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Washed Sulphur is contained in Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus, and is
used to make Sulphuris lodidum.

Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; i. to 4. gm.

Preparation.

Unguentum Sulphuris. Sulphur Ointment. Washed Sulphur,
300 ; Benzoinated Lard, 700. ]

ACTION OF SULPHUR.

External. Sulphur itself has no action on the skin, but
some of it is converted into hydrogen [sulphide], and that is a
mild vascular stimulant, causing slight dilatation of the vessels,
and in some persons, eczema. It kills the Sarcoptes [scabiei~\,
and is therefore a parasiticide. When applied to raw surfaces
it is converted into sulphurous and sulphuric acids, and is there-
fore a severe irritant.

Internal. Alimentary canal. It has no effect on the
stomach, and most that is taken is passed out in the faeces unal-
tered. A certain amount is, in the intestine, converted into
hydrogen [sulphide] and other sulphides. These cause a mild
laxative effect, increasing the secretion of intestinal juice, and
slightly stimulating the muscular coat, producing soft semi-liquid
stools, sometimes accompanied by flatus of hydrogen [sulphide],



26O INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

which, if in sufficient quantity, makes sulphur an undesirable
laxative.

Remote effects. Sulphur is absorbed as sulphides and hydro-
gen [sulphide], which is a powerful poison, decomposing the
blood, and thus producing symptoms of asphyxia. It also par-
alyzes the whole nervous and muscular systems, but sulphur is
never given to man in sufficient doses to produce any remote
effects. Patients taking sulphur get rid of some minute portion
of it as hydrogen [sulphide] through the kidneys, the milk, the
lungs and skin. The breath occasionally smells of it, and silver
ornaments next to the skin may be discolored.

THERAPEUTICS OF SULPHUR.

External. Sulphur is commonly used to kill the Sarcoptes
[scabiei], and thus to cure scabies. The skin should be well
scrubbed with soft soap and hot water to lay open the burrows.
Then it is thoroughly rubbed with the ointment. The patient
should do this before bedtime, sleep in flannel, and wash the
ointment off the next morning. This proceeding repeated three
or four times will generally cure the disease. Sulphur ointment
was formerly applied as a stimulant to ulcers, and was rubbed in
for chronic rheumatism ; but these modes of treatment are now
rarely used, and their value is doubtful. [Mineral waters con-
taining sulphur and its salts are useful for chronic rheumatism,
as, for example, those of Richfield Springs.] Mild sulphur
preparations are applied for acne.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Sulphur is a very good laxa-
tive, especially for children ; as it produces a soft motion, but no
pain, it is useful for cases of piles or fissure of the anus. [Washed]
sulphur is contained in compound liquorice powder [see Senna],
which is an excellent and popular laxative. One or two sulphur
lozenges [of the B. P., each containing 5 gr. [.30 gm.] of pre-
cipitated sulphur and i gr. [.06 gm.] of acid potassium tartrate],
taken at bedtime, often secure an easy evacuation of the bowels
the next morning, in persons liable to slight constipation. These
lozenges have been recommended for constipation associated
with hepatic disease, and many mineral waters containing



THE PREPARATIONS OF SULPHUR. 26 1

sodium and hydrogen sulphides have considerable reputation for
hepatic disorders. Of these, Harrogate water has been shown
to increase the amount of bile and the solids in it.

Remote effects. Sulphur has been administered internally for
all sorts of skin diseases, generally without any good result, but
occasionally chronic eczema associated with much itching ap-
pears to be benefited by it, so that the sulphur lozenge is a suit-
able laxative for these cases. Sulphur has been also given for
bronchitis, for chronic rheumatism, and rheumatic myalgia, but
it is very doubtful whether in these diseases there is much relief
from this treatment.

4. POTASSA SULPHURATA. Sulphurated Potassa. Synonym,
Liver of Sulphur. [A mixture consisting for the most part of Potassium Hy-
posulphite (K 2 S 2 O 3 ) and Sulphide (K 2 S 3 ).]

SOURCE. Heat in a crucible a mixture of [sublimed] Sulphur, loo ; and
[dried] Potassium Carbonate, 200. 3K 2 CO 3 -|-4S 2 =K 2 S 2 O 3 -{-2K 2 S 3 +3COj.

