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Materia medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics online

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SOURCE. By the action of Phosphorus Oxychloride on a mixture of
Sodium Guaiacol and Salicylate.

CHARACTERS. A white crystalline, odorless and tasteless powder. Solu-
bility. Insoluble in water ; soluble in Alcohol, Ether and Chloroform.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]


External. Guaiacol is antiseptic. If painted on the skin
over an area of from 4 to 20 square inches [10. to 50. sq. cm.],
it reduces pyrexia, but it is not used for this purpose as it causes
sweating and collapse.

Internal. [It is less likely than creosote to irritate the intes-
tinal canal and kidneys. Benzosol was introduced as a nearly
tasteless combination for the administration of guaiacol. In the
digestive tract it splits up into guaiacol and benzoic acid. As an
intestinal disinfectant it has proved to be of service in the treat-
ment of diabetes mellitus. The carbonate and salicylate have
been used as substitutes for guaiacol, and are in many cases pref-
erable to it. Guaiacol especially the carbonate] has been much
given in phthisis, for it is believed to aid the destruction of the
bacilli in the lungs, but although widely used there is no [abso-
lutely] certain evidence that it [does this. The carbonate has
given excellent results in the treatment of typhoid fever in limit-
ing the decomposition in the intestines].


[CREOLIN. (Not official.) A solution of the higher homologues of

SOURCE. Creolin is derived from coal by dry distillation, and consists of
a mixture of the sodium salts of some resinous acids with Creolin Oil and

CHARACTERS. A dark brown, syrupy alkaline liquid. It forms a turbid,
milky mixture with water, which has the characteristic, rather pleasant, odor
of the preparation.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.




Creolin is a non- irritating but powerful antiseptic, frequently
used in place of carbolic acid. It is used pure, in 2 per cent.
solution, in an ointment or as a soap, 10 per cent. It has been
given internally in gastric fermentation, dysentery and typhoid
fever. Toxic symptoms have been observed, but they are rarely
encountered.] Jeyes' disinfectant preparations contain creolin.


[LYSOL. (Not official.) A substance containing about 50 per cent, of

SOURCE. From tar oil by dissolving in fat and saponifying with Alcohol.

CHARACTERS. A brown, oily-looking clear liquid, with a feeble aromatic
odor. Solubility. Soluble in all proportions in water (forming a clear, froth-
ing, saponaceous liquid), in Alcohol, Chloroform and Glycerin.


Lysol is an antiseptic, about one-eighth as poisonous as car-
bolic acid, and even less poisonous than creolin, used in from
one-half to two per cent, aqueous solution. The literature is
extensive and generally favorable.] Lysol does not affect in-
struments but may make them difficult to hold, as it is a solution
of tar oils in a neutral soap. Izal is a coal tar derivative [chiefly
used in England, possessing similar properties and used for the
same purposes.]


IODOFORM. CHI 3 [=392.56.] Synonym. Tri-iodomethane.

SOURCE. Heat together Alcohol, Iodine, Potassium Bicarbonate, and
water. C 2 H 6 O4^I+2KHCOj=2CHI s -(-2KI+3H,O+2CO r

CHARACTERS. [Small lemon-yellow, lustrous crystals of the hexagonal
system, having a peculiar, very penetrating and persistent odor somewhat re-
sembling that of Saffron and Iodine, and an unpleasant, slightly sweetish, and
Iodine-like taste. Solubility. Very slightly in water; soluble in 52 parts of
Alcohol ; freely in fixed and Volatile Oils, Ether and Chloroform.] It con-
tains 96.7 per cent, of Iodine.

Dose, i to 3 gr. ; [.06 to .20 gm.]


Unguentum lodoformi. [lodoform Ointment lodoform, 10;
Benzoinated Lard, 90.]



