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CEREUS GRANDIFLORUS. Synonym. Night-blooming Cereus.
The stems of Cactus Grandiftorus Linne (nat. ord. Cactacea). Habitat.
Tropical America ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Its branches, or stems, are scandent, diffuse, radicant,
slightly 5 to 7 angular; areolae, 5 to 12 spinulose j.spinules short, 4 to 6 mm.
long, nearly equalling the whorl ; flowers large, nocturnal, white, pleasantly
and strongly fragrant ; the calyx is about 15 to 20 cm. in diameter ; the inside
being of a splendid yellow, the outside is of a dark brown ; the petals of a
pure white ; and there is a vast number of recurved stamens in the centre.

CONSTITUENT. It is believed to contain an alkaloid, Cactine, but this
has not been satisfactorily demonstrated.


Extractum Cacti Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Cactus. By macer-
ation and percolation of the fresh flowering branches with Alcohol and
Water and evaporation.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.


The action of cactus is upon the intra-cardiac ganglia and ac-
celerator nerves, through the cardiac plexus of the sympathetic,
and there is not any interference with the inhibitory nerves, nor,
indeed, does its administration produce any very marked vaso-
motor changes. It shortens the ventricular diastole, thus quick-
ening the pulse, and increases the blood-pressure. It is useful
in cardiac weakness, that is, relative incompetency ; in convales-
cence from typhoid fever ; in simple eccentric cardiac dilata-
tion ; in functional cardiac diseases, from tea, coffee, tobacco
and alcohol, dyspepsia, neurasthenia of the climacteric, sexual
exhaustion ; in the ' ' slow heart, ' ' from over-stimulation of the
pneumogastric or degeneration of the muscular wall of the ven-
tricles. It is of very great use in aortic regurgitation, but is
absolutely contra-indicated in mitral stenosis, thus being of value
in those cases where the use of digitalis is inadmissible. It has
a sphere of action entirely of its own, not, however, replacing
other remedies used for cardiac disease, but it is useful in many
cases where these drugs are not only dangerous, but absolutely


contra-indicated. Failures to obtain results depend upon the
fact that many adulterated specimens are found in the shops, or
upon the uses of inert, dried material. If made from the green
plant, as it should always be, the fluid extract is of peculiar green


Vegetable Drugs employed for their action on the Respiratory Organs
and not falling among Volatile Oils. (Sef Group VI.)

Senega, [Sanguinaria, Pulsatilla,] Ipecacuanha,

[Allium,] Lobelia, [Asclepias, Castanea, Inula,

Aspidosperma, Eridictyon, Cocillaha,] and

Prunus Virginiana.

Senega, Ipecacuanha and Lobelia are gastro-intestinal irritants. Senega
and Ipecacuanha are both excreted by the bronchial mucous membrane, which
they irritate. Group II. is connected with this group by Senega, which acts
on the heart like Squill, and like it is excreted by the bronchial mucous


[SENEGA. The root of Polygala Senega Linne (nat. ord. Polygaleiz).
Synonym. Senega Snakeroot Habitat. United States, westward to Min-

CHARACTERS. About 10 cm. long, with a heavy knotty crown, and
spreading tortuous branches, keeled when dry, fleshy and round after having
been soaked in water ; externally yellowish-gray or brownish-yellow ; bark
thick, whitish within, enclosing an irregular, porous, yellowish wood ; odor
slight, but unpleasant ; taste sweetish, afterwards acrid.] Resembling Senega
root. Arnica, Valerian, Serpentaria and Green Hellebore, but none of these
have a keel.

COMPOSITION. The active principle is Senegin (C M H 54 O 18 ). Also called
Safonin, which is found in Quillaja (q. .). It is a colorless, amorphous glu-
coside, insoluble in Alcohol, but forming a soapy emulsion when mixed with
boiling water, and is decomposed by Hydrochloric Acid into glucose and
Sapogenin. It exists as a white powder, which forms a soapy emulsion when
mixed with boiling water. It acts like Digitonin (see p. 421), and is found in
many plants.

