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modic and expectorant properties.

INULA.

INULA. Synonym. Elecampane. The root of Inula Helenium
Linne (nat. ord. Composite). Habitat. Central and Southern Europe, and
eastward to central Asia ; spontaneously in the United States ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. In traverse, concave slices or longitudinal sections, with
overlapping bark, externally wrinkled and brown ; flexible in damp weather;
when dry, breaking with a short fracture ; internally grayish, fleshy, slightly



DRUGS ACTING ON THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 459

radiate, and dotted with numerous shining, yellowish-brown resin cells ; free
from starch ; odor peculiar, aromatic ; taste bitter and pungent.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Inulin, 3C 12 H M O 10 +
H 2 O, sometimes called Alantin, which is found in 19 to 44 per cent., accord-
ing to the season ; (2) Alantic Acid, C 15 H 20 O 2 ; (3) HJenin, C 6 H 8 O. (4) A
volatile oil, consisting of alantic anhydride, and alantol or alant camphor.

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm. '

ACTION AND USES OF INULA.

It is chiefly used in diseases of the lungs, especially when
complicated with general debility. Recently, some laboratory
experiments have suggested that helenin may be of value in the
treatment of tuberculosis, since it is believed to be a bactericide.

ASPIDOSPERMA.

ASPIDOSPERMA. Synonyms. Quebracho. Iron Wood. The bark
of Aspidosperma Quebracho-bianco Schlechtendal (nat. ord. Apocynacea).
Habitat. Argentine Republic.

CHARACTERS. In nearly flat pieces, about I to 3 cm. thick ; the outer
surface yellowish-gray or brownish, deeply fissured ; inner surface yellowish-
brown or reddish-brown, distinctly striate ; fracture displaying two sharply-
defined strata, of about equal thickness, and both marked with numerous
whitish dots and striae arranged in tangential lines ; the fracture of the outer,
lighter-colored layer rather coarsely granular, and that of the darker colored,
inner layer short-splintery ; inodorous ; taste very bitter and slightly aromatic.

COMPOSITION. (i) Aspidospermine, C^H^NjOj, (2) Quebrachamine,
(3) Aspidospermatine, (4) Aspidosamine, C 22 H 28 N 2 O 2 , (5) Hydroquebrachine,
C2jH.jgN.jO.,, all being Alkaloids, (6) Quebrachit, a peculiar sugar, (7) Tannic
acid.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Aspidospermatis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Aspi-
dosperma. By maceration with Glycerin and Alcohol, and percolation
with Glycerin, Alcohol and Water, and evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c.

ACTION OF ASPIDOSPERMA.

None of the alkaloids fully represent the drug. In the lower
animals large doses of the bark produce motor paralysis, with
dyspnoea and finally death from asphyxia. The breathing early



460 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

becomes slower, but deeper ; the blood-pressure is not affected
until late. Penzoldt believes that the relief of dyspnoea, which
is obtained clinically, is caused by its increasing the power of the
blood to take up oxygen.

THERAPEUTICS OF ASPIDOSPERMA.

It is a bitter which may aid the appetite, and is a valuable
remedy when the respiration is embarrassed by emphysema,
chronic bronchitis, or chronic pneumonia ; even uraemic asthma
is benefited by it. It is not of benefit in dyspnoea of cardiac
origin. The commercial aspidospermine, which is an impure
mixture of all the alkaloids, and therefore represents their com-
bined action, may be given in doses of from /^ to ^ gr.; .015
to .03 gm.

ERIODICTYON.

ERIODICTYON. Synonyms. Yerba Santa. Mountain Balm. Con-
sumptive's Weed. The leaves of Eriodictyon glutinosum, Bent ham (nat. ord.
Hydrophyllacece). Habitat. California.

CHARACTERS. Oblong lanceolate, 5 to 10 cm. long, acute at the apex,
and below narrowed into a short petiole, the margin sinuately toothed to nearly
entire ; upper surface green, smooth, and covered with a brownish resin ;
lower surface reticulate and minutely white-tomentose ; odor somewhat aro-
matic ; taste balsamic and sweetish.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Volatile Oil, (2) Resin,
acrid, greenish-yellow, containing Ericolin, Cj^H^O^, (3) Tannic acid, 8 per
cent.