CHARACTERS. [When freshly prepared it forms irregular pieces of a
liver-brown color, which, by exposure to the air, gradually absorb moisture,
Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide, and change to a greenish-yellow and finally a
gray mass, containing Potassium Carbonate, Hyposulphite and Sulphate. The
compound has a faint odor of Hydrogen Sulphide, and a bitter, alkaline taste.
Solubility. In 2 parts of water. ]

5. CALX SULPHURATA. Sulphurated Lime. [Synonym. Crude
Calcium Sulphide. A mixture containing at least 60 per cent, of Calcium
Monosulphide (CaS=7i.89), together with unchanged Calcium Sulphate
(CaSO 4 =l35.73), and Carbon, in varying proportions.

SOURCE. Obtained by heating a mixture of Calcium Sulphate, 70 ; Char-
coal, IO ; and Starch, 2.

CHARACTERS. A pale gray powder, exhaling a faint odor of Hydrogen
Sulphide, having a nauseous, alkaline taste, and gradually decomposed by ex-
posure to air. Solubility. Very slightly in water ; insoluble in alcohol.]

Dose, ^ to y z gr. ; [.006 to .03 gm.]

6. SULPHURIS IODIDUM. Sulphur Iodide. SI[=is8.5i.

SOURCE. By heating washed Sulphur, 120 ; with Iodine, 80, to liquefac-
tion ; when solid after cooling, reduce the fused mass to pieces.

CHARACTERS. Brittle masses of a crystalline fracture and a grayish or
black, metallic lustre, having the odor of Iodine, and a somewhat acrid taste.]
Solubility. [Almost] insoluble in water.

Dose, i to 4 gr. ; [.06 to .24 gm.]



262 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

ACTION OF SULPHURATED POTASH, SULPHURATED LIME, AND

SULPHUR IODIDE.

External. These preparations are irritant, and are powerful
parasiticides for the Sarcoptes \_scabiei.~\

Internal. Nothing is known of their internal action.

THERAPEUTICS OF SULPHURATED POTASH, SULPHURATED LIME,
AND SULPHUR IODIDE.

External. An ointment of either will cure scabies and a
sulphurated potash ointment (i in 80) is often used for this pur-
pose in the same way as sulphur ointment. [These] drugs have
been used for many chronic skin diseases ; but now they are
not often employed. They appear, however, occasionally to do
good in cases of acne indurata. Baths containing sulphides in
solution are considered by many to be very useful for chronic
rheumatic arthritis and rheumatic myalgia. The famous natural
sulphide baths are those of Aix-la-Chapelle, Aix-les-Bains, and
there are many others, which will be found described in works
on general therapeutics ; but as in all of them the water is warm,
and warm water is beneficial for chronic rheumatism, and the
sulphides exist in infinitesimally small quantities, it is very prob-
able that the benefit is due more to the heat of the water than to
its constituents. An artificial bath (sulphurated potash, i ;
water, 960,) is used for chronic psoriasis.

Internal. Sulphides have been given for chronic rheuma-
tism, various skin diseases, and phthisis ; but the evidence of
good done is scanty. [Sulphurated lime has been given inter-
nally in cases of suppuration,] for boils, carbuncles, and tuber-
culous glands in the neck. Haifa grain or a grain [.03 to .06
gm.] should be given every four hours. It is best made into a
pill with acacia, sugar of milk and syrup.

[7. CARBONEI DISULPHIDUM. Carbon Bisulphide. CS,=
75.93. Synonym. Carbon Bisulphide.

SOURCE. By combination of Carbon and Sulphur, by distillation.

CHARACTERS. A clear, colorless, highly refractive liquid, very diffusive,
having a strong characteristic, but not fetid odor, and a sharp, aromatic taste.
Solubility. In 535 parts of water; very soluble in Alcohol, Ether, Chloro-
form, fixed and volatile oils. Sp. gr., 1.268 to 1.269.



THE ACIDS. 263

USES OF CARBON BISULPHIDE.

Carbon disulphide is used as a solvent. It is the best solvent
for rubber and similar bodies. It can be freed from its usual
disgusting odor by repeated rectification.]



GROUP XI.

Acids.

Those acids which will be considered here may be divided into two classes.

Class I. Those which are strongly acid, the more powerfully acid being
active caustics. They are Sulphuric, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Nitrohydro-
chloric, Phosphoric, Acetic, Tartaric, Citric and Lactic acids. [Hypo-
phosphorous, Hydriodic and] Hydrobromic acids might be placed here,
but they have already been considered [see pp. 240, 248 and 258].

Class II. Those which, although feebly acid, are powerfully antiseptic.
They are Sulphurous and Boric acids.

Diluted Hydrocyanic, Carbolic, Benzoic, Gallic, Tannic, Oleic and Sali-
cylic acids are not used as acids, and will be considered under other headings.