IMPURITIES. Other roots are mixed with it

[Dose, 10 to 20 gr. ; .60 to 1.20 gm.]



[i. Extractum Senegae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Senega.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, Ammonia Water and
Water, and evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Senega is used to prepare Syrupus Senegae and
Syrupus Scillae Compositus.

Dose, 10 to 20 m. ; .60 to 1.20 c.c.

2. Synipus Senegae. Syrup of Senega. Fluid Extract of Senega,
200 ; Ammonia Water, 5 ; Sugar, 700 ; Water to 1000. Filter before
adding the Sugar.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

3. Syrupus Scillae Compositus. See Antimony, p. 231.]


External. Senega is an irritant to the skin.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Senega in large doses is an
irritant here also, producing salivation, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Even small doses often cause indigestion. It is absorbed with

Circulation. Senegin circulates as such in the blood. It
arrests the heart in diastole. It is excreted by the skin, the
bronchial mucous membrane, and the kidneys.

Respiration. When the powdered root is inhaled it acts as a
violent irritant to the nose, causing much sneezing and cough,
together with hypersemia and increased secretion from the respi-
ratory mucous membrane. If senega is taken internally,' the
bronchial mucous membrane is irritated because of excretion
through it of senegin, which causes vascular dilatation, greater
secretion, and reflexly, cough. Senega is, therefore, a stimu-
lating expectorant.

Kidney. It is a diuretic, because excretion of senegin through
the kidneys causes irritation of them.


Senega is only used as a stimulating expectorant. It is evi-
dent that it will be useful in bronchitis, when the secretion is
scanty, and when the power to cough is feeble. As it is an irri-
tant to the bronchial mucous membrane, it must not be given in



acute bronchitis, nor, on account of its gastro-intestinal action,
when there is indigestion. It has been employed as a diuretic,
but it is not powerful, and is uncertain.


SANGUINARIA. Synonym. Bloodroot. The rhizome of Sangui-
naria canadensis Linn6 (nat. ord. Papaveracetz), collected in autumn.
Habitat. North America, in rich woods.

CHARACTERS. Of horizontal growth, about 5 cm. long, and i cm. thick,
cylindrical, somewhat branched, faintly annulate, wrinkled, reddish-brown ;
fracture short, somewhat waxy, whitish with numerous small, red resin-cells,
or of a nearly uniform, brownish-red color ; bark, thin ; odor, slight ; taste
persistently bitter and acrid.

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are (l) Sanguinarine, C M H 15 NO 4
a white substance, soluble in Alcohol. (2) Chelerythrine, C M H 15 NO 4 . (3)
Protopine. C w Hj 7 NO 5 , also present in Opium. (4) Homochelidonine, C M
Hj,NO 4 . (5) Resins. (6) Citric and Malic Acids.

Dose, 2 to 30 gr. ; .12 to 2.00 gm.



1. Extractum Sanguinariae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of San-
guinaria. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, Water and
Acetic Acid, and evaporation.

Dose, i to 5 m.; .06 to .30 c.c. (expectorant); # to i fl. dr.;
i. to 4. c.c. (emetic).

2. Tinctura Sanguinariae. Tincture of Sanguinaria. Sangui-
naria, 150 ; by maceration with Alcohol, Acetic Acid and Water, and
percolation to 1000.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c. (expectorant); I to 3 fl. dr. ;
4. to 12. c.c. (emetic).


Sanguinaria is an acrid emetic with stimulant, and in large
doses, narcotic powers ; it is also expectorant and said to be an
emmenagogue. It is chiefly used as a stimulating expectorant in
chronic bronchitis or in advanced stages of the acute disease.


PULSATILLA. The herb of Anemone Pulsatilla and of Anemone
pratensis Linn6 (nat. ord. Ranunculacea), collected soon after flowering.
Habitat. Europe.


