated with the drug. Lardaceous disease of
the kidneys and other organs is benefited by it. [The potassium
salt] is recommended for the [symptom] asthma, and in some
cases does much good. It is occasionally given to decrease the
secretion of milk. Potassium iodide perhaps causes an increased
excretion of both lead and mercury if they exist in the body,
and is therefore occasionally given in chronic poisoning by these
metals. Sodium iodide is not so much used ; it probably pro-
duces the same effects as the potassium salt, [but does not
occasion so much depression.] Ammonium iodide may be given
if the potassium salt causes depression, and it is said that rubid-
ium iodide [not official] (dose, 5 to 20 gr. [.30 to 1.20 gm.])
is sometimes better tolerated than the potassium salt.

[Strontium iodide has been recently introduced, and is used
for the same purposes as the other iodides. It is believed that it
is less likely to disturb the stomach, cause acne, and depress the
heart than the remaining iodides. In many instances the syrup
of hydriodic acid can be substituted with advantage ^ for the
iodides. It is not so likely to produce iodism, nor does it so
readily give rise to the " iodide punishment. ' ' Its pleasant taste
is grateful to most patients ; it should, however, be administered,
well diluted, one-half hour before meals, or at least upon an empty
stomach. Some of the commercial preparations are likely to
decompose readily, especially when made from tartaric acid and
potassium iodide, and are objectionable from the amount of syrup
which is administered when large doses are employed.]


BROMUM. Bromine. Br.=[79-76.]

SOURCE. [A liquid obtained from sea water and saline springs.

CHARACTERS. A heavy, dark, brownish-red, mobile liquid, evolving,
even at ordinary temperatures, a yellowish-red vapor, highly irritating to the
eyes and lungs, and having a peculiar suffocating odor, resembling that of
Chlorine. Sp. gr., 2.990.] Solubility. In 30 parts of water ; [readily in
Alcohol and Ether.]




Its action is like that of chlorine and iodine. It is rarely
used in medicine.

1. POTASSII BROMIDUM. Potassium Bromide. KBr [=118.79.]
SOURCE. [By adding Bromine to a solution of Potassa, a solution of the

Bromide and Bromate is made. 3Br 2 -f6KOH=5KBr-f-KBrO 3 +3H 2 O.
On evaporation to dryness, mixing the salts with Charcoal and heating to red-
ness, the Bromate is reduced to a Bromide, while the Oxygen unites with the
Carbon, forming Carbonic Oxide, which escapes. KBrO 3 +3C=KBr-)-3CO.
Dissolving in water, the solution yields the Bromide in crystals.

CHARACTERS. Colorless or white cubical crystals, or granules, having a
pungent saline taste. Solubility. In about 1.6 parts water; in 200 parts
of Alcohol.

IMPURITIES. Potassium bromide and free alkali.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Acids, acid and metallic salts.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.]

2. SODII BROMIDUM. Sodium Bromide. NaBr[=iO2.76.]
SOURCE. Made from a solution of Soda, as Potassium Bromide is made

from a solution of Potassa.

CHARACTERS. [Colorless or white cubical crystals, or a white granular
powder, having a saline, slightly bitter taste. Solubility, In about 1.2 parts
of water ; in 13 parts of Alcohol.]


Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; [i. to 4. gm.]

3. AMMONII BROMIDUM. Ammonium Bromide. NH 4 Br[=


SOURCE. Made by neutralizing Hydrobroinic Acid with Ammonia or
Ammonium Carbonate, evaporating and crystallizing. [HBr-f-NH 4 OH=
NH 4 Br+H 2 O.]

CHARACTERS. Colorless [transparent, prismatic crystals, or a white crys-
talline product, having a pungent saline taste. Solubility. In 1.5 parts of
water ; in 30 parts of Alcohol.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Acids, acid salts, and spirit of nitrous ether.

IMPURITIES. Iodides and free bromine.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to 2.00 gm.

4. LITHII BROMIDUM. Lithium Bromide. LiBr=86.77.

SOURCE. From a solution of Ferrous Bromide heated with Lithium Car-
bonate ; when cool the solution is evaporated, and the salt obtained by crystal-
lization. FeBr 2 +Li 2 CO 3 =2LiBr-(- FeCO 3 .

CHARACTERS. A white granular salt, odorless, having a sharp and


slightly bitter taste, very deliquescent. Solubility. In 0.6 part of water;
very soluble in Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.

5. CALCII BROM I DUM. Calcium Bromide. CaBr 2 =i99-43.
SOURCE. From pure Calcium Carbonate by solution in Hydrobromic

Acid and evaporation. CaCO s +2HBr=CaBr 2 -f CO 2 =H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. A white granular salt, having a sharp, saline taste, very
deliquescent. Solubility. In 0.7 part of water, and in I part of Alcohol.

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; i. to 2. gm.