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; x. to 2. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Eriodictyi Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Eriodictyon.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and evapora-
tion.

Dose, 15 to 30 m. ; i. to 2. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF ERIODICTYON.

Eriodictyon has long been used in California as a bitter tonic,
and as a stimulating expectorant. It has been found useful in
chronic bronchitis. It is an excellent vehicle for quinine,
concealing its bitter taste.



DRUGS ACTING ON THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 461

COCILLAftA.

COCILLANA. (Not official). The bark of Sycocarpus Rusbyi (nat.
ord. Meliacea}. Habitat. Bolivia.

CHARACTERS. The bark is thick, and ash-colored, becoming rough only
with considerable age ; inner surface is grayish-yellow ; the odor is slight, but
peculiar ; taste unpleasant (not bitter), slightly nauseous.

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are (I) Rusbyinc (Eccles), an
alkaloid. (2) Two Resins. (3) Tannic Acid. (4) Calcium Oxalate.

Preparations.

1. Extractum Cocillanae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Cocill ana.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and evapora-
tion.

Dose, 5 to 25 m. ; .30 to 1.50 c.c.

2. Syrupus Cocillanae. Syrup of Cocillana. By maceration and
percolation with Alcohol and Water, with addition of Sugar.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

3. Tinctura Cocillanae. Tincture of Cocillana. By maceration
and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and addition of Alcohol.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF COCILLANA.

Cocillana acts upon muciparous glands, increasing their ac-
tivity ; on the bronchial mucous membrane, causing expectora-
tion ; on the intestinal mucous membrane, producing a laxative
effect ; it also slightly increases the appetite ; it slightly
strengthens the heart beat, and the pulse, but does not stimulate
the respiratory centre. The syrup does not act as a laxative,
while the resins are distinctly purgative. It is of very great
value as an expectorant, preferable to ipecacuanha, in that it
does not so readily cause nausea and a metallic taste in the
mouth, and assists the regular movement of the bowels. If,
however, nausea should be produced, it is very persistent. Its
action is fully established three to six hours after administration,
and persists at least for six hours. It can, in many cases, be
substituted for apomorphine, ammonium carbonate and for
many other drugs, classed, with more or less reason, as expec-
torants].



462 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

PRUNUS VIRGINIANA.

[WILD CHERRY. The bark of Prunus serotina Ehrhart (nat. ord.
Rosacecf) t collected in autumn. Habitat. North America, westward to Min-
nesota and Louisiana ; in woods.

CHARACTERS. In curved pieces or irregular fragments, 2 mm. or more
thick, outer surface greenish-brown, or yellowish-brown, smooth and somewhat
glossy, marked with transverse scars ; if the bark is collecte'd from old wood
and deprived of the corky layer, the outer surface is nut-brown and uneven ;
inner surface somewhat striate or fissured. Upon maceration in water it
develops a distinct bitter-almond odor ; its taste is astringent, aromatic and
bitter.

COMPOSITION. (l) Amygdalin, which yields with water, Glucose, Hy-
drocyanic Acid and the Essential Oil of Bitter Almond. (2) Emulsin, prob-
ably identical with the emulsin of Bitter Almond. The action of this ferment
is destroyed at a boiling temperature. (3) Tannic Acid.

Dose, y z to i dr. ; 2. to 4. gm.

Preparations.

1. Extractum Pruni Virginianae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of
Wild Cherry. By maceration and percolation with Glycerin, Alcohol
and Water, and evaporation.

Dose, y 2 to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.

2. Infusum Pruni Virginianae. Infusion of Wild Cherry.
Wild Cherry, 40. By maceration and percolation to 1000.

Dose, i to 2 fl. oz. ; 30. to 60. c.c.

3. Syrupus Pruni Virginianae. Syrup of Wild Cherry. Wild
Cherry, 150 ; Sugar, 700 ; Glycerin, 150 ; Water to 1000. By macera-
tion and percolation.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF WILD CHERRY.

When this drug is treated with water diluted hydrocyanic acid
is formed, and that is probably the reason why it is efficacious
in relieving cough, especially a hacking cough, by which noth-
ing is expectorated, for [hydrocyanic] acid diminishes reflex
excitability. [Wild cherry] is a very favorite remedy, and the
syrup is a very useful flavoring agent for cough mixtures. [It
also, as a vehicle for tincture of digitalis, renders it less likely
to produce gastric disturbance.]



ANTIPERIODIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTISEPTIC DRUGS. 463



GROUP IV.

Vegetable Drugs having Antiperiodic, Antipyretic, and Antiseptic
Properties.

Cinchona, Quinine, Salicin, Salicylic Acid, [Gaultheria,]
Salol, [Salophen.]

CINCHONA.

[CINCHONA. The bark of Cinchona Calisaya Weddell, Cinchona
officinalis Linne and of hybrids of these and of other species of Cinchona
(nat. ord. JZubiacea), yielding, when assayed, not less than 5 per cent, of total
alka-loids, and at least 2.5 per cent, of Quinine (C !i0 H M NjOj-|-H 2 O=34i.3).
Ha'bitat. South America, on the Eastern slope of the central chain of the
Andes, thence spreading northward into Colombia ; cultivated in Java, India,
Jamaica, and other countries ; to a limited extent also in South America.

CHARACTERS. In quills or in curved pieces, varying in length, and usually
2 or 3, or sometimes 5 rnm. thick ; the outer surface covered with a gray or
brownish-gray cork, usually slightly wrinkled, marked with transverse, and
also with intersecting, longitudinal fissures ( C. Calisaya), and sometimes with
scattered warts and slight longitudinal ridges ; inner surface light cinnamon-
brown, very finely striate ; fracture short and granular in the outer layer, and
finely fibrous in the inner layer ; powder light brown or yellowish brown ; odor
slight, somewhat aromatic ; taste bitler and somewhat astringent.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents of Cinchona Bark are five alkaloids,
two acids, a glucoside, Tannic acid, a coloring matter and a volatile oil.

(1) Quinine. An Alkaloid, exists as the Hydrate. Gives a green color
with Chlorine water and Ammonia ; turns the plane of polarization to the left,
solutions of its salts are fluorescent. Forms salts with acids. (See p. 464.)

(2) Quinidine.\\\ Alkaloid, C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 , isomeric with Quinine, differ-
ing from it only in crystallizing in prisms, turning the plane of polarization to
the right, and not being soluble in ammonia except in excess.

(3) Cinchonine. An Alkaloid. C 20 H 24 N 2 O. Colorless prisms, inodor-
ous, bitter. No green color with Chlorine water and Ammonia. Turns the
plane of polarization to the right. Not fluorescent. (See p. 466. )

(4) Cinchonidine. An Alkaloid, C^H^NjO, isomeric with Cinchonine,
differing from it in turning the plane of polarization to the left, being sparingly
soluble in Ether, and being slightly fluorescent.

(5) Quinamine. An Alkaloid [C 19 H 24 N 2 O 2 ]. Not important.

(6) Kinic or Quinic Acid. C 7 H 12 O 6 . Large, colorless prisms. It and
its salts are soluble in water, and thus Quinine may be given subcutaneously as
Quinine Quinate. This acid is found in the Coffee Bean and other plants. It
is allied to Benzoic Acid, and appears in the urine as Hippuric Acid.



464 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.



(7) Kinovic or Quinovic Acid, [CjjH^Og. ] A white amorphous sub-
stance related to Kinovin.

(8) Kinovin or Quinovin. A Glucoside, [C^H^Og,] which easily de-
composes into Glucose and Kinovic Acid.

(9) Cinchotannic Acid. [2104] percent. It is the astringent principle
of Cinchona Bark. It differs from Tannic Acid in becoming green with ferric
salts. It is easily oxidized to Cinchona Red.

(10) Cinchona Red. The coloring matter of the bark. It is almost in-
soluble in water.

(11) A Volatile Oil. This exists in minute quantities. Cinchona Bark
owes its smell to it.

Remijia Bark yields, in addition, Homoquinine, which is a compound of
Quinine and another alkaloid, Cupreine, [C 19 H M N,O r ]

IMPURITIES. Inferior barks, known by their not yielding the full strength
of Quinine and Cinchonine.

[The true yellow Cinchona Bark must not be confounded with other Cin-
chona Barks of a similar color, but having the bast fibres in bundles or raised
rows, and breaking with a splintery or coarsely fibrous fracture.]