CHARACTERS. Leaves radical, petiolate, silky-villous, twice or thrice
deeply three-parted or pinnately cleft, with linear, acute lobes, appearing after
the large, purple flowers ; inodorous, very acrid.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is Anemonin, C^HgO^, which is
colorless, inodorous and, when distilled with water, acrid.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.


It is said to be very nearly the equivalent of senega, and also
to paralyze the heart and respiratory centres. It has been used
for the treatment of the symptom of asthma, convulsive coughs
and in bronchitis. Pulsatilla is a favorite remedy for dysmen-
orrhoea in its various forms, obstructive excepted. The fluid
extract (not official) in dose of i to 5 minims; .06 to .30 c.c.,
has been highly recommended for orchitis and epididymitis.]


IPECACUANHA. Ipecac. [The root of Cepkaelis Ipecaatanha
(Brotero) A. Richard (nat. ord. Rttbiaced}. Habitat. Brazil to Bolivia and
New Granada, in damp forests ; cultivated in India.

CHARACTERS. About 10 cm. long, and 4 or 5 mm. thick ; mostly simple,
contorted, dull grayish-brown or blackish, finely wrinkled ; closely and irreg-
ularly annulated, and often transversely fissured ; bark thick, brittle, brownish,
easily separated from the thin, whitish, tough, ligneous portion ; odor slight,
peculiar, nauseous ; taste bitterish, acrid, nauseating.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Emetine, C^H^NjO^
from I to 2 per cent., an uncrystallizable alkaloid. It is colorless (turns yel-
low on keeping), odorless, bitter, and soluble in Alcohol, Ether and Chloro-
form, slightly soluble in water, not in caustic alkali. (2) Cephaeline, CjgH^
N 2 O 4 , an amorphous, bitter alkaloid, colorless (turns yellow on keeping), solu-
ble in caustic alkali, less soluble in Ether than Emetine, but freely in Alcohol
and Chloroform. (3) A third alkaloid in minute quantities. (4) A mixture
called Cephaelic or Ipecacuanhic Acid. (5) Tannic acid, Volatile Oil, Starch,
Gum, etc.

Ipecacuanha contains about 2 per cent, of alkaloids. The proportion of
each varies in different specimens of the root, but as a rule there is twice as
much Emetine as Cephaeline. Emetine hydrochlorate and hydrobromate are
in the market ; a solution of either in sherry [ I to 3840] is of about the same
strength as Vinum Ipecacuanha:.

IMPURITIES. Hemiclesmus, which is cracked, not annulated. Almond-
Powder, occasionally found mixed with powdered Ipecacuanha root, gives odor
of [Hydrocyanic] Acid when moistened.


Dose, of powdered root, ^ to 2 gr. ; [.03 to .12 gra. (expectorant),
15 to 30 gr. ; i. to 2. gm. (emetic).]


1. [Extractum Ipecacuanhae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Ipe-
cac. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, distilla-
tion of the Alcohol, addition of water to residue, evaporation and addi-
tion of Alcohol.

Fluid Extract of Ipecacuanha is used to make Syrupus Ipecac-
uanhse, Tinctura Ipecacuanhae et Opii, and Vinum Ipecacuanhae.
Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 gm.

2. Pulvis Ipecacuanhae et Opii. See Opium, p. 352.

3. Trochisci Ipecacuanhae. Troches of Ipecac. Ipecac, 2 ;
Tragacanth, 2 ; Sugar, 65 gm. ; Syrup of Orange, a sufficient quantity
for 10^ troches. Each troche contains */ gr. ; .02 gm. Ipecacuanha.

Dose, i to 6 troches.

4. Trocbisci Morphinse et Ipecacuanhae. See Morphine, p.

5. Syrupus Ipecacuanhae. Syrup of Ipecac. Fluid Extract of
Ipecac, 75; Acetic Acid, 10 ; Glycerin, loo; Sugar, 700; Water to

Dose, 5 m. to 2 fl. dr. ; .30 to 8.00 c.c.