6. ZINCI BROMIDUM. Zinc Bromide. ZnBr 2 =224.62.
SOURCE. From granulated Zinc digested in Hydrobromic Acid ; the

solution is concentrated, acidulated with Hydrobromic Acid, and dried upon a
water-bath. Zn+2HBr=ZnBr 2 -|-H,.

CHARACTERS. A white granular powder, having a sharp, saline and
metallic taste, very deliquescent, and a neutral reaction. Solubility. Readily
in water and Alcohol.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.

7. STRONTII BROMIDUM. Strontium Bromide. SrBr s +6H,O


SOURCE. By neutralizing diluted Hydrobromic Acid with Strontium Car-
bonate, filtration and evaporation. SrCOj-f2HBr=SrBr 2 -|-CO,-f-H,O.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent, hexagonal crystals, odorless, and
having a bitter saline taste. Very deliquescent. Solubility. In 1.05 parts
of water. Readily soluble in Alcohol.

IMPURITIES. Barium and calcium salts.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]


External. They have none.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Solutions of any of the [first]
three bromides, frequently painted on the throat, diminish its
sensibility. Medicinal doses have no other effect on the ali-
mentary canal. All bromides are quickly converted into sodium
bromide in the stomach and intestines, and they are readily

Nervous system. Bromides are powerful depressants to
the nervous system ; [the action of the potassium salt being
most marked.] Thus, if an animal be given large doses of any
of them, irritation of the cortical motor areas, which before easily


excited movements, fails to do so. Experiments also show that
the reflex excitability of the cord is considerably diminished, and
that the activity of the sensory mechanism is also impaired, for
large doses of bromides given to frogs cause cutaneous anaesthe-
sia. In man, at least, not only the cortical motor area, but the
brain as a whole is depressed, therefore these drugs are powerful
hypnotics. It is probable that in addition to the brain and
spinal cord the peripheral nerves are depressed, so that bromides
are well worthy to be called powerful nervous depressants. The
activity of the muscles is also diminished, not only by the action
of the drugs on the nervous system, but by their direct action on
them. It has been definitely shown by Wright that excessive
doses of potassium bromide cause in man and rabbits degenera-
tion of the cortical cells, and that this degeneration begins at
the periphery of the dendrons.

Circulation. Here also bromides are depressant; large doses
exert a direct paralyzing influence on the heart, lessening the
force and the frequency of the beat and producing stop-
page in diastole ; [the potassium having the greatest effect, the
sodium salt has less influence ; the ammonium salt slightly stimu-
lating the heart.] They are said to cause vaso-motor spasm;
but the evidence of this is very unsatisfactory. Toxic doses pro-
duce a fall of temperature ; this is probably in some way second-
ary to the depression of the circulation.

Respiration is slightly depressed by bromides.

Metabolism. The amount of carbon [dioxide] exhaled is
greatly decreased by taking large doses of bromides. The
amount of urine is increased [particularly after the use of the
lithium salt] ; the coloring matters, the sulphur, and the nitrogen
in it are increased ; but the phosphorus is decreased.

Sexual organs. If bromides are taken for a long time a failure
of sexual vigor is produced, and ultimately there is a great lessen-
ing of the sexual appetite. Bromides are therefore anaphro-

Elimination. Bromides are rapidly eliminated by the kid-
neys, skin, saliva, intestinal mucous membrane, bronchial mucous
membrane, and milk.


Bromism. If bromides are taken for too long a period, a
Teries of symptoms of poisoning, to which the above name has
been given, may appear. [The hydrobromic acid {see p. 258),
although containing a larger proportion of bromine, rarely gives
rise to bromism.] The earliest of them is a rash, consisting of
red papules, chiefly on the face and back, exactly resembling
some forms of acne. This is probably the result of the excretion
of bromide by the skin. The next symptoms are a general
lowering of the cutaneous sensibility and also of that of the
pharynx, then there is diminution of sexual power, the patient
becomes low-spirited, easily fatigued, unfit for work, and his in-
tellect is dulled, and in bad cases this passes on to dementia,
melancholia, and other disorders. There may be a little con-
junctivitis, and some increased secretion from the bronchi.
[A coated tongue and disordered digestion are constant symp-

Potassium bromide owes its action largely to the bromine in
it, but probably also, to a less extent, to the potassium. In man,
at least, the higher functions of the brain are depressed before the
lower, and these again before the spinal. Thus the depression
takes place in regular order from above downwards, in the reverse
order of the physiological development of the functions, and this
is commonly the case with many drugs (see Law of Dissolution,
p. 104).

Those who take bromides habitually find themselves unable to
sleep without them, and their intellect becomes obscured. These
bad effects are intensified by the fact that gradually larger doses
are required to produce sleep, and thus the unfortunate sufferer
becomes more and more a slave to the drug. [Also occasionally
maniacal excitement, mental confusion and even delirium are
observed after continued use of moderate doses, particularly of
the potassium salt.]