Arsenous Acid and Chromic Acid are not true acids ; they are Anhydrides,
a^nd have already been considered (see 223 and 234).

CLASS I.

i. ACIDUM SULPHURICUM. [Sulphuric Acid. Synonym.
Oil of Vitriol. A liquid composed of not less than 72.5 per cent., by weight,
of absolute Sulphuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 =97.82) and 7.5 per cent, of water.]

SOURCE. Produced by the combustion of Sulphur or Iron Pyrites, and
the oxidation and hydration of the resulting Sulphur Dioxide gas by means of
nitrous and aqueous vapors. [2HNO 3 4-2S0 2 +H 2 O=2H 2 SO 4 +N 2 O 3 . N 2 O 3
+2SO 2 +O 2 +H 2 O=2SO 2 ,OHNO 2 . 2SO 2 ,OHNO 2 +H 2 O=2H 2 SO 4 +N 2 O 3 .

CHARACTERS. A colorless liquid of oily consistence and very caustic and
corrosive. Sp. gr., not below 1.835.]

IMPURITIES. Nitric acid, lead, and arsenic.

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies, their carbonates, lead and calcium salts.

Preparations,

I. Acidum Sulphuricum Dilutum. [Diluted Sulphuric Acid.
Sulphuric Acid, loo ; distilled, water, 825. Sp. gr., about 1.070.
Contains 10 per cent., by weight, of absolute Sulphuric Acid.]

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; [.60 to 2.00 c.c.]



264 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

2. Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum. [Aromatic Sulphuric
Acid. Synonym. Elixir of Vitriol. Sulphuric Acid, loo ; Oil of Cin-
namon, I ; Tincture of Ginger, 50 ; Alcohol, a sufficient quantity to
make looo. Sp. gr., about 0.939. Contains about 20 per cent., by
weight, of official Sulphuric Acid, partly in form of Ethyl-Sulphuric
Acid.]

Aromatic Sulphuric Acid is contained in Infusum Cinchonae.

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; [.30 to i.oo c.c.]

2. ACIDUM NITRICUM. Nitric Acid. [A liquid composed of 68
per cent., by weight, of absolute Nitric Acid (HNO 3 =62.89), and 32 per cent.
of water.]

SOURCE. Made from Potassium Nitrate by distilling with Sulphuric Acid.
[KN0 8 +H,S0 4 =KHSO 4 +HNO S . ]

CHARACTERS. A colorless, fuming [liquid, very caustic and corrosive, and
having a peculiar, somewhat suffocating odor. Sp. gr., about 1.414.]

IMPURITIES. Sulphuric acid, nitre, and lower nitrogen oxides, giving
ruddy fumes.

INCOMPATIBLES. Alcohol, alkalies, carbonates, oxides, iron sulphate, and
lead acetate.

\_Nitric Acid is contained in Liquor Ferri Nitratis, Liquor Zinci Chloridi,
and Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis.]

Preparations.

1. Acidum Nitricum Dilutum. [Diluted Nitric Acid. Nitric
Acid, loo; distilled water, 580. Sp. gr., about 1.057. I* contains 10
per cent., by weight, of absolute Nitric Acid.]

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; [.30 to 2.00 c.c.]

2. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum. [Nitrohydrochloric Acid.
Synonyms. Nitromuriatic Acid. Aqua regia. Nitric Acid, 180;
Hydrochloric Acid, 820. ]

3. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutum. [Diluted Nitro-
hydrochloric Acid. Synonym. Diluted Nitromuriatic Acid. Nitric
Acid, 40; Hydrochloric Acid, 180; distilled water, 780. Contains
Free Chlorine, Hydrochloric, Nitric and Nitrous Acids, and other
compounds dissolved in water.]

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; [.30 to 2.00 c.c.]

3. ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM. [Hydrochloric Acid. Syn-
onym. Muriatic Acid. A liquid compound of 31.9 per cent., by weight, of
Absolute Hydrochloric Acid (HC1=36.37) and 68. 1 per cent, of water.

SOURCE. The fumes produced by the action of Sulphuric Acid on
Sodium Chloride are dissolved in water. 2NaCl-f H,SO 4 =HCl-j-NaCl-}-
NaHSO 4 and NaCl-f NaHSO 4 =HCl+Na,SCv



THE ACIDS. 265

CHARACTERS. A colorless, fuming liquid, of a pungent odor, of an
intensely acid taste. Sp. gr., about 1.163.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Lead and silver salts, alkalies and their carbonates.