6. Tinctura Ipecacuanhae et Opii. See Opium, p. 352.

7. Vinum Ipecacuanhae. Wine of Ipecac. Fluid Extract of
Ipecac, loo ; Alcohol, loo ; White Wine, 800.

Dose, i to 60 m. ; .06 to 4.00 c.c.]


External. Ipecacuanha powder is a powerful irritant to
the skin, producing redness, vesication, and pustulation. It has
some antiseptic powers, for it can destroy anthrax bacilli, but
it has no effect on the spores. This property is not due to its
emetine, but to some other constituent.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Here also the irritating ac-
tion of ipecacuanha is seen. It increases the flow of saliva, di-
lates the gastric vessels, and stimulates the secretion of gastric
juice. Therefore small doses are distinctly stomachic, and
aid digestion. Large doses are, however, powerfully emetic.
This is partly due to their irritant effect upon the stomach, but


still more to the fact that emetine acts directly upon the vomit-
ing centre in the medulla, as can be proved by observing that,
when the alkaloid is thrown directly into the circulation, vomit-
ing follows before there is time for it to have been excreted into
the stomach. Ipecacuanha is, therefore, both a direct and in-
direct emetic. It produces a certain amount of depression, but
not more than the mere act of vomiting will explain. It does
not usually cause nausea. The irritant effect is continued in the
intestine, and hyperaemia, excessive secretion, and purging re-
sult. In dysentery there is a peculiar tolerance of ipecacuanha.
Ipecacuanha increases the amount of bile secreted, and is there-
fore a direct cholagogue.

Circulation. Large doses of emetine depress the heart
powerfully, the blood tension falls, and the heart finally stops in

Respiration. This is unaffected. Ipecacuanha powder when
inhaled, or ipecacuanha taken internally, when it is excreted by
the bronchial mucous membrane, causes hyperaemia of it, to-
gether with an increased secretion of bronchial mucus, and
therefore, reflexly, coughing is stimulated. It is, consequently,
an expectorant ; and because it depresses the circulation a
little, it is called a depressant expectorant ; but this is a com-
plete misnomer, considering that the bronchial mucous mem-
brane is stimulated. Animals to which large doses of ipecacu-
anha or of emetine have been given show, after death,
considerable hyperaemia of the bronchial mucous membrane,
of the lungs, and of the stomach and intestines, and the,same
condition of the respiratory passage is seen if ipecacuanha
powder has been inhaled.

Skin. Ipecacuanha is a mild diaphoretic.


External. Ipecacuanha is never, at the present day, em-
ployed for its external irritant -effect. It has been used with
success, as an antiseptic, in cases of anthrax. It is directed that
the wound should be dressed with the powder, and that 5 gr.
[.30 gm.] should be taken by the mouth, every two hours.


Internal. Stomach. Occasionally in small doses, such as 4
or 5 minims [.25 to .30 c.c.] of the wine or */ gr. [.015 gm.]
of the powder, it is employed as a stomachic, and these quanti-
ties may even stop vomiting when other drugs have failed. . A
usual prescription to arrest the vomiting of pregnancy is a minim
[.06 c.c.] of ipecacuanha wine in water every half hour. The
powder of ipecac [and opium] has been praised in cases of gastric
ulcer ; no doubt any good effect it may have is due to its stimu-
lating power. Ipecacuanha is a very common emetic. It should
not be given when it is desired, as in cases of poisoning, to
empty the stomach quickly, for some time elapses before it is ab-
sorbed and influences the medulla ; nor should it be given to the
very feeble, for it has no action that will counteract the depres-
sion of the vomiting. But it is an excellent emetic when it is
wished, by the act of vomiting, to empty the air-passages, as in
bronchitis, the early stages of diphtheria, tracheitis, and laryn-
gitis, for not only the vomiting, but the effect of ipecacuanha on
the respiratory tract and the slight subsequent depression will be
beneficial. It is chiefly employed for this purpose in children,
as they cannot cough well, and often it seems to act like a charm.
It used to be given in the early stage of fevers, to empty the
stomach of undigested food. A good emetic powder for an
adult consists of 20 gr. [1.20 gm.] of powdered ipecacuanha
with y^ gr. [.03 gm.] of tartar [emetic.]