External. None.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Formerly the back of the
throat was painted with a solution of a bromide before a laryn-


geal examination, but now cocaine is employed for this pur-

Nervous system. Because of their depressing effect bromides
are largely used for many nervous diseases. They are the most
valuable drugs we have for the treatment of epilepsy, acting no
doubt by diminishing the excitability of the cerebral cortex.
They rarely cure, but often greatly diminish the number of fits.
Rubidium [and] ammonium bromide appears to be the best
bromide for some cases of epilepsy (dose, 30 gr. [2. gm.] ).
It is impossible to say in any given case whether bromides will
do good, therefore they [should] be tried in all ; petit mal is more
difficult to influence than grand mal. The next most common
use of bromides is as hypnotics. They are most useful when there
is no organic cause to explain the insomnia, and therefore they
are not employed when pain keeps the patient awake, but are
given with great benefit in the insomnia of overwork, worry, or
that connected with the climacteric period. The sleep induced
is quiet and refreshing, without dreams, and therefore these drugs
are of great value in nightmare, and in the night-screaming of
children, which may be regarded as allied to it. Also because of
their depressant effect on the nervous system they are given in
migraine, and often they are the only drugs which do any good
for the intense headache of this disease. Large doses, often a
drachm [4. gm.] at a time, are given in delirium tremens espe-
cially in combination with chloral [hydrate], and sometimes the
patient seems quieter for this treatment. Not only the insomnia,
but the other nervous symptoms that are common at the climacteric
period may be relieved by bromides. For their depressing power
on centres below the cortex they are used, and with good results,
in laryngismus stridulus, and have been given in whooping-cough ;
but the benefit is not marked. Some cases of tetanus have re-
covered after enormous doses of bromides. Here their value is,
no doubt, due to their power of diminishing the reflex function
of the spinal cord. Bromides have been given as antidotes for
strychnine poisoning. Sometimes they succeed in cases of hys-
teria and neuralgia, and some varieties of functional disease of
the heart are much improved by them.



Sexual functions. Because of its depressant effect potassium
bromide is given for spermatorrhoea and nymphomania.

bromic Acid. [A liquid compound of lo per cent., by weight, of absolute
Hydrobromic Acid (HBr=8o. 76) in water.

SOURCE. Potassium Bromide, in solution, is mixed with Sulphuric Acid,
and Potassium Sulphate allowed to crystallize, the precipitate is washed upon
the filter and the filtrate is distilled nearly to dryness and then diluted to the
proper strength. 2KBr+H,SO 4 =2HBr-[-K 2 s6 4 .

CHARACTERS. A clear, colorless liquid, having a strongly acid taste.
Sp. gr., about 1.077.

Dose, '_, to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]


The action of this acid appears to be the same as that of the
bromides of the alkaline metals, but it is very rarely used for the
same purposes. It has been employed with occasional success to
relieve noises in the ears, and it is said to prevent the symptoms
of poisoning by quinine ; [of this drug it is an excellent solvent.]


Containing Sulphur [and its compounds].

Sulphur is official in [three] forms.

i. SULPHUR SUBLIMATUM. Sublimed Sulphur. Synonym.
Flowers of Sulphur.

SOURCE. From Crude Sulphur by sublimation.

CHARACTERS. [A fine, yellow powder, having a slight, characteristic
odor and a faintly acid taste. ]

IMPURITIES. Sulphurous and sulphuric acids, arsenic sulphide, and earthy

[Sublimed Sulphur is used to make Potassa Sulphurata.]

Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; [i. to 4. gm.]


2. SULPHUR PR^CIPITATUM. Precipitated Sulphur. Syn-
onym. Milk of Sulphur. [Lac Sulphuris.

SOURCE. Boil Sublimed Sulphur, 100 ; with Slaked Lime, 50 ; in water.
6S 2 -|-3Ca(OH) 2 =2CaS 5 -|-CaS 2 O 3 -|-3H 2 O. This gives a solution containing
Calcium Sulphide and Calcium Hyposulphite. To it Hydrochloric Acid is
added, and Sulphur is thrown down as a very fine precipitate. 2CaS 5 -|-
4HCl=2CaCl 2 -f4S., 2H 2 S. Wash and dry the precipitate.

CHARACTERS. A fine* amorphous powder of a pale yellow color, without
odor or taste. ]

IMPURITY. Calcium sulphate, which makes it gritty.

Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; [i. to 4. gm.]

[3. SULPHUR LOTUM. Washed Sulphur.

SOURCE. Sublimed Sulphur, 100; with water, 100 ; and Ammonia Water,
IO; is digested, filtered, drained and dried.

CHARACTERS. A fine, yellow powder, without odor or taste. Solubility.
Insoluble in water.

IMPURITIES. Acids, arsenous acid, and arsenous sulphide.

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 22 of 67)