External. lodoform is [anaesthetic], antiseptic and dis-
infectant, if we may judge by the results obtained in clinical
practice ; but the experimental evidence that it has no power to
hinder the development of Staphylococcus pyogenes, .Bacillus
subtilis, and other micro-organisms, is very strong, for all, ex-
cept one or two experimenters state that it has no antiseptic
properties. The reason for these discrepancies is this : lodoform
only acts as an antiseptic after its decomposition, which results
in the liberation of free iodine. The fats always present in tis-
sues dissolve it. When dissolved it is easily decomposed by
many agents, such as light, oxygen, living cells, or ptomaines,
which would have no effect on it if it were undissolved. By one
or more of these it is, when dissolved after [having been] dusted
upon a wound, slowly decomposed. Iodine is thus set free
rapidly enough to act as an antiseptic, but not rapidly enough
to act as an irritant.

Internal. Not much is known about the internal action of
iodoform. It is eliminated in all the secretions, but chiefly in
the urine, as iodine, iodides, and iodates. They may be found
in the urine for three days after administration of iodoform.


External. lodoform is much used as a local stimulant, an-
tiseptic and disinfectant. The clinical testimony as to its value
is overwhelming. [Before using, since iodoform itself, as above
explained, is not antiseptic, it must be disinfected by washing in
a i to 2000 solution of corrosive mercuric chloride and preserved
while damp, in closed, sterile jars.]

Its anaesthetic influence diminishes the pain, if there is any,
of the sores to which it is applied. It is an excellent application
for all sorts of ulcers, sores and wounds, but especially for tuber-
culous and syphilitic ulcerations and chancres. Powdered iodo-
form is usually [dusted] upon them. Wounds and venereal
sores are often painted with a solution of it in collodion (i in 12
of flexible collodion). This is an excellent application. Mixed


with bismuth subnitrate, it is useful as an insufflation (iodoform,
I ; starch, 2 ;) for ozsena, ulcers of the mouth and throat, and
tuberculous ulcers of the larynx. Often ^ gr. [.02 gm.] of mor-
phine acetate is added. An emulsion (iodoform, moistened with
alcohol, i ; boiling water, 2 ; glycerin, 7 ;) is very useful for in-
jection into sinuses, abscess cavities, etc. It has been used in
the form of a bougie for the urethra and for the nose. The sup-
pository [B. P., each 3 gr. ; .20 gm., in 12 gr. ; .80 gm. of oil
of theobroma] is useful in painful conditions of the rectum. It
is occasionally employed for pruritus, and to relieve the pain
of neuralgia. Many attempts have been made to get rid of its
odor; balsam of Peru, musk, or creolin (2 per cent.) have been
used, but oil of geranium (i to 25) is best. [Some believe that
the odor of iodoform is preferable to that of musk. By keeping
a Tonka bean or ground roasted coffee with it, the odor is

Internal. Iodoform has not been found to be of any use
internally. It has been tried unsuccessfully in phthisis and

many other conditions.


Symptoms. Curious symptoms, often severe and sometimes ending in
death, are occasionally observed after the application of iodoform to a raw sur-
face. They are a quick pulse, gastro-intestinal irritation, fever, rapid collapse,
melancholia, hallucinations, dilated pupils, extensive erythema and perhaps
eczema. These symptoms vary much in severity, and it is rare for more than
two or three of them to be present at once. Fatty degeneration of the liver
and muscles may occur.

[ Treatment. ] Stimulants, diaphoretics and sponging the skin with warm
water are recommended.


ARISTOL. (Not official). C W H M O,I,=548. 38. Synonyms. Di-
thymoldiiodide. Annidalin.

SOURCE. It is prepared by the decomposition of a solution of Iodine in
Potassium Iodide, by Thymol dissolved in a solution of Sodium Hydroxide.
The precipitate is washed with water and dried. It contains 46 per cent,
of Iodine.

CHARACTERS. An amorphous brownish-red, almost tasteless powder, of a
slight, peculiar, iodine-like odor. Solubility. Insoluble in water and Glyc-
erin ; soluble in Ether and Chloroform ; with difficulty soluble in Alcohol ; it
is readily taken up by fixed oils and Petrolatum.