Ipecacuanha is said to be a specific for dysentery. How it
acts is not known. Very large doses must be given 60 to 90
gr. [4. to 6. gm.] of the powder in a single dose, or 20 gr. [1.20
gm.] every four hours. Ipecacuanha from which the emetine
has been removed (de-emetized ipecacuanha) has been much
employed (dose, 10 to 30 gr. [.60 to 2.00 gm.]); on the other
hand, it has been stated that the efficient agent in the treatment
of dysentery is the emetine.

Haifa grain to a grain [.03 to .06 gm.] or more is often com-
bined in a pill with other cholagogues to relieve cases of hepatic
dyspepsia, and sometimes with excellent results.

Respiration. Ipecacuanha is a very common expectorant.
[The troches] may be [dissolved in the mouth or the syrup], or


wine may be given internally. It is suitable in cases of bron-
chitis or phthisis in which the secretion is scanty, and therefore
there is much purposeless cough ; and also when the disease is
of long standing, for then the stimulation of the chronically in-
flamed mucous membrane will aid the cure of it. Its power
of exciting the act of coughing adds to its usefulness. [Cephae-
line seems to possess the expectorant properties of ipecacuanha.]

The inhalation of ipecacuanha powder [or wine] by means
of an atomizer has been recommended in cases of asthma, and
for the asthma-like paroxysms which often accompany chronic
bronchitis. Sometimes it does good, but it may make the
trouble worse.

Skin. Dover's powder [see p. 352] is very commonly used
as a diaphoretic in mild feverish attacks.


GARLIC. The bulb of Al/ium sativum Linne (nat. ord. Liliacece'],
Habitat. Asia and Southern Europe, cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Bulb subglobular, compound, consisting of about eight
compressed, wedge-shaped bulblets, which are arranged in a circle around the
base of the stem, and covered by several dry membranous scales. Odor pun-
gent and disagreeable ; taste warm and acrid.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil, ^ per
cent., which consists of Allyl (C S H 5 ) oxide and sulphide. (2) Mucilage.
(3) Albumin.

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; i. to 2. gm.


Syrupus Allii. Syrup of Garlic. Garlic, 200 ; Sugar, 800 ; di-
luted Acetic Acid to 1000.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.


The effects of garlic are those of a general stimulant, quick-
ening the circulation, exciting the nervous system, and promot-
ing expectoration. It is beneficial in impaired digestion, in
chronic catarrhal and other pectoral affections in which symp-
toms of inflammation have subsided and a relaxed state of the
vessels remains.]



LOBELIA. [The leaves and tops of Lobelia inflata Linnfe (nat. ord.
JLobeliacete), collected after a portion of the capsules have become inflated.
Synonym. Indian Tobacco. Habitat. North America, in the fields and
open woods.

CHARACTERS. Leaves alternate, petiolate, the upper ones sessile, ovate
or oblong, about 5 cm - l n g irregularly toothed, pubescent, pale green ;
branches hairy, terminating in long racemes of small, pale blue flowers, having
an adherent five-toothed calyx, which is inflated in fruit, a bilabiate corolla,
and five united stamens ; odor slight, irritating ; taste mild, afterwards burn-
ing and acrid.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Lobeline, [an alkaloid, as
a yellowish, oily liquid of pungent taste, having an odor resembling that of
tobacco. (2) Lobelacrin (probably Lobeline Lobelate). (3) Lobelic Acid.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Caustic Alkalies, as they decompose Lobeline.

Dose, i to 10 gr. ; [.06 to .60 gm.]


1. [Extractum Lobeliae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Lobelia.
By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.

Dose, i to 10 m. ; .06 to .60 c.c.

2. Tinctura Lobeliae. Tincture of Lobelia. Lobelia, 200. By
percolation with diluted Alcohol to 1000.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c.]