[Hydrochloric Acid is contained in Liquor Ferri Chloridi and Liquor
Zinci Chloridi.]

Prepa rations.

1. Acidum Hydrochloricum Dilutum. [Diluted Hydrochloric
Acid. Synonym. Diluted Muriatic Acid. Hydrochloric Acid, loo ;
distilled water, 219. Sp. gr. , about 1.050.

Diluted Hydrochloric Acid is contained in Liquor Acidi Arsenosi.]
Dose, 5 to 20 m. ; [.30 to 1.20 c.c.]

2. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum. See Nitric Acid.

3. Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutum. See Nitric Acid.

4. ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM. [Phosphoric Acid. A liquid
composed of not less than 85 per cent., by weight, of absolute Orthophos-
phoric Acid (H 3 PO 4 =97.8), in water.

SOURCE. When Phosphorus is brought into contact with Nitric Acid, it
is slowly oxidized and converted into Phosphoric Acid. P 3 -|-5HNO 3 -|-2H 2 O
= 3 H 3 P0 4 +5NO.

CHARACTERS. A colorless liquid, without odor, but having a strongly
acid taste. Sp. gr., 1.347.]

IMPURITIES. Calcium preparations, and sodium carbonate.

[Phosphoric Acid is contained in Syrupus Quininae et Strychninse Phos-
phatum.]

Preparation.

Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum. [Diluted Phosphoric Acid.
Phosphoric Acid, 100 ; distilled water, 750. Sp. gr., about 1.057. It
contains 10 per cent., by weight, of absolute Orthophosphoric Acid.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; [.30 to 2.00 c.c.]

5. ACIDUM ACETICUM. Acetic Acid. [A liquid composed of 36
per cent., by weight, of absolute Acetic Acid (HCjH 8 Oj=59.86) and 64 per
cent, of water.

SOURCE. By distilling Sodium Acetate with Sulphuric Acid, NaC 2 H 3 O 2
-f H 2 SO 4 =HC z H 3 O a 4-NaHSO 4 . The Acetic Acid distils out, and is obtained
by crystallization.

IMPURITIES. A clear, colorless liquid, having a strong, vinegar-like odor,
a purely acid taste, and a strongly acid reaction. Sp. gr. , about 1.048.]

IMPURITIES. Lead and copper, sulphuric, sulphurous and hydrochloric
acids.

[Acetic Acid is used to make the Aceta, and in several preparations.]



266 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Preparation.

Acidum Aceticum Dilutum. Diluted Acetic Acid. [Acetic
Acid, loo ; distilled water, 500. Sp. gr., about 1.008. It contains 6
per cent., by weight, of absolute Acetic Acid.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; [4. to 15. c.c.]

6. ACIDUM ACETICUM GLACI ALE. Glacial Acetic Acid.



SOURCE. Distil dry Sodium Acetate with strong Sulphuric Acid.
NaC,H J 2 -|-H,SO 4 =HC J H s O 1 -fNaHS0 4 .

CHARACTERS. [A clear, colorless liquid, of a strong, vinegar-like odor,
and a very pungent, purely acid taste. Sp. gr., not higher than 1.058, corre-
sponding to at least 99 per cent absolute Acetic Acid.]

7. ACIDUM CITRICUM. Citric Acid, H S C 6 H 5 O T +H J O[=209. 50.

SOURCE. Found in the fruits of the Lime (Citrus Bergamia) and Lemon
( Citrus Limonum). Chalk is added to the boiling juice, usually lemon juice,
2H S C 6 H 5 O 7 + 3CaCO s = Caj(C 6 H 5 O 7 ), + SCO, -f- 3 H,O. The precipitated
Calcium Citrate is boiled with Sulphuric Acid. After filtration and evapora-
tion, Citric Acid crystallizes out Ca s (C 6 H 6 O 7 ),+3H,SO 4 =2H s C 6 H 5 O 7 -f
3CaSO 4 .

CHARACTERS. Colorless, translucent, right-rhombic prisms, having an
agreeable, purely acid taste.] Citric Acid, like Tartaric Acid, is often used to
produce an effervescing mixture with [Ammonium, Sodium or Potassium] Car-
bonates, the two solutions being mixed immediately before taking. Carbon
Dioxide which causes the effervescence is formed thus : 3KHCO 3 -f-H s C 6 H 5 O 7
=K S C,H 5 7 + 3 C0 1 +3H,0.

INCOMPATIBLE. Potassium tartrate, alkaline carbonates, and acetates.