INCOMPATIBLE^. Ammonia, lime water, metallic salts and gelatin.

Dose, 10 to 60 gr. ; [.60 to 4.00 gm.]

Preparations .

[i. Infusum Cinchonae. Infusion of Cinchona. Cinchona, 60 ;
Aromatic Sulphuric Acid, 10 ; by percolation with Water to looo.
Dose, i to 2 fl. oz. ; 30. to 60. c.c.

2. Extractum Cinchonae. Extract of Cinchona. By maceration
and percolation with Alcohol and Water, distillation of the Alcohol
and evaporation.

Dose, 4 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

3. Extractum Cinchonae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Cinchona.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, Glycerin and Water, and
evaporation, addition of Alcohol.

Dose, 10 to 60 m. ; .60 to 4.00 c.c.

4. Tinctura Cinchonae. Tincture of Cinchona. Cinchona, 200 ;
Glycerin, 75. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water
to i coo.

Dose, y 2 to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.]

CINCHONA RUBRA.

[RED CINCHONA. The bark of Cinchona suectrubta Pavon (nat
ord. Rubiacea}, containing not less than 5 per cent, of its peculiar alkaloids.
Habitat. Ecuador, west of Chimborazo.

CHARACTERS. In quills or incurved pieces, varying in length, and from



ANTIPERIODIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTISEPTIC DRUGS. 465

2 to 4 or 5 mm. thick ; the outer surface covered with a grayish-brown cork,
more or less rough from warts and longitudinal warty ridges, and from few,
mostly short transverse fissures ; inner surface more or less deep reddish-brown
and distinctly striate ; fracture short fibrous in the inner layer ; powder red-
dish-brown ; odor slight ; taste bitter and astringent.

CONSTITUENTS. See Cinchona.

Dose, 10 to 60 gr. ; .60 to 4.00 gm.

Preparation.

Tinctura Cinchonae Composita. Compound Tincture of Cin
chona. Red Cinchona, loo; Bitter Orange Peel, 80 ; Serpentaria, 20;
Glycerin, 75. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, Glycerin
and Water to 1000.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.

QUININA.

1. QUININE. C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 -f3H 2 O=377.22. An Alkaloid obtained
from the bark of various species of Cinchona (nat. ord. Rubiacece}.

SOURCE. By adding to a solution of the Sulphate a sufficient quantity of
Ammonia Water to precipitate the Alkaloid.

CHARACTERS. A white, flaky, amorphous or crystalline powder, odorless,
and having a very bitter taste; permanent in the air. Solubility. In 1670
parts of water, and in 6 parts of Alcohol ; in 23 parts of Ether, 5 parts of
Chloroform and 200 parts of Glycerin ; also soluble in Carbon Bisulphide,
Benzin, Benzol, Ammonia Water, and diluted acids.

IMPURITIES. Other alkaloids, cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinidine and
cupreine. Lime, chalk, magnesia, starch and other white powders. Salicin,
detected by its giving a blood-red color with sulphuric acid.

Quinine is used to prepare Ferri et Quininae Citras and Ferri et Quininse
Citras Solubilis.

Dose, i to 20 gr. ; .06 to 1.20. gm.]

2. QUININE SULPHAS. Quinine Sulphate. (CjoH^NjO^H.,
SO 4 [+7H 2 O=870.22.

SOURCE. By boiling Cinchona in water acidulated with Hydrochloric
Acid and straining. Add Lime to the decoction, and wash the precipitate.
Digest in boiling Alcohol, and distil off the Alcohol. Dissolve the residue in
Distilled Water and Sulphuric Acid, boil with Animal Charcoal, filter and set
aside to crystallize.

CHARACTERS. White, silky, light and fine, needle-shaped crystals,
fragile and somewhat flexible, making a very light and easily compressible
mass, lustreless from superficial efflorescence after being for some time exposed
to the air, odorless, and having a persistent, very bitter taste. The salt is lia-
ble to lose water on exposure to warm air, to absorb moisture in damp air, and
to become colored by exposure to light. Solubility. In 740 parts of water,

3



466 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

and in 65 parts of Alcohol ; also in 40 parts of Glycerin, in about 680 parts
of Chloroform, and freely in dilute acids. ]

INCOMPATIBLE^. Alkalies and their carbonates, and astringent infusions.