It is used for the same purposes as is iodoform in various
skin diseases, as lupus, psoriasis and for tertiary syphilis, both in
ointment, lanolin, flexible collodion and as a powder. It has the
very great advantage of being nearly free from odor. In surgery
when dusted upon serous membranes it tends to prevent their


IODOL. (Not official). C 4 I 4 NH=569.oi. Synonym. Tetraiodopyrrol.

SOURCE. From the interaction of Iodine and Pyrrol in Alcoholic solution.
It contains 90 per cent, of Iodine.

CHARACTERS. A pale-yellow, bulky powder, odorless and tasteless. It
becomes dark in color on exposure to light. Solubility. Insoluble in water ;
soluble in Alcohol, Ether and fixed oils.

Dose, y z to 3 gr. ; .03 to .20 gm.


lodol was introduced as an antiseptic iodine compound, and
is used for the same purpose as iodoform, for which it is a fre-
quent substitute. It has been administered internally as a sub-
stitute for potassium iodide.


EUROPHEN. ( Not official. } Synonym. Diisobutylorthocresol iodide.
0.^11.^021=450.79. This should be distinguished from Europhin.

SOURCE. It is prepared in the same way as is Aristol except that Isobutyl-
orthocresol is used in place of Thymol. It contains 28 per cent, of Iodine.

CHARACTERS. It is an amorphous, golden-yellow powder of a slightly
saffron-like odor. Solubility. In Alcohol, Ether, and in about 4 parts of
Olive Oil ; insoluble in water or Glycerin.


Europhen is permanent when dry, but when moistened splits
up into iodine and a new soluble iodine compound. It is a
powerful germicide and bactericide, and is used for wounds and
for like purposes as is iodoform, and in the same quantities.]

Various iodoform-like substances (not official) are found in the market
which depend for their antiseptic properties upon the iodine in them. They


have no advantage over iodoform except that some of them have no odor.
The following are the chief :

Losophan contains 80.0 per cent, of iodine.

Di-iodosalicylic acid " 66. o " "

Sozoiodol " 54.0 " "

lodosalicylic acid " 50.0 " "


NAPHTALIN. C 10 H 8 =i 27. 7. Synonym. Naphtalene.

SOURCE. A Hydrocarbon obtained from Coal Tar by distillation between
356 and 482 F. ; 180 and 250 C. The impure Naphtalin is treated suc-
cessively with Sodium Hydroxide and Sulphuric Acid, and is purified by dis-
tillation in the presence of steam, and by treating with concentrated Sulphuric
Acid and distilling.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, shining, transparent lamin?e, having a strong,
characteristic odor resembling that of Coal Tar, and a burning aromatic taste ;
slowly volatilized on exposure to air. Solubility. Insoluble in water ; soluble
in 15 parts of Alcohol, very soluble in Ether, Chloroform, Carbon Bisulphide,
and fixed or Volatile Oils.

Dose, i to 20 gr. ; .06 to 1.20 gm.


Since naphtalin is not absorbed by the system, it acts only
upon the mucous membrane of the bowels. It is a true intestinal
antiseptic, and is of great value in dysentery, and in catarrhal,
typhoid and tuberculous diarrhoea, where it markedly lessens or
entirely abolishes the fcetor of the movements. It has also been
used as a vermifuge (dose, 3 to 6 gr. ; .20 to .40 gm.). Suc-
cess in the treatment of dysentery usually requires a daily dose
of from one to two drachms ; 4. to 8. gm., best administered in
starch wafers with oil of bergamot.


NAPHTOL. Ci H 7 OH=i43. 66. Synonym. Beta-Naphtol. A phenol
occurring in Coal Tar, but usually prepared artificially from Naphtalin.