IMPURITIES. Copper, lead, sulphuric and tartaric acids, and mineral
matters.

Free Citric Acid is contained in Limonis Succus.

[Citric Acid is used to make Bismuthi Citras, Ferri et Quininae Citras,
Ferri et Quininae Citras Solubilis, Ferri et Strychninae Citras, Liquor Ferri
Citratis, Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Liquor Potassii Citratis, Lithii Citras Effer-
vescens, and Magnesii Citras Effervescens. ]

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to 2.00 grn.]

[Preparation.

Syrupus Acidi Citrici. Syrup of Citric Acid. Citric Acid, 10 ;
water, 10 ; Spirit of Lemon, lo ; Syrup to 1000.
Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]

8. ACIDUM TARTARICUM. Tartaric Acid, H,C 4 H 4 O,[=I49.64.

SOURCE. Boil Acid Potassium Tartrate with Calcium Carbonate. 2K

HC 4 H 4 O,-j-CaCO,=CaC 4 H 4 O,-f K,C 4 H 4 O,-f HjO+CO,. Calcium Chloride



THE ACIDS. 267

is now added, which precipitates more Calcium Tartrate. K 2 C 4 H 4 O 6 -f-CaCl 2
=CaC 4 H 4 O 6 -(-2KCl. The Calcium Tartrate is finally decomposed with Sul-
phuric Acid. CaC 4 H 4 O 6 -f H 2 SO 4 =H 2 C 4 H 4 O 6 -f CaSO 4 . Then evaporate the
fluid to the sp. gr. of 1.21. Separate the Calcium Sulphate crystals that form.
Again evaporate, Tartaric Acid crystallizes out.

CHARACTERS. Colorless translucent monoclinic prisms longer than those
of Citric Acid, or crystalline crusts, or a white powder, having a purely acid
taste. Solubility. In 0.8 part of water ; in 2.5 parts of Alcohol.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Potassium salts, calcium, mercury, lead, and vegetable
astringents.

IMPURITIES. Lead, oxalic acid, lime, and potassium tartrate.

Dose, 8 to 30 gr. ; [.50 to 2.00 gm.]

9. ACIDUM LACTICUM. Lactic Acid. HC 3 H 5 O 3 [=89.79.

SOURCE. Usually obtained by subjecting milk-sugar or grape-sugar to
lactic fermentation. It contains 75 per cent, by weight of absolute Lactic
Acid, in aqueous solution.

CHARACTERS. A colorless syrupy liquid, of a purely acid taste, and ab-
sorbing moisture on exposure to damp air. Sp. gr., about 1.213. Solubility.
Freely miscible with water, Alcohol or Ether.]

IMPURITIES. Mineral acids, sugar, lead, and iron.

[Lactic Acid is used in Syrupus Calcii Lactophosphatis. ]

ACTION OF SULPHURIC, NITRIC, HYDROCHLORIC, PHOSPHORIC,
ACETIC, CITRIC, TARTARIC AND LACTIC ACIDS.

External. All these acids are powerful irritants when
applied externally. The feeblest is citric. Its concentrated so-
lution has no action on the sound skin, but is irritant to mucous
membranes and abraded surfaces. Tartaric is stronger than
citric acid ; it will act upon the unabraded skin, and applied to
a sore it produces pain, a sensation of burning, and considerable
vascular dilatation. The remaining acids are very powerful irri-
tants, therefore even [very] dilute solutions of them may produce
considerable redness and perhaps vesication, and when the solu
tion is strong they are very energetic caustics ; sulphuric ana.
phosphoric acids, having a powerful affinity for water, are espe-
cially active. Sulphuric acid leaves the carbon untouched, there-
fore it blackens ; nitric stains the skin a deep yellow owing to
the formation of picric acid (trinitro-benzol), it does not redis-
solve the albumin it precipitates, and it is consequently limited
in its area of action ; nitrohydrochloric is very powerful ; hy-



268 INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

drochloric is the least active of the mineral acids ; glacial acetic
acid is useful when a limited action is required. [Ricord's
paste is composed of sulphuric acid and willow charcoal;
Michel's, of sulphuric acid and asbestos.] All the stronger
acids unite with and coagulate albumin ; hence weak solu-
tions, not strong enough to form a slough, which by its separation
may cause bleeding, will, by coagulating the blood and so plug-
ging the vessels, and by coagulating the albumin in the tissues
and so constricting the vessels, act as astringents and haemos-
tatics. [Citric acid is added to tablets of corrosive mercuric
chloride so that when these are dissolved in making solutions the
antiseptic shall penetrate into the tissues. Tartaric acid is used
for the same purpose.] Diluted solutions of acids are cooling to
the flushed skin of fever, therefore they are called refrigerants.