External. Lobelia has no effect on the skin, but it is stated
that poisonous symptoms may occur from absorption of it
through the epidermis.

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. Moderate or large doses
are powerfully irritant, and thus they cause .violent vomiting
and purging. A peculiarity of the action of lobelia is that these
results are accompanied by very intense prostration, as shown
by the feeble pulse, cold sweats, pale skin, and great muscular

Circulation. In the frog the heart is at first stimulated, but
soon depressed, and it finally stops in diastole. The blood -
pressure falls. This is due partly to the action on the heart, and
partly to paralysis of the vaso-motor centres.

Respiration. Small doses slow respiration, large doses


strongly depress the respiratory centre, and death takes place
from respiratory failure. The muscular coat of the bronchi is
said to be relaxed.

Nervous system. Toxic doses are required to affect the
higher cerebral centres, and then coma and convulsions are pro-
duced, but it is not clear how far these results are due to asphyxia.
The respiratory and vaso-motor centres, and probably the car-
diac, are, as already mentioned, depressed. Experiments seem
to show that the motor centres of the cord are also depressed.
Muscles and nerves are unaffected.

Lobeline is probably excreted by the kidneys and skin, and
is said to have diuretic and diaphoretic properties.


Lobelia has been recommended as a purgative, and as an
emetic, but it should not be used for these purposes, because of
its great liability to produce collapse. It is employed [for the
relief of the symptom] asthma to relax the muscular coat of the
bronchial tubes. A [drachm ; 4. c.c.] of the tincture should
be given till nausea is experienced, but it should never be pushed
beyond that point. It may also be prescribed for bronchitis
accompanied by spasmodic dyspnoea. [As an external applica-
tion tincture of lobelia with an equal quantity of glycerin is a
most useful remedy for the relief of pain of acute epididymitis.


ASCLEPIAS. Synonym. Pleurisy root The root of Asclepias tube-
rosa Linne (nat. ord. Asclepiadece}. Habitat. United States, near the At-
lantic Coast.

CHARACTERS. Root large and fusiform, dried in longitudinal or trans-
verse sections, from 2 to 1 5 cm. long, and about 2 cm. or more in thickness ;
the head knotty, and slightly but distinctly annulate, the remainder longitu-
dinally wrinkled, externally orange-brown, internally whitish ; tough and
having an uneven fracture ; bark thin and in two distinct layers, the inner one
whitish ; wood yellowish, with large, white, medullary rays. It is inodorous,
and has a bitterish, somewhat acrid taste.

CONSTITUENTS. (i) A crystalline Glucoside, soluble in Alcohol, Ether,
and somewhat in water. (2) Asclepion, a bitter crystalline principle. (3)
Two Resins.

Dose, % to 2 dr. ; 2. to 8. gm.



Extractum Asclepiadis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Asclepias.
By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, y 2 to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.


Pleurisy root possesses diaphoretic, carminative, and expec-
torant properties, without being stimulant. It is used in the
disease which gives its name, and in various pectoral affections.


CASTANEA. Synonym. Chestnut. The leaves of Castanea dentata
(Marshall) Sudworth (nat. ord. Cupulifera}, collected in September or Octo-
ber, while still green. Habitat. North America, from Ontario south to
Florida, and west to Arkansas and Michigan.

CHARACTERS. From 15 to 25 cm. long, about 5 cm. wide, petiolate, ob-
long-lanceolate, acuminate, mucronate, feather- veined, sinuate- serrate, smooth ;
odor slight ; taste somewhat astringent.

CONSTITUENTS. (i) Tannic acid, about 9 per cent. (2) Albumin. (3)
Resin. (4) Gum.

Dose, y 2 to 2 dr. ; 2. to 8. gm.


Extractum Castaneae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Castanea.
By maceration with Boiling Water, percolation, evaporation, and addi-
tion of Glycerin and Alcohol.

Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.


Chestnut Leaves are mildly sedative, they are used only in
whooping-cough, because they are supposed to possess anti-spas-

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