SOURCE. Concentrated Sulphuric Acid is allowed to act on Naphtalin,
whereby y3-Naphtalin Sulphonic Acid is formed (C 10 H 7 HSO 3 ). This acid is
dissolved in water, saturated with Milk of Lime, and the resulting Calcium
Salt separated by crystallization. The crystals are re-dissolved in water and
decomposed by Sodium Carbonate, yielding Sodium Naphtalin-Sulphonate
(C 10 H 7 SOjNa). The Sodium Salt is next added to fused Sodium Hydroxide
and Sodium-Naphtol C 10 H 7 ONa, and Sodium Sulphite NaSO, is formed. The


former is treated with Hydrochloric Acid and Naphtol is obtained, which is
purified by sublimation and re- crystallization from hot water.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, or pale buff-colored, shining, crystalline laminae,
or a white, or yellowish-white, crystalline powder, having a faint, phenol-like
odor, and a sharp and pungent but not persistent taste. Solubility. In about
1000 parts of water, and in 0.75 part of Alcohol ; very soluble in Ether,
Chloroform or solutions of caustic alkalies,

Dose, i to 20 gr. ; .06 to 1.20 gm.


Naphtol was introduced as an antiseptic, at fu^t in dermato-
logical practice as a 10 per cent, ointment, in scabies, ringworm
and psoriasis ; it is, however, irritating in eczema. It is a remedy
of great value in obtaining intestinal antisepsis, bacteriological
investigations showing that it destroys certain micro-organisms
in situ when administered to the extent of 40 gr. ; 2.70 gm. per
day. As it is irritating to the stomach it can be administered in
keratin -coated pills.] It is useful for cases of dilated stomach.


ASAPROL. (Not official). (C 10 H 6 OHSO 3 ) 2 Ca+3H 2 O=538.83. Syn-
onym. Calcium Beta-naphtol alpha-monosulphonate.

SOURCE. By action of free Sulphuric Acid on Beta-Naphtol, neutralizing
this product with Calcium Carbonate, concentration and crystallization.

CHARACTERS. A colorless, or yellowish-white, crystalline powder, of a
slightly bitter taste, becoming darker on exposure to light. Solubility. In 1.5
parts of water ; in 3 parts of Alcohol.

Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; z. to 4. gm.


Asaprol is an useful, soluble and safe antiseptic. It is valuable
in epidemic influenza, relieving the pain and reducing the fever,
not giving rise to prostration nor interference with the heart or
respiration. In atonic dyspepsia, when fermentation alternates
with acid eructations, it has achieved brilliant results. Since it is
not irritating to the alimentary mucous membranes, it can advan-
tageously replace naphtol. In chronic rheumatism it will relieve
the pain of an acute exacerbation. In acute rheumatism, al-
though it does not present the disadvantages of the salicylates, it
is not so useful, nor so uniformly successful.]



RESORCIN. [C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 =I09.74. Synonyms. Resorcinol. Meta-
dioxy benzol.

SOURCE. This is a diatomic phenol obtained by heating Benzene with
fuming Sulphuric Acid, whereby Benzene Metadisulphonic Acid is formed
(C 6 H 4 (HSO 3 ) 2 ). The acid is dissolved in water, neutralized with Milk of Lime,
the Calcium Sulphate expressed, Sodium Carbonate added, filtered and the ni-
trate evaporated to dryness. The residue is then heated with Caustic Soda
and Sodium Resorcin (C 6 H 4 (ONa) 2 ) is formed ; continuous boiling expels the
Sulphurous Acid, and the residue is extracted with Ether and impure Resorcin
obtained by distillation. This is purified by sublimation or re-crystallization
from water.

CHARACTERS. Colorless or faintly reddish, needle-shaped crystals or
rhombic plates, having a faint, peculiar odor, and a disagreeable, sweetish and
afterwards pungent taste, acquiring a reddish or brownish tint by exposure to
light and air. Solubility. In 0.6 part of water, and in 0.5 part of Alcohol ;
also readily soluble in Ether or Glycerin ; very slightly soluble in Chloroform.

Dose, 2 to 5 gr. ; .12 to .30 gm.]