Internal. Mouth. All acids have a peculiar taste, and give
rise to a feeling of roughness about the teeth. As the saliva is
alkaline they increase the amount secreted, consequently
by keeping the mouth moist they allay thirst.

Stomach. It is believed that, if given during a meal, acids
will check the flow of gastric juice, as that is an acid secre-
tion. Nitric acid, however, interferes with the digestion of
proteids, as it combines with them. When the amount of acid
secreted by the gastric mucous membrane is deficient, acids
taken, after a meal, when all that the stomach can secrete has
been secreted, aid digestion.

Intestine. Acids quickly become converted into neutral salts,
and are probably absorbed as such. Some, especially diluted
sulphuric, preserve in the intestine their astringent action.
They increase the amount of bile poured into the intestine, and
are hence cholagogues ; this is especially the case with nitric
acid. Nitrohydrochloric acid is a still better cholagogue, as it
also increases the amount of bile secreted.

Remote effects. Acids may render the blood less alkaline, but
never acid. They do this by combining with some of the alkali
of the plasma. As high alkalinity of plasma and tissues favors
metabolism, acids slightly diminish it. They also diminish the
carbon [dioxide] in the blood. Phosphoric acid is believed to



THE ACIDS. 269

increase the amount of phosphates in the red blood-corpuscles.
The administration of hydrochloric acid will increase the number
of red corpuscles in chlorosis, but it does not alter the amount
of haemoglobin. It is probable that in their passage through
the liver they check the formation of urea. The reason for this
belief is that all these acids, except citric, acetic, tartaric and
lactic, are excreted in the urine especially in flesh feeders
chiefly as ammoniacal salts. Nitric acid is stated to be excreted
to a small extent as ammonia, and hence slightly to increase the
alkalinity of the urine. Acetic, citric and tartaric acids are de-
composed in the blood, alkaline carbonates being formed, and
the alkalinity of the urine is increased. This has already been
discussed (see p. 128). Lactic acid is either converted into an
[alkaline] carbonate, or passed out as carbon [dioxide] in solu-
tion in the urine. Some acids depress respiration in animals,
and the respiration is restored by alkalies.

THERAPEUTICS OF SULPHURIC, NITRIC, HYDROCHLORIC, PHOS-
PHORIC, ACETIC, CITRIC, TARTARIC AND LACTIC ACIDS.

External. Nitric acid is more often used as a caustic than
the others, for, owing to their great affinity for water, it is diffi-
cult to limit the action of sulphuric and phosphoric acids ; and
the remaining acids are not so powerful as nitric acid. It is em-
ployed to destroy warts, condylomata, unhealthy phagedsenic
sores, cancrum oris, etc. [Nitric acid is used as Heller's test
for determining the presence of albumin in the urine. At pres-
ent his process is reversed, i.e., the urine is added to the acid.]
Glacial acetic acid is used for small warts and corns. If this
causes pain it may be diluted. Very dilute solutions are rarely
employed for their irritant effects, but at some bathing establish-
ments acid baths are used, but it is not proved that they do any
good. Any well-diluted acid, especially sulphuric, may be ap-
plied to check slight bleeding, as that of leech-bites, piles, etc.
Vinegar can always be obtained ; even this should be diluted.
In fever the skin is often bathed with vinegar as a refrigerant,
and very dilute sulphuric acid is used as a local astringent in the
sweating of phthisis.



2/O INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Internal. Mouth. As acids damage the teeth they should
be taken through a glass tube. Lemon juice or citric acid itself
is often used to stimulate the secretion of saliva, and hence allay
the thirst of fever patients. Lemonade is a favorite drink for
this purpose. Lactic acid has been strongly recommended to
dissolve the membrane in diphtheria, but there is no evidence
that this treatment benefits the patient. Equal parts of lactic
acid and water may be applied with a mop, or a spray of a.
strength of [i to 8] of water may be employed. Very dilute
nitric acid has been used for the same purpose. Lactic acid is
applied [more frequently than any other drug] with a brush in
tuberculosis of the larynx, and in some cases with good results.
It is usual to begin with lactic acid, 2 ; water, i ; and glycerin, i.
The strength of the solution is increased till at last lactic acid
alone is used. Other accessible tuberculous ulcers as those of



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