[Quinine Sulphate is used to prepare Syrupus Ferri, Quininse et Strych-
nine Phosphatum.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm., or 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 grn.] (anti-
pyretic and antiperiodic).

3. [QUININE BISULPH AS. Quinine Bisulphate. C 20 H M N 2 O 2
H 2 SO 4 +7H 2 O=546.88.

SOURCE. By suspending Quinine Sulphate in water, adding Sulphuric
Acid, filtering and crystallizing.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, transparent or whitish, orthorhombic crystals,
or small needles, odorless, and having a very bitter taste. Efflorescing on
exposure to air. Solubility. In 10 parts of water, and in 312 parts of
Alcohol.

Dose, i to 20 gr. ; .06 to 1.20 gm.

4. QUININE HYDROBROMAS. Quinine Hydrobromate. C 20
H 24 N 2 O 2 HBr+H 2 O=422.o6.

SOURCE. By suspending Quinine Sulphate in Water, adding Barium
Bromide in solution, filtering, evaporating, and crystallizing.

CHARACTERS. White, light, silky needles, odorless, and having a very
bitter taste. The salt is liable to lose water on exposure to warm or dry
air.

Solubility. In 54 parts of water, and in 0.6 part of Alcohol ; also soluble
in 6 parts of Ether, and in 12 parts of Chloroform.

Dose, i to 20 gr. ; .06 to 1.20 gm.]

5. QUININE HYDROCHLORAS. Quinine Hydrochlorate. C 20



SOURCE. By treating the Alkaloid with diluted Hydrochloric Acid, and
crystallization.

CHARACTERS. White, silky, light and fine, needle-shaped crystals, odor-
less, and having a very bitter taste. The salt is liable to lose water when ex-
posed to warm air. Solubility. In 34 parts of water, and in 3 parts of Alco-
hol ; also soluble in 9 parts of Chloroform.]
Dose, i to 20 gr. ; [.06 to 1.20 gm.]

6. [QUININJE VALERIANAS. See Valeriana.

7. QUINIDIN^E SULPHAS. Quinidine Sulphate. (C M H 24 N 2 O 2 ),
H 2 SO 4 -f-2 H 2 O=78o. 42. The neutral sulphate of an alkaloid obtained from
the bark of several species of Cinchona (nat. ord. Rubiacecx).

SOURCE. From the mother liquors after the crystallization of Quinine, by
the same process as for Quinine.

CHARACTERS. White, silky needles, odorless, and having a very bitter
taste; permanent in the air. Solubility. In loo parts of water, and in 8



ANTIPERIODIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTISEPTIC DRUGS. 467

parts of Alcohol ; also in 14 parts of Chloroform, and in acidulated water;
almost insoluble in Ether.

Dose, i to 20 gr. ; .06 to 1.20 gm.

8. CINCHONINA. Cinchonine. Ci 9 H M N 2 O=293.4l.

SOURCE. By precipitation of the aqueous solution of the Sulphate by
Ammonia Water.

CHARACTERS. White lustrous prisms or needles, without odor, at first
almost tasteless, but soon developing a bitter after-taste ; permanent in the air.
Solubility. In 3760 parts of water, and in 1 16 parts of Alcohol ; also soluble
in 526 parts of Ether, and in 163 parts of Chloroform.

Dose, i to 30 gr. ; .06 to 2.00 gm.

9. CINCHONINA SULPHAS. Cinchonine Sulphate. (C 19 H M N,
O) 2 H 2 SO 4 +2H 2 O=720.56.

SOURCE. Obtained from the mother liquors after the crystallization of the
Quinine, Quinidine, and Cinchonidine Sulphates by further concentration,
precipitating the alkaloids by Caustic Soda, washing with Alcohol till free
from other alkaloids, dissolving in Sulphuric Acid, purifying with animal char-
coal, and crystallizing.

CHARACTERS. Hard, white, lustrous, prismatic crystals, without odor,
and having a very bitter taste ; permanent in the air. Solubility. In 66 parts
of water, and in 10 parts of Alcohol ; also soluble in 78 parts of Chloroform,
but almost insoluble in Ether.

Dose, i to 30 gr. ; .06 to 2.00 gm.