This substance, originally introduced as an antipyretic, is now
rarely employed for this purpose, as [the necessarily large doses
are] too depressant to the heart. A solution of resorcin in gly-
cerin, i to 4, is excellent for removing epidermic scales in chronic
skin diseases, and also for getting rid of the [scales] in seborrhoea
sicca of the scalp ; [here it doubtless inhibits the action of the
bacteria which may be the cause of dandruff.] A lotion : Resor-
cin, i ; ether, i ; castor oil, i ; eau de cologne, 10 ; alcohol (90
per cent. ), 35 ; is useful for dandruff and alopecia. Resorcin is
a powerful antiseptic, and a 5 per cent, solution may be injected
into the bladder in cystitis. [It is of great value in fermentative
dyspepsia when administered, well diluted, one hour after inges-
tion of food. Dark -colored urine, often described as smoky, is
sometimes seen after large doses.]


FORMALDEHYDE. (Not official.) -CH 2 O[=29.93. Synonyms.
Formal. Formic Aldehyde. A gas soluble in water. The solution known
as Formalin contains about 40 per cent, of the gas.

SOURCE. It is obtained by the oxidation of methylic alcohol at a moder-
ately high temperature or by passing the vapor over red-hot metal.


CHARACTERS. The solution of Formaldehyde is colorless, having a pecu-
liar odor and an irritative taste. Solubility. Readily i n water and in Alcohol.


Formaldehyde is a powerful disinfectant. It hardens the skin
and is irritant to the respiratory raucous membranes. It is used
diluted with twenty-five times its bulk of water as a preservative
for anatomical specimens, which do not shrink in it, and, in i to
60 aqueous solution, as a hardening agent in histological work.
As a germicide it is about equal to corrosive mercuric chloride,
but is not much used in surgery as it retards healing. As a pow-
erful disinfectant it can be employed for large rooms, when vola-
tilized in a special lamp. It does not bleach colored fabrics.
The penetrating power of the gas depends largely upon the con-
ditions of moisture, although under favorable circumstances it
may be considerable. If the micro-organisms are exposed they
will be destroyed within a half hour by a quart ; 960 c.c., vola-
tilized in a room fifteen feet square, and ten feet in height ; if
protected, within an hour and a half. Small animals accidentally
confined in rooms undergoing this process rarely survive, when
it is properly carried out (Harrington).


UROTROPIN. (Not official. )C 6 H 12 N 4 139.86. Synonym. Hexa-

SOURCE. It is obtained by the action of 4 molecules of Ammonia on 6
molecules of Formaldehyde : 4H S N+6CH 2 O=C 6 H 12 N 4 +6H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. It occurs as colorless, transparent, six-sided rhomboids or
prisms, of a sweetish, afterwards bitter taste, which are permanent when kept
dry. It is odorless at ordinary temperatures, but heating evolves a peculiar
fishy odor. Solubility. Readily in 1.25 parts of water, in Chloroform, Alco-
hol, Acetone, and Carbon Bisulphide ; insoluble in Ether.

INCOMPATIBLES. All acids decompose it in the presence of warmth.

Dose, 7 to 15 gr. ; .50 to i.oo gm. in full tumbler of plain or carbonated


Large doses in man, e.g., 150 grains ; 10 gm., are well borne ;
intravenous injections in rabbits and dogs do not increase, but,
rather, slightly lower blood-pressure. Very large doses cause


albuminuria in rabbits and hsematuria in dogs. Of most im-
portance is the inhibitory action of this remedy upon micro-
organisms when it is split up into formaldehyde and ammonia,
the former being the active agent. This takes place for the
most part, after ingestion, in the urine, which is not only of the
proper temperature but also contains uric acid and acid salts
which are efficient. Further, as Bardet showed, it will dissolve
uric acid at the temperature of the body. Lastly, it may or may
not produce diuresis.


This remedy is of especial value in diseases of the urinary
passages. In ammoniacal fermentation of the urine, which is
especially frequent in the cystitis of prostatic hypertrophy, the
maximum dose given for two or three successive days is efficient
in clearing that excretion. Inasmuch as the growth of the
micro-organisms is inhibited, the remedy should be continued in
sufficient amount to maintain this result. In gonorrhoeal pos-
terior urethritis, cystitis and pyelitis the results are equally favor-
able. It may be employed as a prophylactic measure before
operations upon the genito-urinary tract. For the uric acid
diathesis it has been used with good results by most, with failure
by a very few, physicians. Since it is not always diuretic, other
measures should be employed for this purpose. As a lithontriptic
some success has been claimed. For phosphaturia excellent re-
sults are reported. Inasmuch as the bacillus of enteric fever is
found in a very considerable percentage of urines from patients
suffering from this disease, and failure to disinfect this excretion
is a source of danger, urotropin should be administered not only
for this purpose but as well to avoid the cystitis which sometimes
supervenes in the course of the disease.]


SACCHARIN. (B. P., not official). C 6 H 4 COSO,NH=[i68.65.]
Synonyms. Glusidum, [B. P.] Benzoyl-sulphonic-imide. Glucusimide.

SOURCE. It is derived from Toluene, C,H 6 CH S , a derivative of coal tar, by
a complicated process.


CHARACTERS. A light, white, crystalline powder. In solution it has an
intensely sweet taste ; I of Saccharin is equal to 300 of cane sugar. Solubility.
In 400 parts of cold water ; in 24 parts of boiling water ; in 500 parts
of Chloroform ; in 25 parts of Alcohol ; in 48 parts of Glycerin. It unites with
alkaline hydrates and carbonates, evolving from the latter Carbon [dioxide],
and yields soluble Saccharin, which has lost none of its sweetness, and is very
soluble in water.

IMPURITIES. Commercial Saccharin is not a pure or uniform product ; it
often contains less than 50 per cent, of actual Saccharin.

Dose, Yz to 2 gr. ; [.03 to .12 gm.]


[Saccharin] is an antiseptic, but it is not used as such, [ex-
cepting in the surgery of the bladder.] It is employed as a
sweetening agent, when from any cause, as in diabetes [mel-
litus], sugar cannot be taken. It may be given in tablets, or
with sodium carbonate to form soluble solutions. An elixir is
prepared, containing [saccharin, 2 ; sodium bicarbonate (90 per
cent.), i; alcohol, 5; and water, 35 parts.] This is excellent
for covering the taste of nauseous medicines. Usually 20 m.
[1.20 c.c.] are required for a four-ounce [125. c.c.] mixture.


METHYLENE BLUE. (Not official.) Synonym. Tetrametbyl-
thionin chloride. [C 16 N 18 N 3 SC1=3 18.90.

SOURCE. By treating dimethylparaphenylenediamine (NH 2 C 6 H 4 N(CH 3 ) 2 )
in an acid solution with Hydrogen Sulphide and Ferric Chloride.

CHARACTERS. In small, blue, scaly crystals, with a copper-bronze tinge.
Solubility. Readily in water.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.


Methylene blue (not to be confounded with methyl blue) has
been introduced into medicine as antiseptic. It has been used
for rheumatism of the joints and muscles. Lately it has been
given for intermittent fevers, but the reports show that it pos-
sesses no advantage over quinine excepting that it is tasteless and
may be substituted for it if it cannot be taken or it has been un-
successfully used. Recent reports indicate that even when given
internally it causes gonococci to rapidly disappear from the


urine in specific urethritis. As to its effects upon inoperable
neoplasms when injected into them clinical reports differ widely.
It imparts a blue color to nerve substance and a like color to the
urine. It may produce irritation at the neck of the bladder,
which about 30 gr.; 2 gm. of powdered nutmeg is said to relieve.]
It has been used as an analgesic in neuralgia, migraine, sciatica,
and rheumatism.


PIPERAZINE. (Not official). C 4 H 10 N 2 =85. 9. Synonyms. Piperazi-
dine. Diethylenediamine. Dispermine.

(This drug is antiseptic only so far as its clearing the urine of pathological
products prevents decomposition. It is placed here for convenience. )

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 30 of 67)