10. CINCHONIDINE SULPHAS. Cinchonidine Sulphate. (C 19
H K N 2 O) 2 H 2 SO 4 +3H 2 O=738.52. The neutral Sulphate of an Alkaloid
obtained from the bark of various species of Cinchona.

SOURCE. Obtained from the mother liquors after the crystallization of
Quinine Sulphate by further concentration, purifying by crystallization from
Alcohol, and finally from hot water.

CHARACTERS. White, silky, acicular crystals, without odor, and having
a very bitter taste ; slightly efflorescent on exposure to air. Solubility. In
70 parts of water, and in 66 parts of Alcohol; also soluble in 1316 parts of
Chloroform, and almost insoluble in Ether. The presence of sulphates of
other Cinchona Alkaloids increase its solubility in Ether and Chloroform.

Dose, i to 30 gr. ; .06 to 2.00 gm.]

ACTION OF CINCHONA AND ITS ALKALOIDS.

The action of cinchona bark is due almost entirely to the
quinine in it ; the other alkaloids act in much the same way as
this alkaloid, the sulphate, [bisulphate, hydrobromate] and hydro-
chlorate of which produce the same effect as quinine itself. The
following description will be that of the action of quinine sul-



468 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

phate, which is often called quinine. Any differences between
it and the bark or the other alkaloids will be mentioned in the
course of this description.

External. Quinine is a very powerful antiseptic. A solu-
tion of i to 500 destroys many forms of micro-organisms, and
a solution of i to 250 prevents fermentation and putrefaction.
Quinine is very fatal to all low forms of animal and vegetable
life. A solution of i to 1000 kills many infusoria. No effect
is produced upon the sound skin by quinine, but it is irritant to
a raw surface.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Quinine acts like any other
bitter, such as calumba. The bitter taste is very marked ; in
the mouth the gustatory nerves, and in the stomach the gastric
nerves, are stimulated. This leads reflexly to an increase of the
salivary and gastric secretions, and to greater vascularity and
peristalsis of the stomach, the appetite is sharpened and digestion
is aided. Quinine is, therefore, a stomachic. These effects,
of course, bring about a better absorption of food ; and hence,
if digestion was previously feeble, the patient feels stronger after
a course of quinine. In the stomach any quinine salt is con-
verted into a chloride, some of which is probably absorbed here ;
for in the intestines it would be precipitated by the alkaline
secretions. It is often excreted unchanged in the faeces.

Blood. Quinine, as the chloride, is readily absorbed into the
blood ; and although this is alkaline, it is not precipitated, being
probably held in solution by the gases of the blood. It is not
known that it undergoes any alteration there, but it produces
some remarkable changes.

(0) White corpuscles. If the movements of the white cor-
puscles are being watched in a drop of blood on the warm stage
of the microscope, and some quinine is added, they at once cease.
Again, if the mesentery of a living frog be put under the micro-
scope, and slightly irritated so as to set up inflammation, emi-
gration of the white corpuscles through the capillary walls, or
diapedesis, as it is called, will be observed ; if now some quinine
be injected into the circulation this ceases, but those white cor-
puscles that h we already passed out wander further from their



ANTIPERIODIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTISEPTIC DRUGS. 469

capillary. If the quinine be applied locally to the mesentery,
directly the white corpuscles have passed through their capillaries
their movement is stopped, and the motionless corpuscles collect
in large numbers around the capillaries. It is clear, therefore,
that quinine has the power of arresting the movements of
white blood-corpuscles. In sufficient quantity it appears
actually to destroy them, for in a cat killed by quinine they are
much fewer in number than in a healthy cat.

(<) Red corpuscles. Quinine is said to cause a diminution in
the size of these, but this is most likely not strictly correct. In
fever, if the temperature is high, the red corpuscles are probably
a little larger than natural. If the temperature be reduced by
any means the corpuscles regain their normal size. Quinine will
reduce the temperature, but it probably has no special action on
the corpuscles.

(c~) Acidity of the blood. Blood outside the body gradually
becomes acid. Quinine prevents this.

(y ) Ozonizing power. If ozonized oil of turpentine be mixed
with a tincture of guaiacum, nothing occurs ; but if a drop of
blood be added, that transfers the ozone to the guaiacum, oxi-
dizes it, and turns it blue. This ozonizing power of blood
is prevented by the addition of quinine.



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